Comenius Multilateral school Partnerships 2010 - 2012 European Youth – The Citizens of TomorrowScuola Secondaria di 1°grado „Padre Pio‟ – Altamura – ITSt. Lukes High School - Barrhead - UKApian-Gymnasium Ingolstadt - Ingolstadt - DEColegio La Immaculada "Misioneras Seculares de Jesus Obrero– Valladolid - ES
Hello everybody! We are the students of 3^ H – Padre Pio School – Altamura. We are working together with Scottish, Spanish and German students on a Comenius project about European Citizenship.We already know that to be European citizen means to have respect for eachcountry‟s culture, traditions, history and religions, which form the basis of the society. We are allcitizens of our country and in spite of all differencies, we are all European citizens. We want to preserve our country individual cultural heritage without losing our roots. By this work we want to compare our different Constitution, National Anthems and flags.
A short history of our Constitutions, National Anthems, Flags.
Anniversary of the unification of Italy On March 17, 2011 is the day of the 150th anniversary of the unification of Italy. We want to celebrate this special event with a short history of our Constitution. Il 17 marzo 2011 è il giorno del 150à l‟anniversario dell‟unità d‟Italia. Vogliamo celebrare questo evento con una breve storia della nostra costituzione. This logo has three Italian flags representing the 50 º, 100 º and 150 º anniversary of the unification of Italy. The symbol is intended to recall the courage, dreams and joy that characterized the process unit, was designed and inspired by the flight of birds, the swollen sails and parties.Il simbolo ha lo scopo di ricordare il coraggio, il sogno e la gioia checaratterizzarono il processo unitario, ed è stato disegnato ispirandosial volo degli uccelli, a delle vele gonfie e alle feste. emblem of the Italian Republic
The Italian Constitution The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947. The text was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 298 on 27 December 1947.Original copy of the The head of state, Enrico De Nicola, the president of theGazzetta Ufficiale - Constituent Assembly Umberto Terracini and the president27 dec. 1947. of Consiglio Alcide De Gasperi signing the Constitution - 22 december,1947 The Italian Constitution
The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, at the same time as a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The Constitution came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted. The Statuto Albertino remained in force after the unificazione del Regno d‟Italia and Benito Mussolinis March on Rome in 1922, but it had become devoid of substantive value.LAssemblea Costituente, formata da 75 deputati,si assume il compito di preparare una nuova costituzionein sostituzione dello Statuto Albertino, concessoil 4 marzo 1848 da Carlo Alberto,re del Piemonte e Sardegna, aisuoi sudditi.Lo Statuto era una Costituzione flessibile, poichémodificabile con legge ordinaria. Il re controllava tutti ipoteri dello Stato. L‟attenuarsi dei poteri del re portòalla monarchia parlamentare.Dopo il periodo totalitaristico di Benito Mussolini,legato alla seconda guerra mondiale, e la liberazionenazionale del nazi-fascismo del 2 giogno 1946, King Carlo Alberto signingsi svolse un referendum per affidare al popolo la scelta the Statuto Albertino - 4 March, 1848tra monarchia e repubblica.Per la prima volta gli italiani votarno a suffragio universale. Il presidente dell‟Assemblea costituente Umberto Terracini, il presidente della the Statuto Albertino repubblica Enrico De Nicola, e il presidente del Consiglio Alcide De Gasperi firmarono la costituzione il 22 dicembre 1947.
The Constitution is composed of 139 articles The Constitution of the Italian Republic and arranged into three main parts: Principi Fondamentali, the Fundamental Principles (articles 1–12); Part I concerning the Diritti e Doveri dei Cittadini, or Rights and Duties of Citizens (articles 13–54); and Part II the Ordinamento della Repubblica, or Organisation of the Republic (articles 55–139); followed by 18 Disposizioni transitorie e finali, the Transitory and Final Provisions. La Costituzione Italiana è composta da 139 articoli ed è divisa Fundamental Principles in due parti, precedute dai Principi fondamentali, che vanno Rights and Duties of Citizens dall‟art.1 all‟art. 12 La Parte Prima si occupa dei diritti e dei doveri dei cittadini. Organisation of the Republic La Parte Seconda si occupa dell‟ordinamento della Repubblica. Transitory and Final Provisions Concludono il testo costituzionale le disposizioni transitorie e finali. RIGIDITA‟It is difficult to modify the Constitution; to do so (under Article 138) requires two readings in each Houseof Parliament and, if the second of these are carried with a simple majority (i.e. 50%+1) rather than two-thirds, a referendum.Under Article 139, the republican form of government cannot be reviewed Una delle caratteristiche più importanti della nostra Costituzione è la sua RIGIDITA‟: le sue disposizioni, infatti, non possono essere modificate con le leggi ordinarie. Art . 138-139
Art 1 Italy is a Democratic Republic, based on labour. Sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it in the forms and limits of the Constitution.Article 1 sets out in a solemn way the result of the referendum on June 2, 1946: Italy is a republic.Access to republic is not dynastic inheritance and belonging, but by election and limited to a timefixed by law.The Italian state is not a dynastic family wealth that can be transmitted through heredity but it isinstead a “res publica”, just one thing of all. The citizens are not subjects and should be allowed toexercise their sovereignty.For this article 1 establishes the democratic character of the republic: from the Greek: demos, people,and kratie, power.It means that the sovereignty, the power to command and to make policy choices that affect thecommunity, belongs to the people.With the right to vote (Art. 48), any citizen chooses its own representatives to which the actual careof public affairs is delegated.The nation is founded on work. All citizens must contributed to the welfare and common progress.
