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Legumes,beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils, fava beans

Legumes,beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils, fava beans

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    F:\Lesson 4 Legumes, Mushrooms, Protein F:\Lesson 4 Legumes, Mushrooms, Protein Presentation Transcript

    • Dietetics and Nutrition in the Mediterranean
      By Dr. Alberto Fatticcioni
    • Legumes in the MediterraneanDiet
      Everywhere in the Mediterranean, simple, legume dishes are servedasstarters, first courses, maincourses and side dishes. IntheMediterraneanDiet, the useoflegumesisvery common, and usually, legumes are presenteveryday in the formofdifferentrecipes. The mostimportantlegumes in the MediterraneanDiet are beans, chickpeas, lentils, peas and fava beans.
    • Mediterranean diet rules
      The Mediterraneandietisprincipally a plantbaseddiet. Everyday the “mediterranean way” consistsof:
      • vegetables (at least 300-400 g a day)
      • fruit (at least 4 pieces or 400 g a day)
      • legumes and pulses
      • grains, pasta and/or bread (mostlywholemeal and unrefined)
      • olive oil and nuts
      • anabundantuseofherbs and spices
      • water (more than 2 liters per day)
      • wine duringmeals ( maximum 2 glasses per day )
    • Legumes
      Legumesare the seedsof the plantsof the Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) family. The termlegume, isderivedfrom the Latin word legumen (with the samemeaningas the English term), whichis in turn believedto come from the verblegere "togather." The historyoflegumesistied in closelywiththatofhumancivilization, appearingearly in Asia, the Americas (the common Phaseolusbean in severalvarieties), and Europe (broadbeans) by 6,000 BC, wheretheybecame a staple, essentialforsupplementingproteinwheretherewasnotenoughmeat.
    • Legumes
      The historyoflegumes in the MediterraneanDiethasancientroots.
      A remarkablesignoftheir status in the ancient world is the factthateachof the major legumesknowntoRomelentitsnameto a prominent Roman family: Fabiuscomesfrom the fava bean, Lentulusfrom the lentil, Pisofrom the pea, and Cicero from the chickpea. No otherfoodgrouphasbeen so honored.
    • Legumes
      Legumes are generallyexcellentsourcesof a numberofnutrients, includingprotein, fiber, iron, various B vitamins, folic acid, carbohydrates in the formofstarch, fats, minerals and antioxidants.
      Legumes are the cheapest and healthiestprotein source in the food’s world.
    • Compositionof Dry Legumes
    • Legumes and Protein
      Legumesare 20 to 25% proteinbyweight, whichisdouble the proteincontentofwheat and threetimesthatofrice. Forthisreason, legumesare called "vegetarian's meat". Whilelegumesare generally high in protein, and the digestibilityofthatproteinisalso high, theyare oftenrelativelypoor in the essential amino acid methionine. Grains (which are themselvesdeficient in lysine) are commonlyconsumedalongwithlegumestoform a complete proteindietforvegetarians.
    • Legumes and Aminoacids
      Legumescontainrelatively low quantitiesof the essential amino acid methionine. To compensate, the MediterraneanDietserveslegumesalongwithgrains, which are low in the essential amino acid lysine, whichlegumescontain. Thus a combinationoflegumeswithgrainsforms a well-balanceddietforvegetarians. Common examplesofsuchcombinations are pasta and beans “pasta e fagioli” andemmerwheat and legume soup “zuppa di legumi e farro”.
    • Legumes and Health
      Legumes are veryhealthy. Theyhavesignificantnutritional and healthadvantagesforconsumers. Theyare the mostimportantdietarypredictorofsurvival in older people ofdifferentethnicities; legumeshavebeenassociatedwith long livedfoodculturessuchas the Japanese (soy, tofu), the Swedes (brownbeans, peas) and the Mediterranean people (lentils, chickpeas, beans).
      In the Seven CountriesStudy, legume consumptionwashighlycorrelatedwith a reducedmortalityfromcoronaryheartdisease.
