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John Dewey, James A. Banks and Albert Bandura

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  • “Progressive education is a theory of education that believes students learn best with real-life situations and experiential learning. The emphasis is on learning by doing."
  • He was outspoken on education, domestic and international politics, and numerous social movements. Among the many concerns that attracted Dewey's support were women's suffrage, progressive education, educator's rights, the Humanistic movement, and world peace.
  • Traditional education emphasized learning about theories, but Dewey stated that learning by doing is equally important.
    - Two aspects of education: education should emphasize both the child and the curriculum: The task of the teacher is to guide the child to discover his or her own talents and best techniques for learning. The teacher directs the energies of the child away from what is destructive, to focus the attention of the child on important themes and problems, and to help her or him develop the tools needed to play a full and productive role in society.
    - Motivation is important to learning.
    - School work has to be closely connected to the society around the school.
  • An american-canadian psychologist born on Dec 4th, 1925, 87 years old. He's of Ukrainian and Polish descent. He arrived in the US in 1949 and was naturalized in 1956. He received his bachelors degree in Psychology from the University of British Columbia in 1949. He went on to the University of Iowa, where he received his Ph.D. in 1952. It was there that he came under the influence of the behaviorist tradition and learning theory. After graduating, he took a postdoctoral position at the Wichita Guidance Center in Wichita, Kansas. (Minna has also lived in Wichita, Kansas :). In1953 he began teaching at Stanford University, where he continues teaching to his day. He was one of the youngest president-elects in the history of the APA (American Psychology Assiciation) at the age of 46.
     
  • social cognitive theory; a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development in a mutual relationship. There's five core concepts associated with the SCT framework. These core concepts are observational learning/modeling, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, goal setting and self-regulation. It is important to note that learning can occur without a change in behavior.
    Social learning theory is a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning. Bandura proposed that observational learning can occur in relation to three models:
    - Live model, in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behaviour
    - Verbal instruction, in which an individual describes the desired behaviour in detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior
    - Symbolic, in which modeling occurs by means of the media, including movies, television, Internet, literature, and radio. This type of modeling involves a real or fictional character demonstrating the behaviour.
     
    Self-efficacy; a person's belief in their own competence. The main concept in social cognitive theory is that an individual’s actions and reactions, including social behaviors and cognitive processes, in almost every situation are influenced by the actions that individual has observed in others. According to Bandura's theory, people with high self-efficacy -that is, those who believe they can perform well- are more likely to view difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to be avoided.
     
    Bobo doll experiment; Of the hundreds of studies Bandura was responsible for, one group stands out above the others, the Bobo doll studies. This is a video where a woman/model hit and punched the Bobo doll (clown) and the video was shown to kindergarden aged children. After watching the video the majority of children proceeded to imitate what they saw in the video. Bandura did a large number of variations on the study: The model was rewarded or punished in a variety of ways, the children were rewarded for their imitations. They even used a live clown and the children proceeded to punch him, kick him, hit him with little hammers.
  • Notes:
    - Growing up in the racially divided South prior to the civil rights movement, Banks developed a commitment to social justice.
    As a child, Banks thought that images of happy slaves in his social studies textbooks were a contradiction to the harsh reality of racial segregation that he and others experienced. He researched who created such contradictory images, and who developed curriculums, leading to further and further research into social justice.
    Banks became the first black professor in the College of Education at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle and is also founding director of UW’s Center for Multicultural Education.
  • Notes: Multicultural education includes collaboration, cooperation and critical thinking, and is designed to encourage making positive social change.
  • Content integration simply means using a wide variety of content from different places. Teachers should teach about different geographic regions, genders, and learning styles, as well.
    Knowledge construction is a type of critical thinking that encourages students to think about the way that knowledge is created and influenced by people of certain diversity orientations, and how it might be different coming from a different perspective (example: the Eurocentric view of the ‘discovery’ of America. Native Americans were in N. America long before it was ‘discovered’ by Europeans!).
    Prejudice reduction describes lessons and activities that teachers implement to assert positive images of ethnic groups and to improve intergroup relations among students. Banks believes all educators should use methods to help students develop more positive racial attitudes.
    Equity pedagogy is the acknowledgement that students from different backgrounds may learn in different ways. Teachers need to be aware of this in order to write lessons that maximize every student’s success. Example: studies have found that African Americans learn calculus better in cooperative groups. Therefore, if a math teacher uses cooperative groups when teaching calculus to African Americans she is implementing equity pedagogy.
    Empowering School Culture means that the school creates equal opportunities for success for all students, regardless of diversity orientation. (University of Michigan Education.com) Schools have to not just ‘talk the talk’ of supporting multiculturalism, but also ‘walk the walk’.
    Virpi Pietiläinen
  • Transcript