Art 1L‟Italia è una Repubblica democratica, fondata sul lavoro.La sovranità appartiene al popolo, che la esercita nelle formee nei limiti della costituzione.L‟articolo 1 fissa in modo solenne il risultato del referendum del 2 giugno 1946: l „Italia è unarepubblica.L‟accesso ad esse non avviene per ereditarietà e per appartenenza dinastica, ma, appunto, perelezione, e la durata in carica non può mai essere vitalizia ma limitata ad un tempo fissato dallalegge.Lo Stato non è un patrimonio familiare e dinastico che si possa trasmettere ereditariamente comeun bene qualsiasi, ma è invece una "res publica", appunto una cosa di tutti.I cittadini non sono sudditi e devono essere messi in condizione di esercitare la loro sovranità.Per questo l‟articolo 1 stabilisce il carattere democratico della repubblica: dal greco: demos,popolo e kratìa, potere, si intende che la sovranità, cioè il potere di comandare e di compiere lescelte politiche che riguardano la comunità, appartiene al popolo.Con il diritto di voto (art. 48 Cost.), ogni cittadino sceglie i propri rappresentanti a cui vienedelegata non la sovranità, ma la cura effettiva degli affari pubblici.La Nazione è fondata sul lavoro. Tutti i cittadini devono contribuire con il loro lavoro , albenessere e al progresso comune.
The Constitution of the Italian RepublicThe Italian Constitution is the fundamental compact which binds the citizen to thesociety and its institutions. It was born out of the values of democracy, antifascism,refusal of any totalitarianism which moved the people against the dictatorship all overEurope.The principles it expresses are the point of reference for the daily life of every citizen.The Government decided to translate and to print the fundamental principles and thefirst part of the constitution in nine different languages in order to allow those peoplewho want to live in our country to know the contents and the values of our laws, tobecome true citizens.Our being citizens, be we born in Italy or not, results from our deep identification withall rights and duties contained in the Republic charter. Its carrying values adhere to theDeclaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations, which is at the basis ofthe pacific cohabitation between peoples.This is the only way to be involved in the life of our country and to consolidateits freedom, democracy, social justice, non-violence: the four cardinal points ofthe Italian Republic.
The Constitution of the Italian RepublicLa Costituzione italiana è il patto fondamentale che lega I cittadini alla società e alle sueistituzioni. E nata dai valori della democrazia, dell‟antifascismo, rifiuto di ognitotalitarismo, contro la dittatura in tutta Europa.I principi che essa esprime sono il punto di riferimento per la vita quotidiana di ognicittadino.Il governo ha deciso di tradurre e stampare i Principi Fondamentali e la prima parte dellaCostituzione, in nove lingue diverse per permettere a quelle persone che vogliono vivere nelnostro paese, di conoscere i contenuti e i valori delle nostre leggi e diventare veri cittadini.La nostra Costituzione aderisce alla Dichiarazione dei Diritti dell‟Uomo, adottata dalleNazioni Unite, che è alla base della convivenza pacifica tra popoli. Questo è l‟unico modoper essere coinvoltinella vita del nostro paese e per consolidare la sua libertà, democrazia,giustizia sociale, lanon violenza: punti fondamentali della Repubblica italiana.
Brothers of Italy, Fratelli dItalia Italy has woken, LItalia sè desta, Bound Scipio „s helmet Dellelmo di Scipio Upon her head. Sè cinta la testa. Where is Victory? Dovè la Vittoria? Let her bow down, Le porga la chioma, For God created her Ché schiava di Roma Iddio la creò. Slave of Rome. Let us join in a cohort, The Italian National Anthem: Il Canto degli ItalianiStringiamoci a coorte We are ready to die,Siam pronti alla morte Italy has called, yes! DallAlpi a Sicilia From the Alpes to Sicily. LItalia chiamò, yes! Legnano We were for centuries Dovunque è Legnano, Ognuom di Ferruccio is everywhere; Noi siamo da secoli downtrodden, derided, Ha il core, ha la mano, Every man has the heart Calpesti, derisi, because we are not one people, I bimbi dItalia and hand of FerruccioPerché non siam popolo, because we are divided. Si chiaman Balilla, The children of Italy Perché siam divisi. Let one flag, one hope Il suon dogni squilla Are all called Balilla: Raccolgaci ununica gather us all. I Vespri suonò. Every trumpet blast Bandiera, una speme: The hour has struck Stringiamoci a coorte sounds the Vesperi. Di fonderci insieme for us to unite. Siam pronti alla morte Let us join in a cohort, Già lora suonò. Let us join in a cohort, LItalia chiamò. We are ready to die, Stringiamoci a coorte We are ready to die, Italy has called us. Siam pronti alla morte Italy has called, yes! LItalia chiamò., yes! Son giunchi che piegano Le spade vendute: Mercenary swords, Let us unite, let us love one Già lAquila dAustria theyre feeble reeds.Uniamoci, amiamoci, another, Le penne ha perdute. The Austrian eagle lUnione, e lamore For union and love Il sangue dItalia, Has already lost its plumes. Rivelano ai Popoli Reveal to the people Il sangue Polacco, The blood of Italy Le vie del Signore; The ways of the Lord. Bevé, col cosacco, and the Polish blood Giuriamo far libero Let us swear to set free Ma il cor le bruciò. It drank, along with the Cossack. Il suolo natìo: The land of our birth: Stringiamoci a coorte But it burned its heart. Uniti per Dio United, for God, Siam pronti alla morte Let us join in a cohort, Chi vincer ci può? Who can overcome us? LItalia chiamò, si! We are ready to die,Stringiamoci a coorte Let us join in a cohort, Italy has called, yes!Siam pronti alla morte We are ready to die, LItalia chiamò., si! Italy has called, yes.