    • Fava Bean
      Viciafaba, the Broad Bean, Fava Bean, is a speciesof legume (Fabaceae) native tonorth Africa and southwest Asia, and extensivelycultivatedelsewhere. Broad beanshave a long traditionofcultivation in Old World agriculture, beingamong the mostancientplants in cultivation and alsoamong the easiesttogrow. Itisbelievedthatalongwithlentils, peas and chickpeas, theybecame part of the easternMediterraneandiet in around 6000 BC or earlier. They are stilloftengrownas a cover croptopreventerosionbecausethey can over-winter and becauseas a legume, theyfixnitrogen in the soil.
    • Fava Bean
    • Fava Bean
      Fava beans are rich in L-Dopa, a substanceusedmedically in the treatment ofParkinson's disease.
      L-dopaisalso a natriureticagent, whichmight help in controllinghypertension. Some alsouse fava beansas a natural alternative todrugslike Viagra, citing a link betweenL-dopa production and the human libido .
    • Fava Bean
      Usually, freshyoung fava beans are eatenraw, with pecorino cheese. This, withwholegrainbread and seasonalfruits can be a verygood and healthy breakfast. The youngleavesof the plant can alsobeeateneitherraw or cookedlikespinach.
    • Fava Bean
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for fava bean is “Koukia me Anginares” “Fava Beans with Artichoke”(pages 319, 320 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are artichokes, fresh young fava beans, onions, dill, mint leaves, extra-virgin olive oil, lemon juice, salt, black pepper.
    • Fava Bean
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for fava bean is “Fava Beans Roman Style”(pages 318, 319 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are fresh young fava beans, are cooked with prosciutto (ham), onions, thyme, extra-virgin olive oil, salt, black pepper.
    • Peas
      A peaismostcommonly the smallsphericalseed or the seed-podof the legume Pisumsativum. Eachpodcontainsseveralpeas.
      The speciesisusedfresh, frozen or canned, and isalsogrownto produce dry peas. The wild peaisrestrictedto the Mediterraneanbasin and the Near East. The earliestarchaeologicalfindsofpeas come fromNeolithic Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, earlyfinds date fromca. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and fromca. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt.
    • Peas
    • Peas
      Accordingtoetymologists, the termpeawastakenfrom the Latin pisum. In earlytimes, peasweregrownmostlyfortheir dry seeds. In moderntimes, however, peas are usuallyboiledwhichbreaks down the cellwalls and makes the taste sweeter and the nutrients more bio-available. Alongwith fava beans and lentils, theseformedanimportant part of the dietofmost people in Europeduring the Middle Ages.
    • Peas
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for peas is “Peas Roman Style”(pages 318, 319 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are fresh young peas, are cooked with prosciutto (ham), onions, thyme, extra-virgin olive oil, salt, black pepper.
    • Chickpea
      The chickpea (Cicerarietinum) (alsogarbanzobean, Indianpea, ceci bean, Bengalgram) isanedible legume of the Fabaceae family, Faboideaesubfamily. Chickpeas are oneof the earliestcultivatedvegetables. 7,500-year-old remainshavebeenfound in the Middle East. The namechickpeatraces back through the Frenchchicheto Latin cicer (fromwhich the Roman cognomen Cicero wastaken).
    • Chickpea
    • Chickpea
      Domesticatedchickpeashavebeenfound in the aceramiclevelsofJerichoalongwithCayönü in Turkey and in Neolithicpottery at Hacilar, Turkey. In southern France Mesolithiclayers in a cave at L'Abeurador, Audehaveyielded wild chickpeascarbondatedto 6790±90 BC. By the Bronze Agechickpeaswereknown in Italy and Greece. In classicalGreecetheywerecallederébinthos and eatenas a staple, a dessert or consumedrawwhenyoung.
    • Chickpea
      The Romansknewseveralvarietiessuchasvenus, ram and punicchickpeas. Theywerebothcooked down into a broth and roastedas a snack. The Roman gourmet Apiciusgivesseveralrecipesforchickpeas. Carbonizedchickpeashavebeenfound at the Roman legionfort at Neuss (Novaesium), Germany in layersfrom the 1st century BC, alongwithrice.Ancient people usedchickpeasformedicalusessuchasincreasingsperm and milk, provokingmenstruation and urine and helpingtotreatkidneystones. Wild cicerswerethoughttobeespecially strong and helpful.
