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Lesson 6 vegetables fibers


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  • 1. Dietetics and Nutrition in the Mediterranean
    By Dr. Alberto Fatticcioni
  • 2. Mediterraneandietrules
    The Mediterraneandietisprincipally a plantbaseddiet. Everyday the “mediterranean way” consistsof:
    • vegetables (at least 300-400 g a day)
    • 3. fruit (at least 4 pieces or 400 g a day)
    • 4. legumes and pulses
    • 5. grains, pasta and/or bread (mostlywholemeal and unrefined)
    • 6. olive oil and nuts
    • 7. anabundantuseofherbs and spices
    • 8. water (more than 2 liters per day)
    • 9. wine duringmeals ( maximum 2 glasses per day )
  • 10.
  • 11. Vegetables
    Vegetables are the most complex food we eat.
    Roots and tubers (potatoes, carrots and parsnip)
    Lower stems and bulbs (beets, celery root, turnip, radish, onion, garlic, leeks)
    Stems and stalks (asparagus, celery, fennel, kohlrabi, cardoons)
    Leaves (lettuces, chicories, dandelion greens, cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rocket, spinach)
    Flowers (artichokes, broccoli, cauliflowers)
    Fruits used as vegetables (tomatoes, eggplant, sweet peppers, cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin)
  • 12. Roots and tubers: potatoes
    There are more than 200 species of potato (it. Patata), relatives of the tomato, chilli and tobacco that are indigenous to moist, cool regions of Central and South America. Some were cultivated 8,000 years ago.
    Spanish explorers brought one species, Solanumtuberosum, from Peru or Colombia to Europe around 1570. Because it was hardy and easy to grow, the potato was inexpensive and the poor were its principals consumers. More potatoes are consumed in the United States than any other vegetable, around 150 gm per person per day
  • 13. Roots and tubers: potatoes
  • 14. Roots and tubers: potatoes
    Potatoes are a good source of energy and vitamin C. Yellow fleshed varieties owe their color to fat- soluble carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin), purple and blue ones to water-soluble and antioxidant anthocyanins.
    Potatoes are notable for containing significant levels of the toxic alkaloids solanine and chaconinestressfull growing conditions and exposure to light can double or triple the normal level.
  • 15. Roots and tubers: potatoes
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Braised Artichokes and Potatoes” (pages 291-292 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where artichokes, potatoes, onion, garlic, sea salt, black pepper, thyme, bay leaves, extra-virgin olive oil and lemon juice are the main ingredients.
  • 16. Roots and tubers: potatoes
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Garlic Roasted Potatoes with Black Olives ” (page 333 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where potatoes, garlic, rosemary, red chili, sea salt, black pepper, black olives, extra-virgin olive oil and parsley are the main ingredients.
  • 17. Roots and tubers: carrots
    Cultivated carrots (it. Carota) are swollen taproots of the species Daucuscarota, which arose in the Mediterranenan region. There are two main groups of cultivated carrots.
    The eastern anthocyanin carrot developed in central Asia, and has reddish-purple to purple black outher layers and a yellow core of conducting vessels. It’s eaten in its home region and can also be found in Spain.
    The familiar orange carrot, the richest vegetable source of vitamin A precursor beta carotene, appears to have been developed in Holland 1700
  • 18. Roots and tubers: carrots
  • 19. Roots and tubers: carrots
    Carrots has a long history, growing wild throughout Europe and Mediterranean area, where the leaves and seeds were used by the ancient Greeks, and the roots cultivated by the Roman.
    In Italy, today, carrots are used in the preliminary BATTUTO of vegetables (usually celery, carrots, onions, garlic), and herbs, particularly parsley which is chopped finely together almost to a paste, and used, cooked or raw in many dishes.
  • 20. Roots and tubers: carrots
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Moroccan Carrot Salad with Orange and Lemon Juice” (page 83) where carrots, fresh orange and lemon juice, walnut and extra-virgin olive oil are the main ingredients.
  • 21. Roots and tubers: carrots
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Oven-Braised Carrots” (page 83) where carrots, onions, extra-virgin olive oil, vegetable stock, sea salt, black pepper and grated parmigianoreggiano cheese are the main ingredients.
  • 22. Roots and tubers: parsnip
    Parsnip Pastinaca sativa (it. Pastinaca), is to the same family to carrot. It’s native to Eurasia, was know to the Greeks and Romans, and like the turnip was an important staple food before the introduction of the potato. The version known to us today, was developed in the Middle Ages. The parsnip accumulate more starch than the carrot, but converts it to sugars when exposed to cold temperatures; so winter roots are sweeter than autumn roots, and before sugar became cheap were used to make cakes and jams in Britain.
  • 23. Roots and tubers: parsnip
    In the past, parsnip, were cooked as sweet fritters, with dried fruit and spices, served with honey and sugar, or parboiled, the woody core removed, dipped in batter and fried, as a cheap substitute for fish.