The Italian National Anthem: Il Canto degli ItalianiIlCanto degli Italiani (The Song of the Italians) is the Italian national anthem.It is best known among Italians as Inno di Mameli (Mamelis Hymn), after the author of the lyrics,or Fratelli dItalia (Brothers of Italy), from its opening line. Il Canto degli Italiani è linno nazionale italiano. E meglio conosciuta tra gli italiani come Inno di Mameli (dal nome dell‟autore dei testi,o Fratelli dItalia , dalla sua linea di apertura.The words were written in the autumn of 1847 in Genoa,by the then 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli,in a climate of popular struggle for unification and independenceof Italy which foreshadowed the war against Austria. Le parole sono state scritte nellautunno del 1847 a Genova, Goffredo Mameli, da Goffredo Mameli (20), studente e ptriota,in un clima di lotta popolare per lunificazione e lindipendenza dItalia, che prefigurava la guerra contro lAustria. Two months later, they were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, Michele Novaro. The hymn enjoyed widespread popularity throughout the period of the Risorgimento and in the following decades. Due mesi dopo, sono stati messi in musica a Torino da un altro genovese, Michele Novaro. Linno ha goduto di popolarità diffusa per tutto il periodo del Risorgimento e nei decenni successivi. Michele Novaro
The Italian National Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani After unification (1861) the adopted national anthem was the Marcia reale ,the Royal March (or Fanfara Reale), official hymn of the royal house of Savoy composed in 1831 to order of Carlo Alberto di Savoia. The Marcia Reale remained the Italian national anthem until Italy became a republic in 1946.Dopo lunificazione (1861) linno nazionale è stata adottata la Marcia Reale, la Marcia Reale (o Fanfara Reale),inno ufficiale dellacasa reale di Savoia, composto nel 1831 per ordine di Carlo Alberto di Savoia.La Marcia Reale è rimasto linno nazionale italiano fino a quando lItalia divenne una repubblica nel 1946. Giuseppe Verdi, in his Inno delle Nazioni (Hymn of the Nations), composed for the London international Exhibition of 1862, chose Il Canto degli Italiani – and not the Marcia Reale – to represent Italy, putting it beside God save the Queen and the Marseillase. Giuseppe Verdi, nel suo Inno delle Nazioni (Inno delle Nazioni), composta per il London InternationalEsposizione del 1862, ha scelto Il Canto degli Italiani - e non la Marcia Reale - a rappresentare lItalia,mettendolo accanto God Save the Queen e alla Marsigliese. In 1946 Italy became a republic, and on October 12, 1946, Il Canto degli Italiani was provisionally chosen as the countrys new national anthem. This choice was made official in law only on November 17, 2005, almost 60 years later. Nel 1946 lItalia divenne una repubblica, e il 12 ottobre 1946, Il Canto degli Italiani è stato provvisoriamente scelto come nuovo inno nazionale del paese. Questa scelta è stata ufficializzata dalla legge solo il 17 novembre 2005, quasi 60 anni dopo.
The Tricolore: the Italian flag The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolour: green, white, and red, in three vertical bands of equal dimensions. ( art. 12 of the Constitution – 1947) La bandiera italiana è il Tricolore italiano: Verde, bianco e rosso, a tre bande verticali di eguali dimensioni. ( art. 12 della Costituzione - 1947) It was adopted in its current form on 1 January 1948, with the promulgation of the republican constitution and the end of the reign of the House of Savoy.Fu adottata nella forma attuale il 1° gennaio 1948in seguito alla promulgazione l della costituzionee la fine del regno dei Savoia.Article 292 "Insult of or damage to the flag or other emblemof the state" of the criminal code protects the Italian flag.On January 7 of each year the Italian flag is the protagonistof the National Day flag.Larticolo 292 «Vilipendio o danneggiamento alla bandiera o ad altro emblemadello Stato» del Codice Penale tutela la bandiera italiana. Il 7 gennaio di La bandiera sventola sulla sommitàogni anno la bandiera italiana è protagonista della giornata nazionale della bandiera. del Palazzo del Quirinale
The Tricolore: the Italian flagThe first to come up with the tricolor flag two students from the University of Bologna,Luigi Zamboni (Bologna), and John Baptist De Rolandis (Asti), they were patriots and joined in the fallof 1794 white and red of their cities to green, color of hope in an Italy united and prosperous.These three colors soon became symbols of a rebellion that animated and united by now all of Italy.The red and then became a symbol of the blood of the fallen.I primi a ideare la bandiera tricolore furono due patrioti e studenti dellUniversità di Bologna, Luigi Zamboni (Bologna), eGiovanni Battista de rolandis (Asti), che nellautunno del 1794 unirono il bianco e il rosso delle rispettive città al verde, coloredella speranza in unItalia unita e prospera.Questi tre colori divennero presto i simboli di una rivolta che animava e univa ormai tutta lItalia: il Risorgimento. Il rossodivenne quindi anche simbolo del sangue dei caduti.The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cispadane republic in1797, after Napoleon‟s victorious army crossed Italy . During this timemany small republics of Jacobin inspiration supplanted the ancientabsolute states and almost all, with variants of colour,Used flags characterised by three bands of equal size, clearly inspired bythe French model of 1790. Bandiera cispadana - 1797 Il primo ente ad utilizzare il tricolore italiano fu la Repubblica Cispadana nel 1797, dopo esercito vittorioso di Napoleone attraversato lItalia. Durante questo periodo molte piccole repubbliche di ispirazione giacobina soppiantato gli antichi Stati assoluti e quasi tutte, con varianti di colore, bandiere caratterizzate utilizzato da tre bande di uguali dimensioni, chiaramente ispirate al modello francese del 1790.