    • Chickpea
      Chickpeas are a helpful source ofzinc, folate and protein. They are alsovery high in dietaryfiber and hence a healthy source ofcarbohydratesforpeople withinsulinsensitivity or diabetes. Chickpeas are low in fat and mostofthisispolyunsaturated.
    • Chickpea
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for chickpea is “Provencal Chickpea Soup”(pages 141, 142 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are dried chickpeas soaked overnight, leeks, onion, ripe red tomato, extra-virgin olive oil, orange zest, fennel seeds, salt, black pepper and country style bread.
    • Chickpea
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for chickpea is “Chicken and Chickpea Soup from Southern Spain ”(pages 142, 143 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are dried chickpeas soaked overnight, chicken stock, chicken parts, garlic, carrots, celery stalks, ripe red tomato, extra-virgin olive oil, leeks, potatoes, ½ cup long-grain rice, mild red chili pepper, hot peperoncino, prosciutto (ham or jamonserrano), 2 hard boiled eggs, salt and mint leaves.
    • Chickpea
      Recipe
      A typical Tuscan Mediterranean healthy recipe cooks chickpeas in the usual way until soft, flavoured with garlic and rosemary, then enriched with tomatoes cooked in oil, thickened with some of the chickpeas passed through a sieve, finish cooking with some home- made tagliatellepasta, and serve with more olive oil and pepper.
    • Chickpea
      Recipe
      A typical Tuscan Mediterranean healthy recipe is “Baccalà e Ceci” “Salt Cod and Chickpeas”. In two separate marble basins the salt cod and the chickpeas are soaked overnight. They are cooked separately, aromatised with celery, carrot, and onion, and served together, dressed with extra-virgin olive oil. The neutral flouriness of the chickpeas contrasting with the concentrated saltiness of the fish and the richness of the oil.
    • Chickpea
      Recipe
      Dried chickpeas can be made into a flour which can be used in many ways. The “Farinata”, “TortadiCeci” or “Cecina” are typical in Liguria and Tuscany. Are made by mixing a smooth batter of chickpea flour and water and letting it sit for an hour or so, then pouring a very thin layer of it into a shallow baking tin with plenty of oil and baking in a hot oven for about 10 minutes until golden; it is eaten hot. This is best made in a really hot oven and eaten freshly cooked as a street snack.
    • Lentil
      The lentil (Lensculinaris), isanancient legume, knownto the ancientGreeks and Romans. The plantlikelyoriginated in the Near East, and hasbeen part of the humandietsince the aceramic (non-potteryproducing) Neolithictimes, beingoneof the first cropsdomesticated in the Near East. Withapproximately 26% oftheircaloriesfromprotein, lentils and generallyanylegumeshave the third-highestlevelofprotein, byweight, ofanyplant-basedfoodaftersoybeans, and are animportant part of the diet in manypartsof the world.
    • Lentil
      Lentilscontain high levelsofproteins and are anessential source ofinexpensiveprotein in manypartsof the world forthosewhoadhereto a vegetariandiet or cannotaffordmeat. Lentils are deficient in twoessential amino acids, methionine and cystine. Apartfrom a high levelofproteins, lentilsalsocontaindietaryfiber, folate, vitamin B1, and minerals. Health magazine hasselectedlentilsasoneof the fivehealthiestfoods. Lentils are oftenmixedwithgrains, suchasrice, whichresults in a complete proteindish. Lentilsare oneof the best vegetablesourcesofiron. Thismakesthemanimportant part of a vegetariandiet, and usefulforpreventingirondeficiency.
    • Lentil
    • Lentil
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for lentils is “Lentil and Chickpea Soup with Greens”(pages 145, Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are small lentils and dried chickpeas soaked overnight, red chili pepper, chard or spinach, garlic, extra virgin olive oil, salt and lemon juice.
    • Lentil
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for lentils is “Pellegrino Artusi’s Lentils with Aromatics”(pages 258, 259 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are brown lentils, onions, garlic, bay leaf, carrot, parsley, celery stalk, chicken stock, extra virgin olive oil, salt, black pepper.