  • 24. Lower stems and bulbs: beets
    Beet “roots” (it. Barbabietola) are mainly the lower stem of Beta vulgaris, a native of the Mediterranean and Western Europe. People have eaten this plant since prehistory, initially its leaves (chard). In Greek times beet roots were long, either white or red and sweet; Theophrastus reported around 300 BC that they were pleasant enough to eat raw.
    Table beets are about 3% sugar and some large animal-feed varieties are 8%; in the 18th century, selection for sugar production led to sugar beets with 20% sucrose..
  • 25. Lower stems and bulbs: beets
    Colored beets are rich in antioxidant and phytochemical
  • 26. Lower stems and bulbs: beets
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Roasted winter vegetables” (pages 344, 345, 346 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where beets, carrots, celery root, white turnips, sweet potato, winter squash, onions, leeks, garlic, extra-virgin olive oil, lemon juice, sea salt, black pepper and red chili, are the main ingredients.
  • 27. Lower stems and bulbs: celery root
    Celery root (it. Sedano Rapa), is the swollen lower portion of the main stem of a special variety of celery, Apiumgraveolens var. rapaceum.
    This roots requires a deep peeling. Celery root contains a moderate amount of starch (5-6% by weight). It’s usually cooked like other root vegetables (“Roasted winter vegetables” pages 344, 345, 346 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) but also finely shredded to make a crunchy raw salad.
  • 28. Lower stems and bulbs: celery root
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Turkish beans with Potatoes, Celery Root and Carrots” (pages 252, 253 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where white beans, carrots, celery root, potatoes, onion, garlic, extra-virgin olive oil, sea salt, black pepper, bay leaves and parsley , are the main ingredients.
  • 29. Lower stems and bulbs: turnip
    Turnip and radish are vegetables of the cabbage family. The turnip (it. Rapa), Brassicarapa, has been under cultivation for about 4,000 years in Eurasia as a staple, fast growing food. It consist of both lower stem and taproot, can have a number of different shapes and colors, and has the sulfury aroma typical of the family. Small, mild varieties may be eaten raw and crunchy like radishes, larger ones cooking until soft: but not to long, or the overcooked cabbage flavor dominates and the texture becomes mushy. Turnips are also pickled.
  • 30. Lower stems and bulbs: turnip
  • 31. Lower stems and bulbs: turnip
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Lebanese Pickled Turnips” (pages 282, 283 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where white turnips, beet, garlic, sea salt, white vinegar and water are the main ingredients.
  • 32. Lower stems and bulbs: turnip
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Gratin of Purple-Topped Turnips” (page 340 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where purple-topped turnips, shallot, garlic, sea salt, chicken stock, parsley, black pepper and parmigianoreggiano cheese are the main ingredients.
  • 33. Lower stems and bulbs: radish
    The radish (it. Ravanello) is a different species, Raphanussativus, a native of western Asia, and had reached the Mediterranean by the time of ancient Egyptians and Greeks. Like the turnip it’s mainly a swollen lower stem, and has been shaped by human selection into many distinctive forms and striking colors (for example, green at the surface and red inside). Most familiar in the United States are small, early maturing spring varieties, usually with a bright red skin, which take only few weeks to grow, and become harsh and woody in summer heat. These are usually eat raw, or in mixed salad.
  • 34. Lower stems and bulbs: radish
  • 35. Lower stems and bulbs: onion family
    There are around 500 species in the genus Allium, a group of plants in the lily family that are native to northern temperate regions. About 20 are important human foods, and a handful have been prized for thousand of years, as is attested by the well-known lament of the exiled Israelites in the old Testament: “We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers and the melons, and the leeks and the onions, and the garlic”.
  • 36. Lower stems and bulbs: onion family
  • 37. Lower stems and bulbs: onion family
    The onion family accumulates energy stores not in starch, but in chains of fructose sugars, wich long, slow cooking breaks down to produce a marked sweetness.
    The key to onion family’s appeal is a strong, often pungent, sulfury flavor whose original purpose was to deter animals from eating plants. The growing plants take up sulfur from the soil and incorporate it into four different kinds of chemical ammunition. Cooking transform this chemical defense into a deliciously savory, almost meaty quality that adds depth to many dishes in many cultures.
  • 38. Lower stems and bulbs: onion family
    The “lacrimator” sulfur product, which causes our eyes to water, is produced in significant quantities only in the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo.
    It’s effect can be minimized by prechilling the onions for 30-60 minutes in ice water.
  • 39. Lower stems and bulbs: onion and shallots
    Onions (it. Cipolla) are plants of the species Alliumcepa, wichoriginated in central Asia but has spread across the globe in hundreds of different varieties. There are two major categories of market onions: red and white onions. Red onions are pigmented by water soluble anthocyanins, and cooking dilutes and dulls their colors. Green onions, or scallions, can be either bulb-forming onion varieties harvested quite young, or special varieties that never do form bulbs. Shallot, (it. Scalogno) are a distinctive clustering variety of onion whose bulbs are smaller and sweeter, often purple.