The Tricolore: the Italian flagThe flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed theNapoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, this timewith a red field carrying a green square within a white lozenge. La bandiera è stata mantenuta fino al 1802, quando fu rinominata la Repubblica italiana napoleonica, e una nuova bandiera fu adottata, questa volta con un campo Repubblica italiana- 1802 rosso e un quadrato verde allinterno di una losanga bianca.Between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy; thisperiod of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the tricolorebecame the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence Tra il 1848 e il 1861, una sequenza di eventi ha portato lindipendenza e lunità dItalia. Questo periodo della storia italiana è conosciuta come il Risorgimento,. Durante questo periodo, il tricolore è diventato il simbolo che unisce tutti gli sforzi del popolo italiano verso la libertà e lindipendenza.The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted aswar flag by the Kingdom of sardinia–Piedmont army in 1848. In his Proclamationto the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said "... In order to show more clearlywith exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification, We want that Our troops ...have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag." Bandiera del Regno Italiano 1861Il tricolore italiano, deturpato dallo stemma dei Savoia fu adottato come bandiera di guerra dall‟esercito del Regno diSardegna-Piemonte nel 1848. Nel suo proclama al popolo del Lombardo-Veneto Carlo Alberto disse: "... al fine dimostrare più chiaramente con segni esteriori limpegno per lunificazione italiana, vogliamo che le nostre truppe ... abbianolo scudo sabaudo sulla bandiera tricolore italiano.
Italian presidential standard The President of Italy Giorgio Napolitano , (born 29 June 1925) is the 11th and current President of the Italian Republic. His election took place on 10 May 2006, and his term started with the swearing-in ceremony held on 15 May 2006. He lives in Rome at Palazzo del Quirinale. Giorgio Napolitano è l‟attuale Presidente dell‟Italia. E‟ stato eletto il 10 Maggio 2006 . Il suo mandato scadrà il 15 Maggio del 2013. E‟ l‟undicesimo presidente e risiede a Roma presso il Palazzo del Quirinale. The President of the Italian Republic is the the head of state of Italy and, as such, is intended to represent national unity and guarantee that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The presidents term of office lasts for seven years. He is elected by Parliament in joint session of the Chamber and the Senate. The election must be held in the form of secret ballot.Il Presidente della Repubblica è il capo dello Stato e rappresental‟unità del nostro paese. E‟ eletto, a scrutinio segreto, dal Parlamentoin seduta comune. Resta in carica sette anni. Palazzo del quirinale
Copy of the Spanish Constitution displayed at the Palace of the Cortes Created – 31 October 1978 Ratified – 6 December 1978 Location – Congress of Deputies Authors – “Fathers of the Constitution” Signatories – Juan Carlos IThe Spanish Constitution is the fundamental law of the Kingdom of Spain
It was enacted on foot of the 1978 referendum, as part of the Spanish transition to democracy It was preceded by many previous constitutions of Spain
OriginsThe constitutional history of Spain dates back to the Constitution of 1812 After the death of dictator Francisco Franco in 1975, a general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution
A seven-member panel was selected amongthe elected members of the Cortes to work on a draft of the Constitution to be submitted to the body. These came to be known, as the media put it, as the padres de la Constitución or "fathers of the Constitution" These seven people were chosen to represent the wide (and often, deeply divided) political spectrum within the Spanish Parliament, while the leading role was given to then ruling party and now defunct Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD).
The constitution was approved by the Cortes Generales on October 31, 1978, and by the Spanish people in a referendum on December 6, 1978. 88% of voters supported the new constitution Finally, it was promulgated by King Juan Carlos on December 27. It came into effect on December 29, the day it was published in the Official GazetteConstitution Day on December 6 has since been a national holiday in Spain
Section 11. Spain is hereby established as a social and democratic State, subject to the rule of law, which advocates freedom, justice, equality and political pluralism as highest values of its legal system .2. National sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people, from whom all state powers emanate.3. The political form of the Spanish State is the Parliamentary Monarchy
Section 2The Constitution is based on theindissoluble unity of the SpanishNation, the common andindivisible homeland of allSpaniards; it recognizes andguarantees the right to self-government of the nationalitiesand regions of which it iscomposed and the solidarityamong them all
Section 3 1. Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.All Spaniards have the duty to know it and the right to use it. 2. The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Self-governing Communities inMonument to the Constitution accordance with their Statutes. in Madrid 3. The richness of the different linguistic modalities of Spain is a cultural heritage which shall be specially respected and protected
The Constitution has been reformed once (Article 13.2, Title I) to extend to citizens of the European Union the right to active and passive suffrage (both voting rights and eligibility as candidates) in local elections
The Flag of Spain
Section 41. The flag of Spain consists of three horizontal stripes: red, yellow and red, the yellow strip being twice as wide as each red stripe.2. The Statutes may recognize flags and ensigns of the Self-governing Communities. These shall be used together with the flag of Spain on their public buildings and in their official ceremonies
The origin of the currentflag of Spain is the navalensign of 1783, Pabellón de la Marina de Guerra under Charles III of Spain Throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, the color scheme of the flag remained intact, with the exception of the Second Republic period (1931–1939); the only changes centered on the coat of arms
Coat of arms of Spain The Spanish coat of arms symbolizes the country, the old kingdoms of Spain, the Royal Crown, the Imperial Crown, the Constitutional monarchy, theSpanish national motto: Plus Ultra, and the Pillars of Hercules with the Spanish geographic situation.It was adopted on October 5, 1981
The Spanish coat of arms is composed of six other arms and some additional heraldic symbolsKingdom of Kingdom of Kingdom of Kingdom of Kingdom of Castile Leon Aragon Navarra Granada Pillars of House of Imperial crown Spanish Royal Hercules Bourbon crown (Holy Roman (Anjou Branch) Empire) (Heraldic crown)
The national anthem of Spain
The anthem, one of the oldest in theworld, was composed by Frederick the Great of Prussia
The melody was first printed in a document dated 1761 and entitled Libro de Ordenanza de los toques militares de la Infantería Española (The Spanish Infantrys Book of Military Bugle and Fife Calls). Though the Marcha Real has no lyrics, words have been written and used for it in the past. One version was usedduring Alfonso XIIIs reignand another during General Franco’s dictatorship;however, none of them was ever made official.