    • Lentil
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for lentils is “Cumin-Scented Lentils and Rice”(pages 259, 260 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are brown lentils, yellow onions,bay leaf, long-grain rice, ground cumin, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • Bean
      The common bean, Phaseolusvulgaris, isanherbaceousannualplantdomesticatedindependently in ancientMesoamerica and the Andes, and nowgrownworldwideforitsediblebean, popularboth dry and as a green bean. The leafisoccasionallyusedas a leafvegetable. Beans, pumpkin and maizeconstituted the "Three Sisters" thatprovided the foundationof Native American agriculture.
    • Bean
      The protein, vitamins (thiamine, vitamin B6, and folic acid), carbohydrate (starch), mineral (iron, potassium, selenium, molybdenum) and dietaryfibercontentofbeansmakesthemanidealcomplementaryingredient in pasta, maize, polenta, or vegetablesoup. The common beanhasbeendevelopedintomanyhundredsofvarietiesofdifferentsizes, shapes, seedcoatcolors, color patterns and flavours. The most common bean in ItalianMediterraneancuisine are cannellini and borlotti.
    • Bean
      Beanswerebroughtto Italy from the New World in the early 16 thcentury, to join Vigna Unguiculata, fagioli dall’occhio, black-eyedbeans, whichhadbeencultivatedsince Roman times. Theseearlyblack-eyedbeansoriginated in Africa and spread toboth the Far East and the Mediterranean, wereenjoyedby the ancientEgyptians and Greeks, and became a staplefoodfor the Romans.
    • BlackEyed Bean
    • BlackEyed Bean
    • Bean
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for beans is “Turkish Beans with Potatoes, Celery Root and Carrots”(pages 252, 253 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are white beans, onion, bay leaf, garlic, potato, celery root, carrots, parsley, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • Bean
      Recipe
      A typical Tuscan Mediterranean healthy recipe for beans is “Fagioli con Tonno”, “Fresh Beans and Tuna Salad”(pages 78, 79 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are fresh beans, best quality tuna packed in olive oil, capers, onion, bay leaf, parsley, red wine vinegar, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • Bean
      Recipe
      A typical Tuscan Mediterranean healthy recipe for beans is “Beans with Olive Oil and Aromatics”(pages 248, 249 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are cannellini beans, onion, garlic, sage, bay leaves, black peppercorns, hot chili pepper, parsley, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • GrassPea
      Lathyrussativus, grasspea, cicerchia, is a legume Fabaceae family, commonlygrownforhumanconsumption and livestockfeed in Asia and East Africa. It’s anancient legume and now in Italy iscultivatedonly in Marche, Umbria, Abruzzo and Lazio.
    • GrassPea
      Grass Pea is usually used in soup with other legumes (beans, fava beans, lentils, chickpeas).
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for grass pea is “Grass Pea with Shrimps”(pages 248, 249 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are grass pea, shrimps, onion, garlic, hot chili pepper, parsley, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • Soybean
      The soybean (Glycinemax) is a speciesof legume native to East Asia. The plantisclassedasanoilseedratherthan a legume. Itisanannualplantthathasbeenused in China for 5,000 yearstoprimarilyaddnitrogento the soilas part ofcrop rotation. Traditionalnonfermentedfoodusesofsoybeans include soymilk, and from the latter Tofu and tofu skin or yuba. Fermentedfoods include shoyu or soysauce, miso, natto, tempeh, Ketjapamongothers. The oil isused in many industrial applications. The mainproducersofsoy are the UnitedStates (32%), Brazil (28%), Argentina (21%), China (7%) and India (4%).
    • Soybean
      Soybeanswere a crucialcrop in eastern Asia for a long time. Theyremain a major crop in China, Japan, and Korea. Soywas first introducedtoEurope in the early 1700s and in the U.S. in 1765, whereitwas first grownforfeed. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter in 1770 mentioningsendingsoybeans home from England. Soybeansdidnotbecomeanimportantcropoutsideof Asia untilabout 1910. In America, soywasconsideredan industrial productonly and notusedas a foodpriorto the 1920s. Soywasintroducedto Africa from China in the late 19th century and isnowwidespreadacross the continent.
    • Soybean
      Soybeans are rich in protein.
      Forthisreason, soyis a good source ofprotein, amongstmanyothers, forvegetarians and vegans or for people whowantto reduce the amountofmeattheyeat.
