Grape Grape are the berries of woody vines in the genus Vitis. V. vinifera, the major source of wine and table grapes, is native to Eurasia . There are also about 10 grape species native to temperate Asia, and 25 to North America. There are many thousands of grape varieties. Most wine varieties originated in Europe, while varieties for eating fresh or making into raisins can often be traced back to western Asia parents. Use of grapes is known to date back to Neolithic times , following the discovery in 1996 of 7,000 year-old wine storage jars in present-day northern Iran
Grape: History About 3500-3000 BC the domestication of purple grapes originated in what is now, South Caucasus (Armenia and Georgia), or the Western Black Sea shore region (Bulgaria) or North East Turkey . Cultivation of the domesticated grape spread to other parts of the Old World in pre-historic or early historic times. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production . Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America.
Grape: History The ancient Greeks introduced grape growing and wine making to Europe in the Minoan age. Hesiod in his Works and Days gives detailed descriptions of grape harvests and wine making techniques, and there are also many references in Homer. Greek colonists then introduced these practices in their colonies, especial in southern Italy (Magna Grecia), which was even known as “Enotria” due to its propitious climate . The Etruscans improved wine making techniques and developed an export trade even beyond the Mediterranean basin .
Grape: History The ancient Romans further developed the techniques learnt from the Etruscans , as shown by numerous works of literature containing information that is still valid today: De Agri Cultura by Cato the Elder, De re rustica by Marcus Terentius Varro, the Georgics by Virgil and De re rustica by Columella. During the third and fourth centuries AD, the long crisis of the Roman Empire generated instability in the countryside which led to a reduction of viticulture in general, which was mainly sustained only close to towns and cities and along coastlines.
Grape: History Native purple grapes belonging to the vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American first peoples , but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California where Spain had established a series of monasteries along the coasts to supply their navies with orages to prevent scurvy and convert natives.
Top Ten Grapes Producers — 08 October 2009 Country Production (Tonnes) Italy 8,519,418 People's Republic of China 6,787,081 United States 6,384,090 France 6,044,900 Spain 5,995,300 Turkey 3,612,781 Iran 3,000,000 Argentina 2,900,000 Chile 2,350,000 India 1,667,700
Grape Nutritional value per 100 g Energy 288 kJ (69 kcal) Carbohydrates 18.1 g Sugars 15.48 g Dietary fiber 0.9 g Fat 0.16 g Protein 0.72 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.069 mg (5%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.07 mg (5%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.188 mg (1%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg (1%) Vitamin B6 0.086 mg (7%) Folate (Vit. B9) 2 μg (1%) Vitamin B12 0 μg (0%) Vitamin C 10.8 mg (18%) Vitamin K 22 μg (21%) Calcium 10 mg (1%) Iron 0.36 mg (3%) Magnesium 7 mg (2%) Manganese 0.071 mg (4%) Phosphorus 20 mg (3%) Potassium 191 mg (4%) Sodium 3.02 mg (0%) Zinc 0.07 mg (1%)
Grape: Resveratrol Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant), have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease . Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol . In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.
Grape: Resveratrol Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials. Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets . Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.
Grape: Anthocyanins and Phenolics Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols are responsible for the color of grapes , and tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. Total phenolic content, an index of dietary antioxidant strength, is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin .
Raisin Raisins are dried grapes . They are produced in many regions of the world, such as Armenia, the United States, Australia, Chile, Argentina, Macedonia, Mexico, Greece, Syria, Turkey, Georgia,India, Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, China, Afghanistan, Togo, and Jamaica, as well as South Africa and Southern and Eastern Europe. Raisins may be eaten raw or used in cooking and baking.