The national anthem has been playedwithout words since 1978, when the lyrics that had been approved by General Francisco Franco were abandoned
After witnessing a renditionof “You’ll Never WalkAlone" at Anfield in 2007,the President of theSpanish Olympic Committee,Alejandro Blanco, said hefelt inspired to seek lyricsto La Marcha Real aheadof Madrid’s bid to host the2016 Olympic Games.
Military bands of the Spanish Armed Forces and the Cuerpo Nacional de Policia and civilian Marchingbands and Concert bands play an A-major version of the anthem adapted for wind bands
Being the National Anthem,and in honor of the King and Queen of Spain, its a common practice for all to stand once it is played. Even though it is also played in church events, respect for the King andQueen (and the Royal Family as well) is required by everyone in attendance
The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles underwhich the United Kingdom is governed.Unlike many other nations, the UK has no single core constitutional document.In this sense, it is said not to have a written constitution, but much of the Britishconstitution is embodied in written documents, within statutes, court judgments,and treaties. The constitution has other unwritten sources, including parliamentaryconstitutional conventions and royal prerogatives.Since the English Civil War, the bedrock of the British constitution has traditionallybeen the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, according to which the statutespassed by Parliament are the UKs supreme and final source of law. It follows thatParliament can change the constitution simply by passing new Acts of Parliament.There is some debate about whether this principle remains entirely valid today, inpart due to the UKs European Union membership.
In the 19th century, A.V. Dicey, a highly influential constitutional scholar and lawyer,wrote of the twin pillars of the British constitution in his classic work An Introduction tothe Study of the Law of the Constitution (1885). These pillars are, first, the principle ofParliamentary sovereignty; and, second, the rule of law. The former means thatParliament is the supreme law-making body: its Acts are the highest source of EnglishLaw (the concept of supreme parliamentary sovereignty is not recognised by ScotsLaw, as repeated in MacCormick v Lord Advocate). The latter is the idea that all lawsand government actions conform to certain fundamental and unchanging principles.These fundamental principles include equal application of the law: everyone is equalbefore the law and no person is above the law, including those in power. Another is noperson is punishable in body or goods without a breach of the law: unless there is aclear breach of the law, persons are free to do anything, unless the law saysotherwise; thus, no punishment without a clear breach of the law.According to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, Parliament may pass anylegislation that it wishes. By contrast, in countries with a codified constitution, thelegislature is normally forbidden from passing laws that contradict that constitution:constitutional amendments require a special procedure that is more arduous than that
There are many Acts of Parliament which themselves have constitutional significance.For example, Parliament has the power to determine the length of its own term. By theParliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the default length of a term of parliament is five years,but this may be extended with the consent of both Houses. This power was mostrecently used during World War II to extend the lifetime of the 1935 parliament inannual increments up to 1945. However, the Sovereign retains the power to dissolveparliament at any time on the advice of the Prime Minister. Parliament also has thepower to change the makeup of its constituent houses and the relation between them.Examples include the House of Lords Act 1999 which changed the membership of theHouse of Lords, the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 which altered the relationshipbetween the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and the Reform Act 1832which made major changes to the system used to elect members of the House ofCommons.The power extended to Parliament includes the power to determine the line ofsuccession to the British throne. This power was most recently used to pass HisMajestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which gave constitutional effect to theabdication of Edward VIII and removed any of his putative descendants from thesuccession. Parliament also has the power to remove or regulate the executivepowers of the Sovereign.
Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Commons and the House ofLords. The House of Commons consists of 650 members elected by the peoplefrom single-member constituencies under a first past the post system. Following thepassage of the House of Lords Act 1999, the House of Lords consists of 26 bishopsof the Church of England (Lords Spiritual), 92 elected representatives of thehereditary peers, and several hundred life peers. The power to nominate bishops ofthe Church of England, and to create hereditary and life peers, is exercised by theSovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. By the Parliament Acts 1911 and1949 legislation may, in certain circumstances, be passed without the approval ofthe House of Lords. Although all legislation must receive the approval of theSovereign (Royal Assent), no Sovereign has withheld such assent since 1708.
Constitutional MonarchyThe United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy: succession to the British throne ishereditary, governed by the principle of male preference primogeniture, but excludesthose who are, or who marry, Roman Catholics.Under the British Constitution, sweeping executive powers, known as the royalprerogative, are nominally vested in the Sovereign. In exercising these powers,however, the Sovereign normally defers to the advice of the Prime Minister or otherministers. This principle, which can be traced back to the Restoration, was mostfamously articulated by the Victorian writer Walter Bagehot as "the Queen reigns, butshe does not rule".