  • 40. Lower stems and bulbs: onion and shallots
  • 41. Lower stems and bulbs: onions
    Onions chopped and softened in extra-virgin olive oil along with celery and carrots form the SOFFRITTO, or starting point of many dishes and sauces.
    The small onions (it. Cipolline) are pickled and cooked in a sweet/sour sauce with good vinegar (the best is Acetobalsamicotradizionaledi Modena) sugar, ciannamon, pepper cloves, bay leaves and garlic)
  • 42. Lower stems and bulbs: onions
    In Mediterranean Diet, raw onions chopped or sliced, make an agreeable contrast to tinned tuna salad, boiled beans or cooked potatoes.
    Many Italian region have their version of onion soup, where the ingredients are usually peeled and sliced onions, extra-virgin olive oil and bacon.
  • 43. Lower stems and bulbs: onions
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Walnut-Stuffed Roasted Onions” (pages 328, 329 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where yellow onions, walnut, prosciutto, extra-virgin olive oil, chicken stock, sea salt, black pepper and thyme leaves are the main ingredients.
  • 44. Lower stems and bulbs: garlic
    Garlic (it. Aglio) is the central Asian native Alliumsativum, which produces a tight head of a dozen or more bulbs, or “cloves”. “Elephant garlic” is actually a bulbing variety of leek, with a milder flavour.
    There are many different garlic varieties, with different proportions of sulfur compounds; cold growing conditions produce a more intense garlic flavor. Refrigerated storage causes a decline in distinctively garlicky flavor, and an increase in more generic onion flavors.
  • 45. Lower stems and bulbs: garlic
    Garlic used to be described as the “theriac of the poor” (theriac was a medicament concocted as an universal remedy by physicians and less scrupolose operators), and the benign effects of garlic are considerable – it is good for colds, fevers, blood pressure, and digestive problems and has disinfectant and healing properties.
  • 46. Lower stems and bulbs: garlic
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Spaghetti aglio olio e peperoncino” , where garlic and red hot chili pepper are browning in extravirgin olive oil for dressing “spaghetti al dente” cooked.
  • 47. Lower stems and bulbs: garlic
    A healthy dressing for salads or vegetables in the Mediterranean Diet is “Lemon and Garlic Dressing for Salads or Vegetables” (page 262 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where garlic, fresh lemon juice, extra virgin olive oil, sea salt and black pepper are the main ingredient for this dressing.
  • 48. Lower stems and bulbs: leek
    Unlike onions and garlic, leeks (it. Porro) don’t form useful storage bulbs, and are grown instead for their scallion-like mass of fresh leaves.
    Leeks are essential ingredients in most broths and stocks, but they are very good on their own.
  • 49. Lower stems and bulbs: leek
    An healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Oven Braised Leeks” (page 324 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where leeks, vegetable stock, fresh lemon juice, extra virgin olive oil, celery stalk, dried oregano, bay leaf, black peppercorns, coriander seed sea salt and black pepper are the main ingredient per this recipe.
  • 50. Stems and stalks
    Vegetables derived from plant stems and stalks often present a particular challenge to the cook. Stems and stalks support other plant parts and conduct essential nutrients to and from them, so they consist in large part of fibrous vascular tissue and special stiffening fibers.
    Sometimes there’s nothing to do except to strip away the fibers, or cut the vegetable into thin pieces to minimize their fibrousness.
  • 51. Stems and stalks: asparagus
    Asparagus (it. Asparago) is the main stalk of a plant in the lily family, Asparagus officinalis, a native of Eurasia that was a delicacy in Greek and Roman times. Harvested early and fresh from the soil, asparagus is very juicy and noticeably sweet (4% sugars).
    Asparagus is one of the best loved vegetables in the Italian cuisine. The spears are eaten raw, grilled or fried, boiled and dressed with olive oil and lemon or butter and parmigianoreggiano, or deep fried in batter as part of a “frittomisto”.
  • 52. Stems and stalks: asparagus
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Castelvetro Grilled Asparagus” (pages 294, 295 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where seasonal asparagus, fresh orange and lemon juice, extra virgin olive oil, sea salt and black pepper are the main ingredients.
  • 53. Stems and stalks: celery
    Celery (it. Sedano), Apiumgraveolens, is the mild, enlarged version of a bitter, thin-stalked Eurasian herb called smallage and it is to the “Carrot family”. Our familiar celery was apparently bred in 15th century in Italy, and remained a delicacy well into the 19th; it has a distinctive but subtle aroma due to unusual compounds called phthalides that it shares with walnuts, and terpens that provide light pine and citrus notes. Celery is the base of “soffritto or battuto”.
    Celery is often served raw, and its crispness is maximized by presoaking in cold water.
  • 54. Stems and stalks: celery
    Celery, in the contemporany cuisine, is fall into disuse like main ingredient for the recipes.
    Artusi gives some nice recipes, in which, after a preliminary short blanching in salted water, pieces of prepared celery are finished in extravirgin olive oil and a little broth and served sprinkled with parmesan. Celery is very good in “farro salad” and in vegetable salads.