Raisins Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,252 kJ (299 kcal) Carbohydrates 79 g Sugars 59 g Dietary fiber 4 g Fat 0.5 g Protein 3 g Calcium 50 mg (5%) Iron 1.9 mg (15%) Potassium 750 mg (16%) Sodium 11 mg (0%)
Wine Wine is the alcoholic beverage to the Mediterranean area,typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast . Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol . Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced
The making of a basic table wine can be divided into three stages:
The ripe grape are crushed to free their juice
The grape juice is fermented by sugar consuming, alchool-producing yeasts into wine
The maturing of the new wine. This is a period during which the chemical constituents of the grape and the product of fermentation react with each other and with oxygen to form a relatively stable ensamble of flavour molecules
Wine Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Red, white, and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are known as light wines because they are only 10–14% alcohol-content by volume. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14–20% alcohol, and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter.
Wine production by country 2007 Rank Country (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) 1 Italy 5,050,000 2 France 4,711,600 3 Spain 3,645,000 4 United States 2,300,000 5 Argentina 1,550,000 6 China 1,450,000 7 South Africa 1,050,000 8 Australia 961,972 9 Germany 891,600 10 Chile 827,746
Wine: French Paradox Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects , epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. In the United States, a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes , and additional news reports on the French Paradox. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional diet.
Wine: French Paradox Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system . Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France, a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine.
Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation, polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:
alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels, reducing susceptibility to vascular damage
decreased activity of angiotensin , a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure
increased production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor)
Wine: Anthocyanins and other Phenolics Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content . In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The flavonols syringetin, syringetin 3-O-galactoside, laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape.
Vinegar Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4% to 8% by volume for table vinegar and up to 18% for pickling. Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other cuisines. The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French vin aigre , meaning "sour wine".
Vinegar Vinegar has a low caloric value and in the Mediterranean Diet is commonly used in food preparation, particularly in marinades and salad dressings. A 2006 study concluded that a test group of rats fed with acetic acid (the main component of vinegar) had "significantly lower values for serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol", among other health benefits. Rats fed vinegar or acetic acid have lower blood pressure than controls, although the effect has not been tested in humans. Reduced risk of fatal ischemic heart disease was observed among participants in a trial who ate vinegar and oil salad dressings frequently.
Vinegar Prior to hypoglycemic agents, diabetics used vinegar teas to control their symptoms. Small amounts of vinegar (approximately 20 ml or two tablespoons of domestic vinegar) added to food, or taken along with a meal, have been shown by a number of medical trials to reduce the glycemic index of carbohydrate food for people with and without diabetes . This also has been expressed as lower glycemic index ratings in the region of 30%. Multiple trials indicate that taking vinegar with food increases satiety (the feeling of fullness) and so, reduces the amount of food consumed
Balsamic Vinegar Balsamic vinegar (Italian: aceto balsamico ) is a condiment originating from Italy. The original traditional product, made from a reduction of cooked grape juice and not a vinegar in the usual sense, has been made in Modena and Reggio Emilia since the Middle Ages. The names " Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena " and " Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia " are protected by both the Denominazione di Origine Protetta and the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin.
Balsamic Vinegar Balsamic Vinegar of Modena ( Aceto Balsamico di Modena ), an inexpensive modern imitation of the traditional product, is today widely available and much better known . This is the kind commonly used for salad dressing together with oil. The word balsamic refers to resinous substances made from balsam. True balsamic vinegar is made from a reduction of syrup from sweet wine grapes, called mosto cotto in Italian, which is subsequently aged for a minimum of 12 years in a battery of seven barrels of successively smaller sizes
Balsamic Vinegar Commercial grade balsamic vinegar is used in salad dressings, dips, marinades, reductions and sauces. In Emilia Romagna, tradizionale vinegar is most often served in drops on top of chunks of Parmigiano Reggiano and Mortadella as an antipasto. It is also used sparingly to enhance steaks, eggs or grilled fish, as well as on fresh fruit such as strawberries and pears and on plain Crema (custard) gelato. Tradizionale vinegar has excellent digestive properties and it may even be drunk from a tiny glass to conclude a meal.
Fig The Fig is the flower of the tree ( Ficus carica ), known as an inflorescence (an arrangement of multiple flowers), a false fruit or multiple fruit, in which the flowers and seeds grow together to form a single mass. Is native to southwest Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region (from Afghanistan to Greece). It grows to a height of 6.9–10 metres (23–33 ft) tall, with smooth grey bark. The fruit is 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, with a green skin, sometimes ripening towards purple or brown. The sap of the fig's green parts is an irritant to human skin.