In September 2002, the Scottish National Party (SNP) published a document, entitled"A Constitution for a Free Scotland", which details their policy for the Constitution of afuture independent Scotland. This Constitution, which would come into effectfollowing Scotlands transition to independence, would set out the rights of citizens ofan independent Scotland, and define the powers and responsibilities of governmentand parliament.
Aims and principlesThe SNP Draft Constitution declares itself to be necessary "to protect the rights ofevery Scottish citizen and to place restrictions on what politicians can and cant do".The draft "envisages an inclusive Scotland that embraces its geographic and culturaldiversity, where its citizens are free from discrimination on any grounds in the exerciseof their constitutional rights". The intention is to "give voice to the Scottish people andprovide the means for us to take control of the decisions affecting our lives".Article One, entitled "Constitution and People" sets out some of the foundations of theScottish State, including:(1) The right of the people of Scotland to self-determination and national sovereignty.(2) A declaration of Scotlands territorial claims to the mainland and islands of Scotland,and to Scotlands offshore (oil and gas) resources.(3) A declaration of constitutional supremacy: the Constitution is the supreme law andany other legislation which is incompatible with the Constitution will therefore be nulland void.(4) An inclusive definition of citizenship, with reserved rights of residency for non-citizens resident in Scotland at the time of independence. Voting is from age 16.Note that there is no preamble or declaration of principles, and no mention of
Article Two sets out the arrangement for the Head of State and the Executive:(1) The Queen (Elizabeth II) would be retained as Head of State, with the title of "Queenof Scots". The Union of 1603 – a personal union between the Scots Crown and that ofEngland – would thereby be maintained, even though the Union of 1707 – agovernmental union of two States and two Parliaments – would be dissolved.(2) The Constitution for Scotland states that the monarch would hold title under the lawof Scotland, so presumably the Parliament of Scotland could, at some future time, alterthe law of succession in such a way that this personal union is dissolved. A ScottishParliament would also be able, if it so desired at some future time, to remove thereligious proscriptions which ban Roman Catholics from inheriting the Crown under theAct of Settlement.(3) Executive powers are vested in the Head of State, who is expected and required toact on the advice of the Prime Minister and Ministers. The Prime Minister is to be electedby Parliament, and Ministers are to be confirmed by Parliament. The government as awhole is accountable to Parliament by means of a motion of confidence, in accordancewith the rules of the parliamentary system.(4) When the Queen is not present in Scotland, the elected Presiding Officer (i.e.Speaker) of Parliament would act as Head of State.The SNP is committed to holding a referendum on the future of the monarchy within thefirst term of a post-independence Parliament, but no explicit provision for this is made inthe proposed Constitution.
Article Three makes provision for a Parliament of Scotland, which will possesslegislative (law making) power, as well as being responsible for debating policies andholding the Executive to account.The Constitution makes a number of breaks from British constitutional practice whichwere seen as radical in the 1970s but are, according to the SNPs Policy Paper, nowaccepted as part of Scottish political life:(1) The Parliament of Scotland will be unicameral, in keeping with the tradition of the oldScottish Parliament before 1707 and that of the Devolved Scottish Parliament today.(2) The Parliament will be elected by proportional representation. The SNP favours theSingle Transferable Vote system, but the exact electoral system used will be determinedby ordinary legislation.(3) Parliament elected for four-year fixed terms. Early dissolution is permitted only if agovernment enjoying parliamentary support cannot be formed: the Prime Minister cannotdissolve Parliament at will. Parliament may also extend its term of office, in times of war,for up to one year.(4) To compensate for the lack of a second chamber, a minority veto procedure(whereby two-fifths of the members of Parliament can delay a bill for up to a year,subject to the right of the majority to refer the bill to the people in a referendum) isincluded. This is intended to prevent rash legislation by a Parliamentary majority.(5) A stronger committee system will also be instituted, with pre-legislative scrutiny oflegislation in parliamentary committees, although the Constitution is sparse on detail.(6) Parliament would have control over declarations of war and the ratification of treaties.Treaties which amend the Constitution (e.g. treaties of European integration) must bepassed by a three-fifths majority in Parliament and ratified by a national referendum.
Article Four recognises and guarantees the independence of elected local Councils,which are also to be elected by proportional representation. The Islands authorities(Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles) also have certain guaranteed privilegeswhich may not be removed by ordinary legislation.Note: the constitutionally guaranteed status of local Councils was not included in the1977 document, but has been included in the 2002 version.Article Five of the Constitution recognises the independence of the judiciary:(1) Judges are to be appointed by the Head of State on the advice of an independentappointments commission, consisting of the Lord Advocate, the Presiding Officer ofParliament, a Senator of the College of Justice and two impartial members elected byParliament.(2) Judges may only be removed from office, for misconduct, by a two-thirds majorityvote of Parliament.
Article Six of the Constitution entrenches a number of fundamental rights and liberties,including freedom of speech, religion, assembly, movement, privacy, fair trial, dueprocess etc. These are based on the European Convention on Human Rights.Social and economic rights, such as entitlements to public housing, unemploymentbenefit, pensions, public healthcare, and education, are included, but there is noprotection for trial by jury and no rule preventing double jeopardy.The rights and liberties guaranteed in the Constitution may be waived during a State ofEmergency. A State of Emergency must be approved by a three-fifths majority of themembers of Parliament within two weeks, and may continue for up to three months,after which it must be renewed by Parliament.