  • 55. Stems and stalks: fennel
    Fennel Bulb, or Florence or finocchio fennel (it. Finocchio) is a vegetable variety of Foeniculumvulgare, the plant that produces fennel seeds of the “Carrot family”. Its enlarged leaf-stalk bases form a tight, bulb-like cluster. Fennel has a strong anise aroma thanks to the same chemical (anethole) that flavors makes fennel a more dominating, less versatile ingredient than celery and carrots.
    Fennel is eaten both raw, thinly sliced and crunchy, and cooked, often braised or in a gratin. Fresh raw fennel are very good thinly sliced and added to salads with oranges, black olives and olive oil.
  • 56. Stems and stalks: fennel
    A healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Provencal Marinated Fennel” (pages 320, 321 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where seasonal fennel bulbs, celery stalk, garlic, extra virgin olive oil, sea salt, black pepper, thyme leaves, bay leaves, pine nuts, white wine, sultans and parsley are the main ingredients.
  • 57. Stems and stalks: kohlrabi
    Kohlrabi (it. Cavolo Rapa) is a version of the basic cabbage plant (Brassicaoleracea var. gongylodes) in which the main stem swells to several inches in diameter. It has the moist texture and mild flavour of broccoli stalk. Young kohlrabi are tender enough to eat raw for their crisp moistness or cook briefly; overmature stems are woody.
  • 58. Stems and stalks: kohlrabi
    Kohlrabi (it. Cavolo Rapa) is a version of the basic cabbage plant (Brassicaoleracea var. gongylodes) in which the main stem swells to several inches in diameter. It has the moist texture and mild flavour of broccoli stalk. Young kohlrabi are tender enough to eat raw for their crisp moistness or cook briefly; overmature stems are woody.
  • 59. Stems and stalks: cardoons
    Cardoons (it. Cardo o Gobbo) are the leaf stalks of Cynaracardunculus, the Mediterranean plant from which the artichoke (Cynarascolymus) apparently descends; the stalks are often covered for several weeks before harvest to protect them from sunlight per blanch them. Cardoons have a flavor quite similar to the artichoke’s, and are abundantly endowed with astringent, bitter phenolic compounds that quickly form brown complexes when the tissues is cut or damaged. They’re often cooked in milk, whose proteins bind phenolic compounds and can reduce astringency.
  • 60. Stems and stalks: cardoons
    Their mild bitterness can be enhanced with butter and parmesan, or olive oil, after parboiling in water, or the prepared stems can be stewed in stock.
    They can be enriched with a sauce of lemon juice and egg, or cooked, first in boiling water, than sweated in some butter and finished with a little cream and bechamel, flavoured with parmesan.
  • 61. Stems and stalks: cardoons
    An healthy Mediterranean Diet recipe is “Cardoon Flan” were parboiling cardoon are chopped and mixed with whole milk, whole flour, lemon zest for create a sort of green dough, covered with breadcrumbs and parmesan and cooked in oven.
  • 62. Leaves: Lettuce Family
    Lactuca sativa: nonbitter lettuces
    Loose-leaf varieties: open cluster of leaves
    Butter varieties: open cluster of soft, tender leaves, small midribs
    Batavian varieties: semi-open cluster of crisp, dense leaves
    Cos, Romaine varieties: loose head of elongated large leaves, prominent midribs
    Crisphead varieties: large, tightly wrapped heads of brittle, crunchy leaves
  • 63. Leaves: Lettuce Family
    Cichoriumintybus: bitter chicories
    Chicory: open cluster of prominent stems and leaves
    Belgian “endive”, witloof: tight elongated head of blanched crisp leaves
    Radicchio: tight round to elongated head of red leaves
    Puntarelle: open cluster of prominent narrow stems and leaves
  • 64. Leaves: Lettuce Family
    Cichoriumendivia: bitter endives
    Curly endive: open cluster of curly leaves
    Frisée: open cluster of finely cut, frizzy leaves
    Escarole: open cluster of moderately broad leaves
  • 65. Leaves: lettuces
    Leaves are the quintessential vegetable. The lettuce family, is the second largest family of flowering plant, lettuces, chicories and Endives are the most important greens from the Lettuce Family.
    The lettuces (it. Lattuga) today’s mild, widely popular lettuces, varieties of the species Lactuca sativa, derive from an inedibly bitter weedy ancestor, Lactucaserriola, that grew in Asia, and the Mediterranean and has been under cultivation and improvement for 5,000 years.
  • 66. Leaves: lettuces
    Lettuce seems to be represented in some ancient Egyptian art, and was certainly enjoyed by the Greeks and by the Romans, who ha several varieties and ate them cooked as well as raw in salads at the beginning or end of the meal. The first syllable of its Latin name, lac, means “milk” and refers to the defensive white latex that oozes from the freshly cut base.
    Most lettuce have a similar taste, though some red-leaf lettuces are noticeably astringent thanks to their anthocyanin pigments.
