Critical thinking is reflective reasoning about beliefs and actions. It is a way of deciding whether a claim is always true, sometimes true, partly true, or false. Critical thinking can be traced in Western thought to the Socratic method of Ancient Greece and, in the East, to the Buddhist kalamasutta and Abhidharma. Critical thinking is an important component of most professions. It is a part of formal education and is increasingly significant as students progress through university to graduate education, although there is debate among educators about its precise meaning and scope.
Testing• “Gathering information with theintention of informing a decision.” –Jerry Weinberg• “Testing is an empirical, technicalinvestigation of a product, done on behalfof stakeholders, with the intention ofrevealing quality-related information of thekind that they seek.” – Cem Kaner• “Questioning a product in order toevaluate it.” – James Bach
Quality• “Conformance with requirements.” – PhilipCrosby• “Quality is value to some person.” – JerryWeinberg
• “Successful testers avoid a fascination withfunctional correctness, and focus on ways inwhich people might obtain value from aprogram—or have their value unfulfilled orthreatened.” – Michael Boltonhttp://www.developsense.com/blog/2011/02/why-do-some-testers-find-the-critical-problems/
Bug• “Doesn’t match specifications of writtenrequirements.”• “Failure to meet reasonable expectations of auser.” – G. Myers• “A bug is something that bugs somebody.” –James Bach• “Anything that causes an unnecessary orunreasonable reduction of the quality of asoftware product.” – BBST Bug Advocacy
Exploratory Testing is about learning• “If you are not using the learning garneredfrom test design and test execution in acontinuous and rapid loop to optimize thequality of the work, you are not doingexploratory testing.” – Michael Bolton
Some of the Elements of ExploratoryTesting• Test Design• Careful Observation• Critical Thinking• Diverse Ideas• Rich Resourceshttp://www.satisfice.com/articles/et-article.pdf
Test Design• Function Testing• Domain Testing• Specification-based Testing• Risk-based Testing• …• Heuristic Test Strategy Model(http://www.satisfice.com/tools/htsm.pdf)
Few Words About Context-DrivenTesting• The value of any practice depends on its context.• There are good practices in context, but there are no best practices.• People, working together, are the most important part of any project’scontext.• Projects unfold over time in ways that are often not predictable.• The product is a solution. If the problem isn’t solved, the product doesn’twork.• Good software testing is a challenging intellectual process.• Only through judgment and skill, exercised cooperatively throughout theentire project, are we able to do the right things at the right times toeffectively test our products.http://context-driven-testing.com/
The video shows that it’s possible to miss something right in front of youreyes. The point of the video is to show that it’s possible to miss somethingthat’s right in front of your eyes.IB makes you confront the illusion of attention.That’s it.Knowing about inattentional blindness doesn’t make you better at noticingthings, and there’s zero correlation between the observational skills of thosewho see the gorilla vs. those who don’t. While I agree that it’s critical fortesters to know that inattentional blindness exists, it’s a small nugget ofinformation in a pretty big pool of stuff that actually helps testers.Alan Page - http://angryweasel.com/blog/?p=594
We need to vary our actions• Need different perspective / angle– Personas– Tours (http://michaeldkelly.com/blog/2005/9/20/touring-heuristic.html orhttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj620911.aspx#bkmk_tours)– Pairing
Diverse Ideas• Heuristics– You Are Not Done Yethttp://www.thebraidytester.com/downloads/YouAreNotDoneYet.pdf– Test Heuristics Cheat Sheet http://testobsessed.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/testheuristicscheatsheetv1.pdf– The Little Black Book On Test Designhttp://www.thetesteye.com/papers/TheLittleBlackBookOnTestDesign.pdf
Oracles“A way to recognize a problem.” – Michael Bolton & James Bacha) A feeling like confusion or annoyance.b) A desirable consistency between related things.c) A person whose opinion matters.d) An opinion held by a person who matters.e) A disagreement among people who matter.f) A reference document with useful information.g) A known good example output.h) A known bad example output.i) A process or tool by which output is checked.j) A process or tool that helps a tester identify patterns.http://www.developsense.com/blog/2013/01/oracles-the-brainstream-media/
• People!– “The diversity of tester temperaments andbackgrounds on a team can also be harnessed bysavvy exploratory testers through the process ofgroup brainstorming to produce better test ideas.”– James Bach“The roof don’t leak because the holes in each layerdon’t line up with each other.” – George Dinwiddieon Twitter
Rich Resources• Tools• Information sources (notes, books, blogs)• Test data• Friends
Which are the most important traits a tester should have(or should develop) in order to succeed today?(http://qablog.practitest.com/2012/11/five-testing-question-with-jerry-weinberg/)• Courage• Communication skill• Self-esteem.Jerry Weinberg
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