We have discussed some of the aspects of learning theories such as Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Constructivism and Humanism. These theories have developed through ideas of Plato and Aristotle’s promotion of liberal education.In the 17th century English philosopher John Lock in his work, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding postulates ‘that there is nothing in the mind which was not first in the senses.’ (Jordan, A. C., Orison S. A., 2008, p. 12). According to empiricist for a statement to be valid, must be either true by definition or it must be open to verification by experience.
The competency based learning was developed in the 1970s in the United States. It has spead to Europe and the rest fo the world. It is assosciatied with standardization of education and initiatives in the business and vocational sector. The current education practice is most influenced by ideas of constructivism, some aspect of education still have behaviourist features. These are mostly in curriculum planning, assessment and behaviour management, for example. Therefore, by performing certain actions teacher can expect certain learner response: giving clear session objectives gives the learner the knowledge of what to expect. Structured learning gives learners the ability to create links and associations. Providing feedback promotes learning awareness and satisfaction.Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills: such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance, musical or athletic performance.Behavioural examples include driving a car, throwing a ball, and playing a musical instrument.
Albert Banduras definition of self-efficacy: Self-efficacy as one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations. One's sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges. The theory of self-efficacy lies at the center of Bandura’s social cognitive theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning and social experience in the personality development.Bandura:In his book "Self-efficacy: the exercise of control" he shows his theorys adaptation to the whole lifes evolution, education, health (both physical and mental health), sports, business life and international politics. This is something that cannot be measured. In vocational school the student cant be measured how he has absorbed knowledge of his theoretical studies and working practices. For example the understanding and assimilating ethics is difficult to measure.
Against: All learning at the vocational
education level can and should have
a measurable outcome.
Key argument: Not all learning can be measured.
Basics of Education Sciences, Session 2
Team Pink: Virpi Pietiläinen, Jay Thompson, Minna
Tuhkanen and Aleksandra Paravina
Objective of the presentation
• Idealism has influenced education as it gives emphasis to
theory before practice.
• Theoretical subjects are valued more than practical ones.
• Logical and analytic thinking has had an importance through
• Assessement is a subjective process.
Assess three paintings by giving points on a scale 0-10,
based on the following criteria:
1. Creativity ( Is the subject unique? )
2. Skill ( Is the painting in proportion? Are the images well
balanced? Brush strokes, are the lines messy or paint blotchy?
3. Colours ( Do the colours compliment or contrast each other?
Does it work well with the painting? )
Philosophy of education
We started our research with historical view on the development
of philosophy of education and the ideas that led to the
development of ‘liberal education’ which promotes social
development, humanism and other qualities which are not
+ = ?
Idealism- belief in the objective truth of ideas
• Plato, the 3rd century BC thinker.
• Humans are chained to the world
of senses and true knowledge can
be achieved only by overcoming
prejudice and ignorance after
rigorous mental and ideological
• Aristotle 3rd century BC Greek pilosopher, is
also important for the development of Liberal
• The idea of the liberal education was not to
develop the mind alone but to create a ‘free
citizen’ through the study of arts and
literature as well.
Development of scientific reasoning
• important Aristotle’s rules involve :
• concept formation
• deductive reasoning( from the general case to the particular
case by logical inference).
Logical and analytic thinking has led to the development of
empiricism and romanticism.
Cartesian dualism - duality between mind and
• Rene Descartes was a French
philosopher (17th Century)
who was influenced by Plato’s
• Descartes proposed a method
of ‘systematic doubt’ in which
everything in the universe had
to be questioned until he came
to something he could not
-‘Cogito ergo sum’ – ‘I think, therefore I
Motivation for learning
• Theory of needs by Maslow's hierarchy.
• This theory was developed through Cartesian, Darwinian and Freudian thought.
• The value of this theory in teaching could be in recognition that higher-level
motivational factors can depend of lower once.
• Although some criticism of the theory is based on the fact that self – actualization is
not a clear concept and that the height of the human achievement should be
related more to altruism and community.
Competency based learning
Competency-based qualifications systems are attractive to
businesses and vocational institutes as they can promote :
• measurable aspect.
• Governments can use competency tools for creating a
The competency based systems are useful if the skills that are
measured are psychomotor and easily measured. This is much
harder and problematic for more complex and integrated
Dewey: Artistic expression
• The main thing of art is
• Experience connects art to a
larger experience of life
• The way art is experienced is
very subjective issue
- > It can't be measured well.
• Aspects of communication that are difficult to measure are e.g.
social needs, conversation, self-expression and building and
• Dewey saw also communication as art: It’s the way how we
make our shared experience meaningful.
- > This is very difficult thing to measure.
(philosophy of education section)
Jordan, A. C., Orison S. A., 2008, Approaches to Learning : A Guide for
Teachers, Berkshire, GBR , Open University Press
Barrow, R.,White, P., 1993, Beyond Liberal Education : Essays in Honour of
Paul H. Hirst, London, Routledge
Cody, A., 2012, Rog Lucido: Student Learning Can Only be Described, Not
Measured. Retrieved from:
3) John Dewey: Taide kokemuksena -kirjaesittely. Filosofinen aikakauslehti -
filosofinen kirjasarja. http://netn.fi/kirjat/john-dewey-taide-
4) Crick, Nathan (2005) John Dewey on the Art of Communication. Doctoral
Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/7314/
• Bandura’s definition of self-efficacy: one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in
• According to Banduras theory, students would have to change their previous
behavior to something they have observed. This is difficult to measure because in
most cases it's not possible to measure student behavior before they have
• In vocational school it is difficult to measure how the student has absorbed
knowledge of his/her theoretical studies and working practices.
• In Banduras theory it's advised to compare student performance with the goals set
for that student, rather than comparing one student against another or comparing
one student to the rest of the class.
– Basic Nurse
– Customer service-related occupations
Montessori’s View: Why should teachers not give
• Grades (as with other external rewards) have minimal long-term
effect on the student’s achievements or efforts.
• When teachers give numerical grades, they end up evaluating
students against others in the same class or “against an arbitrary
external standard and set of expectations.”
• Instead of solving and investigating solutions themselves, this
grading “leads children to look to teachers for the right answers”
• Learning becomes shallow: the student’s goal is simply high
marks/grades, which they attain by:
1) memorizing answers for a test
2) receiving a grade, and then
3) quickly forgetting the learning
So, what’s Montessori’s alternative to grading?
• The goal is to nurture the motivation that comes from within
the student, fostering his/her innate desire to learn.
• Self-motivated learners become self-sufficient, without
• Montessori’s method has teachers closely observing each
student’s progress so it is known when they are ready to
advance. Regular conferences allow parents to see their child’s
work and hear the teacher’s assessment.
More on Montessori’s Approach…
• Regarding learning outcomes: “why and how students arrive at
what they know is just as important as what they know.”
• “No grades, no tests” (video):
(view from beginning to time mark2:38)
In conclusion there are many types of learning that
cannot truly be measured ..
• Professional identity
• Social Skills
• Sense of community
• And more