  • 67.
  • 68. Leaves: chicories and endive
    The bitterness of chicories and endive is appreciated in Mediterranean Diet, sometimes tempered by a preliminary blanching, than eaten as a salad or further cooked with oil and aromatics.
  • 69. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    Like the onion family, the cabbage family is a group of formidable chemical warriors with strong flavors; in the case of broccoli and broccoli sprouts, this chemical nutrient help protect against the development of cancer.
    The original wild cabbage is native to the Mediterranean seabord; it was domesticated around 2,500 years ago, and thanks to its tolerance of cold climates, it became an important staple vegetable in Eastern Europe.
  • 70. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    There are many varieties in the cabbage family
    Mediterranean origins
    Cabbage (var. capitata)
    Portuguese cabbage (var. tronchuda)
    Kale, collards (var. acephala)
    Cauliflower (var. botrytis)
    Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera)
    Kohlrabi (var. gongylodes)
  • 71. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    There are many varieties in the cabbage family
    Mediterranean origins
    Mustard, black: Brassicanigra
    Mustard, white: Sinapis alba
    Roket, arugula: Eruca sativa
    Watercress: Nasturtium species
    Garden Cress: Lepidium species
    Upland, winter cress: Barbarea species
    Garlic Mustard: Allinaria species
  • 72. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    Central Asia origins
    Turnip (var. rapifera)
    Broccoli rabe, broccolettidi rape (var. rapifera)
    Chinese cabbage, bokchoy (var. chinesis)
    Chinese cabbage, napa (var. pekinesis)
    Tatsoi (var. narinosa)
    Mizuna, Mibuna (var. nipposinica)
    Chinese kale/broccoli, gailan: Brassicaoleracea
    Radish: Raphanussativus
    Horseradish: Armoraciarusticana
  • 73. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    Amounts of Sulfur Pungency Precursors
    Brussels sprouts 35
    Green cabbage 26
    Broccoli 17
    White cabbage 15
    Horseradish 11
    Red cabbage 10
    Radish 7
    Chinese cabbage 3
    Cauliflower 2
  • 74. Leaves: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts
    An healthy Mediterranean Diet Recipe is “Sizzling Cabbage with Garlic” (page 301 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where the parboild cabbage is combined with extra-virgin olive oil, garlic, sea salt, black pepper and cooked in oven (5 min)
  • 75. Leaves: spinach
    Spinach (it. Spinaci) Spinaciaoleraciais a member of the beet family that was domesticated in central Asia. In the Middle Ages Arabs brought it to Europe. Today is the most important leaf vegetable apart from lettuce, valued for its rapid growth, mild flavor, and tender texture when briefly cooked (When cooked, its volume is reduced by about three-quarters). Spinach is an excellent source of vitamin A as well as phenolic antioxidants and compounds that reduce potential cancer-causing damage to our DNA.
  • 76. Leaves: spinach
    An healty Mediterranean Diet Recipe is “Garbanzos konSpinaka” “Spinach with chickpeas from Greece” (page 334 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where fresh spinach are combined with chickpeas, extra-virgin olive oil, lemon juice, onion, sea salt and black pepper.
  • 77. Leaves: chard
    Chard (it. Bietola, Bieta) is the name given to varieties of the beet, beet vulgaris, that have been selected for thick, meaty leaf stalks (subspecies cicla) rather than their roots.
  • 78. Leaves: chard
    An healty Mediterranean Diet Recipe is “Chard with Onions and Black Olives” (page 309 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where fresh chard is combined with extra-virgin olive oil, scallions, black olives, sea salt, black pepper and red wine vinegar.
    Broccoli, Cauliflower
    Herbs (chive, rosemary, lavander)
    Rose,Apple, Pear
    Violet, pansy
    Chrysanthemum, marigold
    Linden (tilleul)
    Lily of the valley
    Narcissus, daffodil
  • 80. Flowers: artichokes
    The artichoke is the large flower bud of a kind of thistle, Cynarascolymus, native to the Mediterranean region. It was probably developed in Greece from the cardoon, Cynaracardunculus; artichokes were a delicacy in Rome.
    Food historian Charles Perry suggest that the large buds we know today, several inches in diameter, were developed in the late Middle Ages in Moorish Spain.
  • 81. Flowers: artichokes
    The qualities of the artichoke are largely determined by its copious content of phenolic substances, which manifest themselves immediately when the flesh is cut or tasted raw.
    Some artichoke phenolics have antioxidants and cholesterol lowering effects, and one in particular, a compound dubbed cynarin, has the unusual effect of making foods eaten after a bite artichoke taste sweet. Cynarin apparently inhibits the sweet receptors on our taste buds; because they therefore distort the flavor of other foods, artichokes are thought to be inappropriate accompaniment to fine wine.