Fig The Common Fig is widely grown for its edible fruit throughout its natural range in the Mediterranean region , Iran and northern India, and also in other areas of the world with a similar climate, including Louisiana, California, Oregon, Texas, South Carolina, and Washington in the United States, Nuevo León and Coahuila in northeastern Mexico, as well as Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Figs can also be found in continental climate with hot summer, as far north as Hungary, and can be picked twice or thrice per year.
Fig It has been an important food crop for thousands of years, and was also thought to be highly beneficial in the diet. The edible fig is one of the first plants that was cultivated by humans . Nine subfossil figs of a parthenocarpic type dating to about 9400–9200 BC were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho ). The find predates the domestication of wheat, barley, and legumes, and may thus be the first known instance of agriculture. It is proposed that they may have been planted and cultivated intentionally, one thousand years before the next crops were domesticated (wheat and rye).
Fig Figs with emmer wheat and chickpeas were also a common food source for the Romans . Cato the Elder, in his De Agri Cultura , lists several strains of figs grown at the time he wrote his handbook: the Mariscan, African, Herculanean, Saguntine, and the black Tellanian ( De agri cultura , ch. 8). Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam-making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well.
Fig, dried, uncooked Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,041 kJ (249 kcal) Carbohydrates 63.87 g Sugars 47.92 g Dietary fiber 9.8 g Fat 0.93 g Protein 3.30 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.085 mg (7%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.082 mg (5%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.619 mg (4%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.434 mg (9%) Vitamin B6 0.106 mg (8%) Folate (Vit. B9) 9 μg (2%) Vitamin C 1.2 mg (2%) Calcium 162 mg (16%) Iron 2.03 mg (16%) Magnesium 68 mg (18%) Phosphorus 67 mg (10%) Potassium 680 mg (14%) Zinc 0.55 mg (6%)
Fig Nutrition Dried figs are one of the highest plant sources of calcium and fiber . According to USDA data for the Mission variety, dried figs are richest in fiber, copper, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and vitamin K, relative to human needs. They have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. Figs have a laxative effect and contain many antioxidants. They are good source of flavonoids and polyphenols.In one study, a 40-gram portion of dried figs (two medium size figs) produced a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity.
A traditional Mediterranean Diet recipe is “A compote of Turkish Dried Fruits and Nuts” ( page 448 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook) where the ingredients are dried figs, dried apricots, finely chopped toasted hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds, honey and water. These are traditionally served with yogurt.
Dates Phoenix dactylifera commonly known as the Date Palm , is a palm in the genus Phoenix , extensively cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Due to its long history of cultivation for fruit, its exact native distribution is unknown, but probably originated somewhere in the desert oases of northern Africa, and also Western Asia . It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, often clumped with several plants from a single root system, but often growing singly as well. Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East for thousands of years.
Dates They are believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf , and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 4000 BC. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to be made into date wine, and ate them at harvest . The Egyptians also ate another fruit of the Palm Tree, The Fruits of The Doum Palm. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia in 6000 BC. In later times, Arabs spread dates around South and South West Asia, northern Africa, and Spain and Italy . Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards by 1765, around Mission San Ignacio.
Dates Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, candied orange and lemon peel, marzipan or cream cheese. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Recent innovations used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan.
Dates A 100 gram portion of fresh dates is a source of energy and supplies 230 kcal (960 kJ) of energy. Since dates contain relatively little water, they do not become much more concentrated upon drying, although the vitamin C is lost in the process.
Apple The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree originated in Eurasia , where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in a range of desired characteristics. At least 55 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total. The United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Iran is third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.
Apple The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia , as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans. Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 1600s, and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. In the 1900s, irrigation projects in Washington state began and allowed the development of the multi-billion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species.
An Apple a day keeps the doctor away… Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer . Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of Vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds . The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss, and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fiber, which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables .
An Apple a day keeps the doctor away… There is evidence that in vitro apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevention of the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging." Other studies have shown an " alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.