Other noteworthy features(1) The SNP draft Constitution is noticeably shorter than most modern (post-1945 andpost-1989) European Constitutions, at around 6000 words.(2) The relationships between the Executive and the Parliament are not clearly defined,particularly with regard to the election of a Prime Minister and the procedure for votes ofconfidence. This leaves scope for the regulation of these matters by law, standing ordersof Parliament, or, in the absence of such provision, by existing parliamentary custom.(3) In contrast to contemporary European practice, the SNPs Constitution for Scotlanddoes not clearly distinguish between the respective roles of the Head of State and theExecutive (compare with the Constitutions of Spain or Sweden, where such a distinctionis explicitly made).(4) The Constitution does specify the size of Parliament, only that it must be at least fourtimes the size of the Executive (the number of Ministers is limited to one-fifth of themembers of Parliament).(5) The qualifications for membership of Parliament, and any incompatibilities betweenmembership of Parliament and other public offices, are unspecified. These matters aresubject to determination by Parliament, in accordance with the usual legislative process.(6) There is no mention in the Constitution for an Auditor-General or an Ombudsman,although both institutions currently exist in Scotland under Statute law. There is provisionfor Freedom of Information, but no reference to the Scottish Information Commissioner.
Scottish National Anthem
Flower of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Flùr na h-Alba, Scots: Flouer o Scotland) is aScottish song, used frequently at special occasions and sporting events. AlthoughScotland has no official national anthem, Flower of Scotland is one of a number ofsongs which unofficially fulfil this role, along with the older Scots Wha Hae, Scotlandthe Brave and Highland Cathedral. It was written by Roy Williamson of the folk groupThe Corries, and presented in 1967, and refers to the victory of the Scots, led byRobert the Bruce, over Englands Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.The song has been used as a National Anthem by the Scotland national rugby unionteam, ever since the winger, Billy Steele, encouraged his team-mates to sing it on thevictorious Lions tour of South Africa in 1974. The song was adopted as the pre-gameanthem during the deciding match of the 1990 Five Nations Championship betweenScotland and England, which Scotland won 13–7 to win the Grand Slam. The ScottishFootball Association adopted "Flower of Scotland" as its pre-game national anthem in1997 although it was first used by them in 1993. Usually only the first and third versesare sung. The song was used as the victory anthem of Team Scotland at theCommonwealth Games in 2010 replacing Scotland the Brave.The tune was originally composed on the Northumbrian smallpipes which play in D andhave the benefit of keys on the chanter to achieve a greater range of notes.Ewan McGregor performed the song in Magadan in 2004 for the filming of the TV showLong Way Round journey.In July 2006, the Royal Scottish National Orchestra conducted an online poll (publicisedby Reporting Scotland) in which voters could choose a national anthem from one of fivecandidates. 10,000 people took part in the poll in which Flower of Scotland came out thewinner.
1.O Flower of Scotland,When will we see your like again 3.That fought and died for Those days are past nowYour wee bit hill and glen. And in the past they must remainAnd stood against him, But we can still rise nowProud Edwards army, And be the nation again!And sent him homeward That stood against himTo think again. Proud Edwards army And sent him homeward2. To think again.The hills are bare now,And autumn leaves lie thick and stillOer land that is lost now, 4.Which those so dearly held O Flower of Scotland,That stood against him, When will we see your like againProud Edwards army That fought and died forAnd sent him homeward Your wee bit hill and glen.To think again. And stood against him, Proud Edwards army, And sent him homeward To think again.
The Flag of Scotland
The Flag of Scotland, (Scottish Gaelic: Bratach nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots: Banner oScotland), also known as Saint Andrews Cross or the Saltire, is the national flag ofScotland. As the national flag it is the Saltire, rather than the Royal Standard ofScotland, which is the correct flag for all individuals and corporate bodies to fly in orderto demonstrate both their loyalty and Scottish nationality. It is also, where possible, flownfrom Scottish Government buildings every day from 8am until sunset, with certainexceptions.According to legend, the Christian apostle and martyr Saint Andrew, the patron saint ofScotland, was crucified on an X-shaped cross at Patras, (Patrae), in Achaea. Use of thefamiliar iconography of his martyrdom, showing the apostle bound to an X-shaped cross,first appears in the Kingdom of Scotland in 1180 during the reign of William I. This imagewas again depicted on seals used during the late 13th century; including on oneparticular example used by the Guardians of Scotland, dated 1286.
Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew which does not depict hisimage, namely the saltire, or crux decussata, (from the Latin crux, cross, and decussis,having the shape of the Roman numeral X), has its origins in the late 14th century; theParliament of Scotland having decreed in 1385 that Scottish soldiers shall wear a whiteSaint Andrews Cross on their person, both in front and behind, for the purpose ofidentification.The earliest reference to the Saint Andrews Cross as a flag is to be found in the ViennaBook of Hours, circa 1503, where a white saltire is depicted with a red background. Inthe case of Scotland, use of a blue background for the Saint Andrews Cross is said todate from at least the 15th century, with the first certain illustration of a flag depictingsuch appearing in Sir David Lyndsay of the Mounts Register of Scottish Arms, circa1542.The legend surrounding Scotlands association with the Saint Andrews Cross dates froma 9th century battle, where Óengus II led a combined force of Picts and Scots to victoryover the Angles, led by Æthelstan. Consisting of a blue background over which is placeda white representation of an X-shaped cross, the Saltire is one of Scotlands mostrecognisable symbols.