  • 82. Fruits used as vegetables: nightshade family
  • 83. Fruits used as vegetables: tomato
    Tomatoes (it. Pomodoro) started out assmall, bitter berriesgrowing on bushes in the west coastdesertsof South America. Today, aftertheirdomestication in Mexico (theirnamecomesfrom the Aztectermfor “plumpfruit” tomatl), and a periodofEuropeansuspicionthatlastedinto the 19th century, they’re eaten all over the world in a great variety of sizes, shapes, and carotenoid-painted colors. In the United States they’re second in vegetable popularity only to the potato, the starchy vegetable.
  • 84. Fruits used as vegetables: tomato
    Ripe tomatoeshaveanunusuallylargeamountofsavoryglutamic acid (asmuschas 0,3% oftheirweight), aswellasaromaticsulfurcompounds. Glutamic acid and sulfuraromas are more common in meatsthanfruits, and so predispose themtocomplement the flavorofmeats, eventoreplacethatflavor, and certanlytoadddepth and complexitytosauces and othermixedpreparations.
    Tomatoes are rich in vitamin C, and the standard red varieties give us an excellent dose of antioxidant carotenoidslycopene (tomato paste).
  • 85. Fruits used as vegetables: sweet pepper
    Capsicums or sweetpepper, liketomatoes, are fruitsof the New World thatconquered the Old. Theyweredomesticated in South America, and are now a definingelementof the cuisinesof Mexico, Spain, Hungary and manycountries in Asia.
    Green fruits and mature yellow varieties are also rich in the carotenoidlutein, wich helps prevent oxidative damage in the eye. Red varieties, are rich in carotenoids like beta-carotene, the precursor of the vitamin A. Mature redcapsicums are amog the richestcarotenoidsourceswehave; they are alsorich in vitamin C.
  • 86. Fruits used as vegetables: eggplant
    Eggplants are the only major vegetable in the nightshade family thatcamefrom the Old World. An earlyancestormayhavefloatedfrom Africa to India or Southeast Asia, whereitwasdomesticated, and wheresmall, bitter varieties are stillappreciatedascondimentas a condiment. ArabtradersbroughtittoSpain and north Africa in the Middle Ages, and itwaseaten in Italy in the 15th century, in France by the 18th. There are many varieties of eggplant; most market types are colored with purple anthocyanins.
  • 87.
  • 88. Fruits used as vegetables: the squash and cucumber family
  • 89. Fruits used as vegetables: the squash and cucumber family
  • 90. Fruits used as vegetables: winter and summer squashes, zucchini
    Winter and summersquashesweredomesticated in the Americasbeginningaround 5,000 BC. They are bothnutritious – many are rich in beta-carotene and othercarotenoidsaswellasstarch and versatile.
    An healty Mediterranean Diet Recipe is “KolokythiaYakhni” “Greek Zucchini Stew” (page 341 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where fresh zucchini are combined with extra-virgin olive oil, onion, tomatoes (or tomato sauce) , sea salt, black pepper, sugar, mint leaves, dill.
  • 91. Fruits used as vegetables: winter and summer squashes, zucchini
    Winter and summersquashesweredomesticated in the Americasbeginningaround 5,000 BC. They are bothnutritious – many are rich in beta-carotene and othercarotenoidsaswellasstarch and versatile.
  • 92. Fruits used as vegetables: cucumbers
    The cucumberwasdomesticated in India around 1500 BC, arrived in the Mediterraneanregionabout a thousandsyearslater, and isnow the secondmostimportantcurcubitworldwideafter the watermelon. There are fivebroadgroupsofcucumbervarieties. They’re mainlyconsumedraw or pickled, and sometimesjuicedtomake a delicacyflavoredliquidforuse in saladdressings, poachingfish and otherproducers.
  • 93. Legumes used as vegetables: green beans
    Green beans come from a climbing plant native toCentral America and the Andesregionofnorthern South America. There are chlorophyll-free, yellowish “wax” varieties, and purple, chlorophyll-maskinganthocyaninvarietiesthat turn green whencooked. Goodquality green beans can be hard tofind, becausethey’re oneof the most fragile vegetables. Theirtissueisveryactive, so theyquicklyconsumetheirsugar and losesweetnesseven in coldstorage and in the refrigeratortheircellsbecomedamaged and losechlorophyll.
  • 94. Legumes used as vegetables: green beans
    An healty Mediterranean Diet Recipe is “Green Beans with Olive Oil and Tomatoes” (page 322 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where fresh green beans are combined with extra-virgin olive oil, fresh tomatoes, onion, garlic, sea salt, and fresh lemon juice.
  • 95. Kcalories on 100 grams of vegatables
    9  Kcal Fennels
    11 Kcal Zucchine
    12 Kcal Chicory
    13 Kcal Red radicchio
    14 Kcal Cucumber
    15 Kcal Escarole
    16 Kcal Endive
    17 Kcal Chard
    18 Kcal Eggplant, Green beans, turnip
    19 Kcal Lettuce, Beetroot
    • The fiberhasbeen defined1929 by MC Canle and Lawrence thanHipsleyhasbeendefineddietaryfiber
    • 97. Definition’s Hipsleydietaryfiberas “the plantpolysaccharides and lignin” which are resistanttohydrolysisby digestive enzymesof man
    • 98. The definitionsthat are basad on analyticmethodosmay include fiberfromanimalsources
    • 99. Thuscompoundssuchaschitosan or glycosaminoglycans are oftenincluded in reportedfibervalves, technically a foodmanufacurercouldaddtheseanimal–derivedsubstancestofood and report thamasdietaryfiber
  • Low molecular-weightcarbohydratesbeconsidereddietaryfiber?