The best way to serve fruit is in a fresh fruit salad, perhaps calling it macedonia to give it new dimension. Cut a selection of fruit into unifor pieces, peeling those varieties that seem to warrant it, mix them together in a glass bowl, and add a very little sugar and a few tablespoons of liqueur or wine or citrus juice
Oranges, the skin and white pith peeled away, thinly sliced and dressed with a little sweet white moscato wine
Melons with wedges of lemon to squeeze over them
Some Beneficial Effects of Chemicals in Fruits and Vegetables, Herbs and Spices This is a very broad survey of a rich and complex subject. It is meant to give a general idea of how a variety of plant chemicals can affect various aspects of our health by a variety of means . Certain phenolic compounds, for example, appear capable of helping us fight cancer by preventing oxidative damage to DNA healthy cells, by preventing the body from forming its own DNA-damaging chemicals, and by inhibiting the growth of already cancerous cells.
Some Beneficial Effects of Chemicals in Fruits and Vegetables, Herbs and Spices Prevent oxidative damage to important molecules in body: antioxidants Eye : slow cataracts and macular degeneration Kale, many dark green vegetables (carotenoids: lutein); Citrus fruits, corn (carotenoids: zeaxanthin) Blood lipids : slow development of heart disease Grapes, other berries (phenolics: anthocyanidins); Tea (phenolics)
Some Beneficial Effects of Chemicals in Fruits and Vegetables, Herbs and Spices Moderate the body’s inflammatory response General : slow development of heart disease, cancer Raisins, dates, chillis, tomatoes (salicylates) General : reduce DNA damage, development of cancer Tomatoes (carotenoids: lycopene); Carrots, other orange and green vegetables (carotenoids); Tea (phenolics); Green vegetables (chlorophyll); Broccoli, daikon, cabbage family (glucosinolates, thiocyanates)
Inhibit the growth of cancer cells and tumors Many fruits, vegetables (phenolics: flavonoids); Soy beans (phenolics: isoflavones); Grapes, berries (phenolics: ellagic acid); Rye, flaxseed (phenolics: lignans); Citrus fruits (terpenes); Mushrooms (carbohydrates) Reduce the body’s own production of DNA-damaging chemicals Many fruits, vegetables (phenolics: flavonoids); Broccoli, daikon, cabbage family (glucosinolates, thiocyanates); Citrus fruits (terpenes)
Slow the body’s removal of calcium from bones Onions, parsley (responsible agents not yet identified) Encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestine Onion family, sunchokes (inulin) Prevent the adhesion of infectious bacteria to walls of urinary tract Cranberries, grapes (phenolics: proanthocyanidins)
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Vitamin C (also called L-ascorbate) 75-90 mg/day
D: scurvy, bleeding gums, fatigue, muscle pain, easy bruising, depression, sudden death Fresh fruits and vegetables, particularly high in citrus fruits and cherries Thiamin (also called vitamin B 1 ) 1.1-1.2 mg/day
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Riboflavin (also called vitamin B 2 ) 1.1-1.3 mg/day
Oxidation of carbohydrates and fats
Normal eye function
D: swollen tongue, sensitivity to light, cracked lips, fatigue Milk, liver, whole and enriched grains and cereals Niacin 14-16 mg/day
Oxidation of carbohydrates and fats
Electron transport (energy reaction)
D: pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia) Amino acid tryptophan (60:1 conversion ratio), and enriched grain and cereals
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Vitamin B 6 (also called pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine ) 1.3-1.5 mg/day
Protein synthesis and breakdown
Conversion of tryptophan to niacin
D: neurological problems T: sensory neuropathy (loss of sensation in the fingers) Meat, fish, potatoes, sweet potatoes, bananas, vegetables Pantothenic Acid 5 mg/day
Energy reactions for carbs, proteins and fats
Fatty acid synthesis
D: GI tract problems; fatigue In almost every food (deficiency is very rare)
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Biotin 30 micrograms day
Carbon dioxide transfer (normal respiration)
D: Dermatitis, anorexia, and hair loss Egg yolk, nuts, legumes, bacterial synthesis in the gut Vitamin B 12 2,4 micrograms day
Red blood cell formation
D: anemia, neurological degeneration loss of mental function Foods of animal origin and intestinal synthesis (vegetarian may be at deficiency risk) Folic acid (Folate) 400 micrograms day
Maturation of red blood cells
D: Neural tube defects in offspring women, megaloblastic anemia. Organ meats, green leafy vegtables, whole-grain foods. (This may be the most common vitamin deficiency)
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Vitamin A (retinol) 700-900 micrograms day (This vitamin is potentially highly toxic taken in large amounts)
D: Night blindness, eye disease, growth failure, unhealthy skin, susceptibility to infections. T: Headache, vomiting, hair loss, bone abnormalities, liver damage, death Fish liver oils, liver, butter, walnuts, egg yolk Pro vitamin A (beta-carotene) in dark-green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables and fruits.
