Lean thinking and the agile culture


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Talk about lean and agile culture, practices, principles and values.

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Lean thinking and the agile culture

  1. 1. Lean thinking and the agile culture Increasing Productivity Company LOGO Alejandro Claro Mosqueda
  2. 2. What is all this stuff?!
  3. 3. Warterfall model 1970: This model originates in the manufacturing and construction process of American industries.
  4. 4. The wicked problem Problem complexity - Wicked problems Real needs understanding level + Complex problems Simple problems + Team experience level
  5. 5. Wicked problem and traditional development "First law of Bad Management: If something isn't working, do more of it." - T. DeMarco, Peopleware : Productive Projects and Teams Big team working hard
  6. 6. Cannon ball effect Wrong assumptions: • The customer knows what he wants. • The developers know how to build it. • Nothing will change along the way.
  7. 7. Why not a homing missile? Assumptions: embrace and get prepare for • The customer will discover what he needs. • The developers will discover how to build it. • Things will change along the way.
  8. 8. Why is problem-solving so challenging? “It takes a different kind of thinking to solve a problem than the kind of thinking which produced the problem.” - Albert Einstein
  9. 9. Traditional thinking vs. Agile thinking The traditional waterfall mind The agilist mind Tries to be predictable Accepts that predictability in software business is impossible Fixes Time, Price and Scope on projects Time and Price could be fixed but not the scope Measures success of its projects by their conformance to plan Success of project is measured by the value it gives to the customer Agile business transformation Values methodology and its processes more than the people Values people more than the process, hence it accepts a process instead of imposing it Resists change in software requirements and development process Welcomes change in software requirements and development process Sees the system specification as the generated documentation Sees the system specifications as the developed code
  10. 10. Do you want to work hard or work smart!? Big team working hard Small team working smart! • Clear goal • Transparency • Direct contact with customers • Focus • Fast feedback • Using the right tools in the right way
  11. 11. The Lean and agile world New product development Honda Toyota Iterative and Incremental development DSDM Lean Kanban Scrum Kanban Agile Lean Software Development XP
  12. 12. Lean in a nutshell!
  13. 13. So, what is Lean? Just-in-Time (not Just-in-Case) The right material At the right time At the right place In the exact amount The essence of Lean is engaging everyone in identifying and solving problems.
  14. 14. The power of a simple vision Winning visions are: • Leader initiated. • Brief and clearly remembered. • Shared and supported by all. • Comprehensive and detailed. • Positive and inspiring. “Vision without Action is merely a dream; Action without Vision just passes the time; Vision with Action can change the world.” - Joel Arthur Barker, The Power of Vision
  15. 15. KAIZEN: Pursuit of perfection “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” - Lao Tzu • Ask small questions. • Take small actions. • Solve small problems.
  16. 16. KAIZEN enemies Activities that do not add value Workload that is not balanced Work that creates burden for the team members or processes
  17. 17. Use the right tool in the right way (fight Muri) Using the wrong tool Use it right! Using the right tool wrong
  18. 18. Do you see any waste?
  19. 19. Waste #1: Partially done work
  20. 20. Waste #2: Over-processing
  21. 21. Waste #3: Over-production
  22. 22. Waste #4: Task switching
  23. 23. Waste #5: Transportation
  24. 24. Waste #6: Delays
  25. 25. Waste #8: People-not utilizing them
  26. 26. Necessary waste? Non Value Add “unnecessary wastes” Waste to Eliminate! Non Value Add “necessary waste” Waste to Reduce! Value Add Increase!
  27. 27. PDCA: Continuous improvement approach Your process is not the important thing. The important thing is your process for improving your process. Plan Recognize an opportunity and plan a change. Do Test the change. Carry out a small-scale study. Check Act Review the test, analyze the results and identify what you’ve learned. Take action based on what you learned. If the change did not work, go through the cycle again with a different plan.
  28. 28. Prevent mistakes and inefficiencies Seiri (Sort) Prioritize & Minimize Seiton (Straightening) Organize Seiso (Shine) Cleanup Seiketsu (Standardize) Make it a practice Shitsuke (Sustain) Adopt and repeat
  29. 29. Genchi genbutsu: Go and see for yourself Go to the source to see the facts for yourself • Often when performing root cause analysis you will not know the answer. • Beware of data someone else has prepared. • You need to get the facts. • You need to look, see and understand. • You must think for yourself.
  30. 30. Visual Management Effective information radiators are • Simple • Current • Stark • Highly visible • Transient • Minimal in number • Influential
  31. 31. Kan-ban board example
  32. 32. Scrum-ban board example
  33. 33. No problem is a problem! Stop The Line is a response to the problem of unnecessary rework due to defects. The traditional way. The agile way! Stop the line to improve quality, reduce the waste and go faster!
  34. 34. Techniques to identify problems Technique Pairing Test Driven Development Co-location Time to detect problem Seconds Seconds to minutes Continuous Integration ~20 minutes to a couple hours Seconds to minutes User Stories A couple days Timeboxed development 1 – 4 weeks Small releases 1 week – 3 months
  35. 35. Root cause analysis (RCA) • Avoid jumping to conclusions! • Avoid creating “patches” by addressing only the symptoms. • Select proper countermeasures. • Design and implement lasting solutions that truly eliminate the problem. • Every problem has one or more root causes.
  36. 36. Ask “why!?” 5 times to uncover details • Start with the problem and ask “Why!?” 5 times! • Sounds simple but require practice. • Requires creative thinking: Use beginners mind to avoid the expert trap! Cause-and-effect diagrams also facilitates looking at the big picture!
  37. 37. Teamwork and Trust Everyone needs to work towards shared of quality for this to be successful. • 1 person @ 100% will not have sustained success. • Toyota has proven 100 people @ 1% works. • Successful companies build people.  Culture of empowerment.  Employee ownership of problems and countermeasures.
  38. 38. What are we? chickens or pigs!? "Individuals play the game, but teams beat the odds."
  39. 39. No blame policy! Everyone is doing the best they can with the resources they have! Authority-focus • “Whose job is this?” • “Not my problem” Responsibility-focus • “What is the right thing to do?” • “How can I help?” Goals is to identify the problem and find countermeasures – not to blame people
  40. 40. Lean-focus summary
  41. 41. So…what more is required?
  42. 42. Agile manifesto (values) summary Individuals and interactions OVER Process and tools Working software OVER Comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration OVER Contract negotiation Responding to change OVER Following a plan
  43. 43. Agile principles summary
  44. 44. SCRUM in nutshell!
  45. 45. Let’s talk! Motivation is what gets you starting; practice is what keeps you going We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.