Unit 2: Goverment, political organization, economy… CULTURA INGLESA HORA: M3 ADRIANA ZÚÑIGA GUTIERREZALEJANDRO MARTINEZ GARCIA ADRIAN VEGA MAGAÑA
Government The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republ ican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution.
The constitution setsthree levels ofgovernment: thefederal Union, thestate governmentsand the municipalgovernments.
Political organizationAccording to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, the legislative branch and the judiciary.Let’s explain each of them…
The Senate is conformed by a total of 128 senators:-64 senators, two for each state and two for the Federal District, elected by plurality in pairs.-32 senators assigned to the first minority or first-runner up (one for each state and one for the Federal District)-32 are assigned by proportional representation with closed party lists for which the country conforms a single electoral constituency.
The Chamber of Deputies of the Congress of the Union is conformed by:-300 deputies elected by plurality.-200 deputies by proportional representation with closed party lists. The Supreme Court of Justice, comprised by eleven judges appointed by the President with Senate approval.
Elections Presidential elections are scheduled every six years, except in the exceptional case of absolute absence of the president. Legislative elections are scheduled every six years for the Senate, to be fully renewed in elections held concurrently with the presidential elections; and every three years for the Chamber of Deputies. State governors are also elected every six years, whereas the legislatures are renewed every three years.
Military The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force), and the Mexican Navy.
Economy The Ministry of Economy reported that Mexico tops the list of silver production worldwide, indicating that mining is considered the third largest source of income, just below the oil production and the automotive industry.
Its principal trade association is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA. or T.L.C.A.N., for its acronym in Spanish) are integrated by United States and Canada.
Right of veto This is the right of the President of the Republic to ratify or check a bill that had been approved by the chamber of deputies and senators.
United States Government
The United States is the worlds oldestsurviving federation. It is a constitutionalrepublic and representative democracy, "inwhich majority rule is tempered by minorityrights protected by law". The government isregulated by a system of checks andbalances definedby the U.S.Constitution, which serves asthe countryssupreme legaldocument.
In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government, federal, state, and local; the local governments duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials areelected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.
The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties,Legislative: has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of theExecutive: Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate Judicial: approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional
The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. Supreme Court of the United States
United Kingdom Goverment
The United Kingdom is governed within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is the head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. This means that although The Queen Elizabeth II is officially the head of the state, the country is actually run by the goverment, led by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister selects all the remaining Ministers. The Prime Minister and the other most senior Ministers belong to the supreme decision- making committee, known as the Cabinet.
Though the Queen Elizabeth II takes little direct part in government, the Crown remains the fount in which ultimate executive power over Government lies. These powers are known as Royal Prerogative and can be used for a vast amount of things, such as the issue or withdrawal of passports, to the dismissal of the Prime Minister or even the Declaration of War. The powers are delegated from the The Queen is also Monarch personally, the Head of the in the name of the Church of England, Crown, and can be she appoints handed to various archbishops and ministers, or other bishops on the Officers of the Crown, advice of the Prime and can purposely Minister. bypass the consent of Parliament. The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom
Economy of the UKThe UK is one of the worlds most globalised countries. London is the worldslargest financial centre alongside New York. The main products of exportation in the UK are Machinery and transport. Also theweapons industry.The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the UK economy and thecountry has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical expenditures.Britain is also a major supplier of plastics, aerospace products, and electronicequipment.
Right of Veto In the United Kingdom, the royal veto ("withholding Royal Assent") was last exercised in 1707 by Queen Anne with the Scottish Militia Bill 1708. In Westminster Systems the power to veto legislation by withholding the Royal Assent is a rarely used reserve power of the monarch. In practice, the Crown follows the convention of exercising its prerogative on the advice of its chief advisor, the prime minister. The House of Lords used to have the power of veto. The Parliamentary Acts of 1911 and 1949 saw their powers reduced to being able to amend and delay legislation. They are able to delay legislation for up to one year. Under the 1911 Act, money bills may not be delayed.