    Monosaccharides and disaccharidea:
    To be excluded because they are formally characterized as sugars rather than fiber
    Oligossacharides and fructans:
    Oligosaccharides are divided:
    Do not precipitate in alcohol, nor do certainmanufacturedcarbohydrates, suchasmethylcellulose and polydextrose
  • 102. starch
    • Itischaracterizedasdietaryfiberby some organizations and countries.
    • 103. The propertiesofresistantstarchmimic some ofthoseoftraditionaldietaryfiber
    • 104. Resistantstarchmayoccurnaturally in the diet, can bemanufactured and occuras a productof the processing offood(in the US diet, manufacturedresistantstachisincreasing)
    • 105. Foodthatcontainsignificantamountsofresistentstarch include legumes, green bananas and potatoesthathavebeencooked and allowedtocool
  • Physiologiceffects and potentialhealthbenefitisof high fiberfoods
    • It’s notclearthatsameeffectsndbenefitswouldaccrueif the fiberwereextractedfrom the food or synthesized in the laboratory; it’s possibleforanisolatedfibertobeeven more effectivethanit’s originalfood source, butit’s alsopossiblethatanisolatedfibermayloseitsefficacy
    • 106. The factthatfiberisnotdigested and absorbed and thereforepassesrelativelyintactinto the colon is a beneficialeffect;othersarguethattobebeneficial, a fibermustresult in some health benefit like: glucoselevels- low density lipoprotein-cholesterol
  • The effect of fiber on gastrointestinal physiology
    • On the gastrointestinaltractdepend on specificpropertiesoffiber, mostimportantlyviscosity and fermentabilityfor the colon
    • 107. Until: The Term “ solublefiber” wasusedtoomaracterizethosefiberthat are viscous and are capableofattenuatingbloodglucoseconcentration and lowering LDL cholesterollevels
    • 108. Now: notallsolublefibers are viscousbutinsolublefiber are viscousagainnotallinsolublefiberspromotelaxation
  • The effect of fiber on the stomach
    The fiberremainsintact in the stomachaswellas in the small intestine
    The presenceofviscousfiber in the stomach can delay the rate ofemptyingofingestedfoodfrom the stomachinto the duodenumbyforming a viscous, gel-likeconsistency
  • 109. Effectoffiber on the small intestine
    The gel-likeenvironment in the small intestine producedfromviscousfiberhasbeenshowntoinhibit the activityofenzymesassociatedwithfat, carboydrate and proteindigestion the intestinalabsorptionoffat, cholesterol ,carbohydrate and proteinhasbeenreportedtobereducedwithfiberconsumptionasdeterminedbyincreasedfecalcontentofthesemacronutrients, resulting in decreasedmetabolizableenergy.
    Fiberconsumptionas a resultofdelayedgastricemptying or a reduced rate ofcarbohydratedigestion, hasbeenreportedto reduce the glycemicindexofmeals
    Reducing the riskof and treatment forduodenalulcers in particularfiberfromfruits and vegetablesbutnotcerealfiber
  • 110. Effectof the fiber on the large intestine
    Fermentation: the effectof the fiberdependinglarge part on itsfermentability, which, in turn, depends on both the physiciochemicalpropetiesof the fiber and the colonic microflora
    Fibersuchasoatbran, pectin, guaragent are highlyfermentedthan cellulose
    Fruts and vegetables are rich in hemicelluloses and pectinscontain more fementablefiberthan do cereal
    The highlyfermentablefibers are notgoodbulkingagent, they produce largeamountsofshort-chainfattyacidsincludingbutyrate (primaryenergyfor the colon) and ishypothesizedtobeprotectiveagainst colon cancer
    The poorlyfermentablefiberscontribute more tofecal bulk alsoattact water, it’s importanttolaxation.
    When a fiberisfermentedhydrogencarbondioxide, methane and othergases are formed, as are short-chainfattyacids the principalanions in the colon
    Tobeprotectiveagainst colon cancer, thankshightyfermentable
  • 111. Fatty acids and butyrate paradox
    The literature on the abilityofbutyratetodecrease the growthofhuman colon cancercelllinesbydecreasingcellprodiferation and increasingcelldeathissubstantial(47-48)
    The four-carbonshort-chainfatty acid producedfromfiberfermentation
    Many studies, providing butyrate in the diet, in drinking water(50) failed to find a chemoprotective effect of butyrate
    Whether or not butyrate is protective against colon cancer development remains the subject of active debate!