The Royal Standard of Scotland, also known as the Banner of the King of Scots ormore commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, is the Scottish Royal Banner of Arms.Used historically by the King of Scots, the Royal Standard of Scotland differs fromScotlands national flag, The Saltire, in that its correct use is restricted by an Act ofthe Parliament of Scotland to only a few Great Officers of State who officiallyrepresent The Sovereign in Scotland. It is also used in an official capacity at Royalresidences in Scotland when The Sovereign is not present.
“Quarterly, First and Fourth Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armedand langued Azure (for England), Second quarter Or a lion rampant within adouble tressure flory counter-flory Gules (for Scotland), Third quarter Azure a harpOr stringed Argent (for Ireland), the whole surrounded by the Garter; for a Crest,the imperial crown Proper; for Supporters, dexter a lion rampant guardant Orcrowned as the Crest, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper,gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chainaffixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or;Motto Dieu et mon Droit’ below the shield.”
The European Anthem"Ode to Joy" is the anthem of the European Unionand the Council of Europe.It is the European Anthem.The melody comes from the Ninth Symphony composed in1823 by Ludwig Van Beethoven.It is played on official occasions. A page from Beethovens original manuscript In 1972, the Council of Europe adopted Beethovens "Ode to Joy" theme as its own anthem. Without words, in the universal language of music, this anthem expresses the ideals of freedom, peace and solidarity for which Europe stands. In 1985, it was adopted by EU heads of State and government as the official anthem of the European Union. It is not intended to replace the national anthems of the Member States but rather to celebrate the values they all share and theirComposer Ludwig van Beethoven unity in diversity.
For the final movement of this symphony, Beethoven set to music the "Ode to Joy" written in 1785 by Friedrich von Schiller. This poem expresses Schillers idealistic vision of the human race becoming brothers , a vision Beethoven shared. Due to the large number of languages used in the European Union, the anthem is purely instrumental. Despite this, the lyrics are often sung by choirs or ordinary people. Several translations of the poem used by Beethoven as well as original works have attempted to provide lyricsFriedrich Schiller to the anthem in various languages.It is used at the opening of Parliament after elections and at formal sittings, onoccasions such as Europe Day „and formal events such as the signing of treaties.
Original lyrics Rhymeless and literal Latin lyricsby Friedrich Schiller English translation of the Latin by Peter RolandGerman original version Latin originalFreude, schöner Europe is united now Est Europa nunc unitaGötterfunken, And united may it remain; et unita maneat;Tochter aus Elysium! One in diversity, una in diversitate May it contribute to world peace. pacem mundi augeat.Wir betreten feuertrunken, May there forever reign in Europe Semper regant in EuropaHimmlische, Dein Heiligtum. Faith and justice fides et iustitiaDeine Zauber binden wieder, And freedom of the people et libertas populorum In a greater fatherland in maiore patria.Was die Mode streng geteilt, Citizens, may Europe flourish, Cives, floreat Europa,Alle Menschen werden A great task calls on you. opus magnum vocat vos.Brüder, Golden stars in the sky are Stellae signa sunt in caeloWo Dein sanfter Flügel The symbols that shall unite us. aureae, quae iungant nosweilt
The Flag of Europe The flag of Europe consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on an azure background.It is the flag and emblem of the European Union and Council of Europe and is also often used tosymbolise the EU as a whole. The Council of Europe gives the flag this symbolic description:Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars represent the peoples of Europe in a circle, a symbol of unity. Their number shall be invariably set at twelve, the symbol of completeness and perfection (Paris, 7–9 December 1955) The Council of Europes search for a symbol began in1950. There were numerous proposals but a clear theme for stars and circles emerged. The Consultative Assembly narrowed their choice to two designs.
One was by Salvador de Madariaga, the founder of the College of Europe, who suggested a constellation of stars on a blue background (positioned according to capital cities, with a large star for Strasbourg, the seat of the Council). The second was a variant on this, the stars were arranged in a circle, by Arsène Heitz, who worked at the Councils postal service and had submitted dozens of designs. The Consultative Assembly favoured Heitzs design The number twelve was chosen and Paul M. G. Lévy drew up the exact design of the new flag as it is today in 1955 In June 1984 European Council summit in Fontainbleau stressed the importance of promoting a European image and identity to citizens and the world and adopted it.The number of stars does not vary according to the number of the nations, they are intended to represent all the peoples of Europe. Twelve was eventually adopted as a number with no political connotations and as a symbol of perfection and completeness.
Arsène Heitz was inspired by the Book of Revelation. the twelve-star halo of the Queen of Heaven were first mentioned in it:"A great sign appeared in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon underher feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars" (a crown of stars can be interpreted as a “ Crown of Immortality”). We can‟t forget that the date the flag was adopted, 8 December 1955, coincided with the Catholic Feast of Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a feast decreed in 1854 by Pope Pius IX. Madonna in Glory by Carlo Dolci, 1670 Blessing Madonna, stained glass window in Strasbourg Cathedral featuring the twelve stars.
The flag is used in certain sports arrangements where a unified Team Europe is represented. European flag at victory of Europe over USA at the Ryder Cup. In April 2004, the flag was flown in space f or the first time by European Space Agency astronaut André Kuipers while on board the International Space Station.Today the flag, the anthem, the motto „United in diversity‟, the euroand Europe Day on 9 May will continue as symbols to expressthe sense of community of the people in the European Union.In Italy the European Flag must be displayed alongside the national flagin official ceremonies and over public buildings.Thanks to LLP - Comenius project, we learnt from each other. During the next year we will go onexploring some other aspects of our countries. The students of 3^ H – Padre Pio School Altamura - IT