    • 1. John Dewey, James A. Banks, and Albert Bandura iVET 2013-2014 Basics of Education Sciences, Session 1 Pink group : Virpi Pietilä inen, Jay Thompson, Minna Tuhkanen and Aleksandra Paravina 3.12.2013
    • 2. John Dewey (1859-1952) • an American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist • the father of progressive education • one of the most influential educational philosophers of the 20th century • Dewey had high regard for the experimental method.
    • 3. Biography o PhD in 1884 o teaching at the University of Michigan from 1884 to 1888 and 1889-1894 o in 1894: the chairman of the department of philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy at the University of Chicago o In 1899, president of the American Psychological Association, and in 1905 president of the American Philosophical Association. o taught at Columbia University from 1905 until he retired in 1929 o traveled the world as a philosopher, social and political theorist, and educational consultant: lectures in Japan and China from 1919 to 1921, visit to Turkey in 1924 to recommend educational policy, and a tour of schools in the USSR in 1928.
    • 4. A key theory Schools must be places of interaction with the life of the new technological culture. To this end, the actual interests of the child must be nurtured and developed: interests: 1. 2. 3. 4. in communication in finding out about things in making things in artistic expression. There must be a reciprocal relation between the school and the wider society. Image source : http://blog.coreknowledge.org/tag/commoncore-state-standards/
    • 5. Albert Bandura http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=hHHdovKHDNU He's is widely described as the greatest living psychologist and as one of the most influential psychologists of all time. He's influenced by cognitive psychology and social psychology. He has received more than sixteen honorary degrees from all over the world.
    • 6. Biography:  Born on Dec 4th, 1925 in Mundare, Alberta, Canada.  1949 – Graduated from the University of British Columbia with a bachelors degree in Psychology.  1952 – Received his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Iowa.  1953 – Began teaching at Stanford University.  1974 – Elected to be be the Eighty-Second President of the APA (American Psychological Association).  1980 – Received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.  2004 - Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology, APA.
    • 7. Albert Bandura is known for : Social cognitive theory - Self-efficacy - Social learning theory (SLT) Live model  Verbal instruction  Symbolic  -Bobo doll experiment in 1961 Image source: http://www.changecards.org/changetheory/social-cognitive-theory/
    • 8. James A. Banks – Multicultural Education James A. Banks is an educator who has been called the “father of multicultural education.” Born in 1941 near Marianna, Arkansas • Grew up in racially divided Southern U.S. • Questioned why and how different cultures and races were depicted in textbooks. • First black professor at Univ. Washington (Seattle) • Founded UW’s Center for Multicultural Education. http://youtu.be/1bBb8Nk8Mvs Image source: http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/enc yclopedia/media-detail.aspx?mediaID=6814
    • 9. Multicultural education is a discipline that seeks to develop awareness and skills in teachers and students for living in a culturally diverse world. Simply stated, Banks has provided teachers with detailed solutions as to “what to teach, how to teach, and how to assess students from different ethnic groups.” (Encyclopedia of Arkansas)
    • 10. Banks own definition of multicultural education includes five dimensions: • • • • • Content integration Knowledge construction Prejudice reduction Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture Image source: http://www-fp.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/images/bigcovers/0132696339.jpg
    • 11. Applying James A. Bank’s ideas to a Vocational Education context: - When teaching, take different cultures into account: be sensitive, be inclusive. - Foster more racially positive attitudes among students, and avoid racial/sexist humour. Applying Albert Bandura’s ideas to a Vocational Education context: - In the classroom and in the workplace, remember: Monkey see, monkey do. Applying Albert Dewey’s ideas to a Vocational Education context: • • • • demonstrations hands-on exercises company visits practical training at firms
    • 12. Sources James A. Banks www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=4682 http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.berman/james_banks__model http://www.education.com/reference/article/multicultural-education/ John Dewy Philosophy of Education: an Encyclopedia, edited by J. J. Chambliss, published by Garland Press, 1996, pp. 146-153. http://deweycenter.siu.edu/pdf/Dewey_Bio.pdf http://dewey.pragmatism.org/
    • 13. Selected Publications by Albert Bandura  Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.  Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Sources :  http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_bandura.htm  http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html