  • 112. Laxation
    A wide range of the contribution of dietary fiber to fecal weight an increase of 5.7 g fecal bulk/g of wheat brain fed compared with 1.3g/g of pectin in the diet
    The greater the weight of the stool, the more rapid is the rate of passage through the colon , thus the better the laxative effect.
    The some propeties that result in increased laxation( water- holding capacity and bulking ability) are thought to reduce intracolonic pressure and to lower the risk for diverticular disease.
  • 113. Contribution of fiber to energy
    The amountofenergycontributedbydietaryfiberis the subjectbofconsiderabledebate
    Some fiberresearcherssaythat the contributionisnegligibilebecauseof some interferencewith the absorptionofenergy-containingmacronutrients, copledwith a verysmallcontributiontometabolizableenergythrough the production ofabsorbedfermentationproducts
  • 114. Dietaryfiber
    Dietaryfiber, particularlyviscousfiber, hasbeenreportedto reduce hunger
    In part todelayedemptyingof the gastriccontents and can cause anextended feeling offullness
    Some studieshavenotshownaneffect on satietywithfiberintake, and thisdifferencehasbeenpartiallyattributedto the leveloffiberconsumed
    The consumptionofanadditional 14g/dayoffiberisassociatedwith a 10% decrease in energyintake
    Observational date showedthatdietaryfiberintakeispositivelyassociatedwith a lowerincidenceofobesity and a lower body mass index
    Weightgainwasinverselyassociatedwithconsumptionofhigh-fiber , whole-grainfoods
  • 115. Fiber and glucose intolerance, insulin response, and diabetes
    10.8g ofbeetfiberwasaddedto the diet, the glucose plateau leval and area under the curve werelowercomparedwiththeirvalueswhenpatientsconsumeddietswithoutbeetfiber
    Viscousfiberstolower the glicemicresponseof a mealhasbeenattributedtodelayedgastricemptyng and slowed rate ofdigestion and absorption
    The consumptionoffiber-containingfoods can reduce the riskoftype 2 diabetes (bran, brownrice, whole-graincereals ,dark bread)
    Cerealfiberintakewasnegativelyassociatedwith the riskoftype 2 diabetes
  • 116. Lipoprotein cholesterol levels
    The fiberhas a cholesterol-loweringeffectofinfferegestingdinttypesofviscousfibers( pectin, guar, oat, bran, psyllium..) in particularreduction LDL
    The protectiveeffectof the fiberagainestcholesterolisnotlimitedtosolublefibers in factthere are especiallycerealfibers
  • 117. Glycemic response and insulin resistance
    Risk of cardiovascular:
    Hiperglycemia is independently associaed with the risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population
    The mechanisms by which hyperglycemia may contribuite to CHD includide the induction of oxidative stress
    Hyperglycemia may increase insulin levels, which could increase the risk for CHD through the insulin resistent syndrome
  • 118. Blood triglycerides
    Oneconcernwithlow-fat, high-carbohydratedietsthat are currentlyrecommendedtoprotectagainest the developmentofheartdiseaseisthatthesedietsmayincreasebloondtriglyceridelevels
    Fiberintakemay play a role in the reductionofbloodtriglycerides
    If the high-carbohydratedietisalso a high-fiberdiet, onewillsee a smallreduction in fastingtriglyceridelevels
  • 119. Lowering blood pressure
    Salt and proteinintake can affectbloodpressure
    Additive effectwasshown in a trial conducted in hypertensivepatients in wholeprotein and fibersupplements in combinationresulted in a deecrease in systolicbloodpressureof 5.9 mm hg
  • 120. Cancer
    The dietaryfiber in take wasprotectiveagainescolorectal cancer13.5g/daybranfiber versus and 2g/daybranfiber
    Estrogens are excretedfrom the body by way of the gastrointestinaltract, butthaymaybereabsorbedifthay are in theirunconjugatedform; fiber can binddirectlytounconjugatedestrogens,thusinterferingwiththeirresbsorption, and fiber can alsodecrease the numbersofdeconjugatingbacteria
    The dietaryfiberintakewasprotectiveagainestbreastcancer,ovarian and prostate cancer.
  • 121. Fiber rich food (vegetables) on 100 gm
    Artichoke 5,00g
    Bruxelles sprouts 5,00g
    Carrrots 3,10g
    Chicory 3,10g
    Red Radicchio 3,00g
    Green Beans 2,90g
    Broccoli 2,90g
    Eggplant 2,60g
    Turnip 2,60g
    Beetroot 2,60g
    Cabbage, cauliflower 2,60g
  • 122. Fiber rich food (fruits) on 100 gm
    Raspberry 7,40g
    Pricklypear 5,00g
    Pear 3,80g
    Blackberry 3,20g
    Blueberries 3,10g
    Khaki 2,50g
    Kiwi 2,20g
    Plums 2,20g
    Pommegranate 2,20g
    Medlar 2,10g
    Apple 2,00g
    Figfruit 2,00g