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol) Requirement difficult to establish because of variation in sunlight exposure 5 micrograms day (This vitamin is the most toxic taken in large amounts)
Mineralization of bone
D:Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, poor bone mineralization. T:Renal damage, cardiovascular damage, high blood calcium, calcium deposit in soft tissues Fish liver oils, liver, butter, egg yolk, salmon, sardines Skin synthesis with exposure to light
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Adult Requirement Functions Deficiency (D) / Toxicity (T) Food sources Vitamin E (also called alpha- tocopherol) 15 mg/day
Involved in immune function
D:Premature breakdown of red blood cells, anemia in infants, easy peroxidative damage of cells Olive oil, vegetable oil, green leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, (food of animal origin are NOT good sources) Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione) 90-120 micrograms per day
Involved in blood clotting (reffered to as the antihemorrhagic vitamin)
D: Longer clotting time Green leafy vegetables and intestinal bacterial synthesis
Red wine, grapes Heart disese, some cancers Resveratrol Apples, onions, broccoli, grapes Heart disese, lung cancer, Asthma, hay fever Quercetin Red wine, cocoa, berries, grapes, tea Heart disese, some cancers Proanthocyanidis Dark chocolate, tea fruits, legumes Heart disese, some cancers Catechins Tomatoes,watermelon peppers, grapefruit Prostate cancer, osteophorosis and male infertility Lycopene Phytochemical Name May Help prevent or Treat Food sources Lutein Cataracts, muscolar degeneration, heart disease, some cancer Green vegetables Zeaxantin Cataracts, muscolar degeneration, some cancer Green vegetables, tangerines, nectarines
Organic foods are made according to certain production standards . For the vast majority of human history, agriculture can be described as organic; only during the 20th century was a large supply of new synthetic chemicals introduced to the food supply. This more recent style of production is referred to as "conventional." Under organic production, the use of conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and saved as a last resort .
Historically, organic farms have been relatively small family-run operations, which is why organic food was once only available in small stores or farmers' markets . However, since the early 1990s organic food production has had growth rates of around 20% a year, far ahead of the rest of the food industry, in both developed and developing nations. As of April 2008, organic food accounts for 1–2% of food sales worldwide
In April 2009, results from Quality Low Food Input (QLIF), a 5-year integrated study funded by the European Commission, confirmed that "the quality of crops and livestock products from organic and conventional farming systems differs considerably.“ Specifically, results from a QLIF project studying the effects of organic and low-input farming on crop and livestock nutritional quality "showed that organic food production methods resulted in:
The concept of food miles is part of the broader issue of sustainability which deals with a large range of environmental issues, including local food. The term was coined by Tim Lang (now Professor of Food Policy, City University, London) who says: " The point was to highlight the hidden ecological, social and economic consequences of food production to consumers in a simple way, one which had objective reality but also connotations."
Food that is transported by road produces more carbon emissions than any other form of transported food. Road transport produces 60% of the world's food transport carbon emissions. Air transport produces 20% of the world's food transport carbon emissions. Rail and sea transport produce 10% each of the world's food transport carbon emissions