    • Soybean
      Accordingto the US Food and DrugAdministration:
      “Soyproteinproducts can begoodsubstitutesforanimalproductsbecause, unlike some otherbeans, soyoffers a 'complete' proteinprofile. ... Soyproteinproducts can replaceanimal-basedfoods—whichalsohave complete proteinsbuttendtocontain more fat, especiallysaturatedfat—withoutrequiring major adjustmentselsewhere in the diet”.
    • Soybean
      The roleof the soybean in humannutritionissomewhatoverrated, becausesoybeanisveryimportant in agribusiness and forthisreasonwe can find a lotofscientificresearchaboutitsnutritionalproperties.
    • Mushrooms
      Ediblemushrooms are usedextensively in cooking, in manycuisines (notablyChinese, European, and Japanese). Thoughmushrooms are commonlythoughttohavelittlenutritionalvalue, manyspecies are high in fiber and providevitaminssuchasthiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, cobalamins, ascorbic acid. Thoughnotnormally a significant source ofvitamin D, some mushrooms can becomesignificantsourcesafterexposuretoultraviolet light, thoughthisalsodarkenstheirskin. Mushrooms are also a source of some minerals, includingselenium, potassium and phosphorus.
    • Mushrooms
      Manyspeciesofmedicinalmushroomshavebeenused in folk medicine forthousandsofyears. The useofmedicinalmushrooms in folk medicine, is best documented in the East. Medicinalmushrooms are now the subjectofstudyformanyethnobotanists and medicalresearchers. The abilityof some mushroomstoinhibittumorgrowth and enhanceaspectsof the immune system hasbeen a subjectofresearchforapproximately 50 years. International mushroomresearchcontinuestoday, with a focus on mushroomsthatmayhavehypoglycemicactivity, anti-canceractivity, anti-pathogenicactivity, and immune system enhancingactivity. Recentresearchhasfoundthat the mushrooms produce largeamountsofvitamin D whenexposedto UV light.
    • Mushrooms
      Mostmushroomsthat are sold in supermarketshavebeencommerciallygrown on mushroomfarms. The mostpopularofthese, Agaricusbisporus, isgenerallyconsideredsafeformost people toeatbecauseitisgrown in controlled, sterilizedenvironments, though some individuals do nottolerateitwell.
      SeveralvarietiesofA. bisporus are growncommercially, includingwhites, crimini, and portobello
    • Mushrooms
      The edibilityofmushroomsmaybedefinedbycriteriathat include:
      absenceofpoisonouseffects on humans
      desirable taste
      aroma.
      By some accounts, lessthan 10% ofallmushrooms
      maybeedible.
    • Mushrooms
      Mycophagy, the actofconsumingmushrooms, datestoancienttimes. Ediblemushroomspecieshavebeenfound in associationwith 13,000 yearoldruins in Chile, but the first reliableevidenceofmushroomconsumptiondatestoseveralhundredyears BC in China. The Chinesevaluemushroomsformedicinalpropertiesaswellasforfood. AncientRomans and Greeksatemushrooms, particularly the upper class. The Roman Caesarswouldhave a foodtaster taste the mushroomsbefore the Caesartomakesuretheyweresafe
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      Boletusedulis, commonlyknownasporcini or cep, is a basidiomycetefungus, and the typespeciesof the genusBoletus. Widelydistributed in the NorthernHemisphereacrossEurope, Asia, and North America, itdoesnotoccurnaturally in the SouthernHemisphere.
      Prizedasaningredient in variousfoods, B. edulisisanediblemushroomheld in high regard in manycuisines, and iscommonlyprepared and eaten in soups, pasta or risotto.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      The mushroomis low in fat and digestiblecarbohydrates, and high in protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Availablefresh in autumn in Central, Mediterranean and NorthernEurope, itismostoftendried, packaged and distributedworldwide. Keepingitsflavourafterdrying, itisthenreconstituted and used in cooking. Boletusedulisisoneof the few fungi thatis sold pickled. The fungusalsoproduces a varietyoforganiccompoundswith a diverse spectrumofbiologicalactivity, including the steroid derivative ergosterol, a sugarbindingprotein, antiviralcompounds, antioxidants, and phytochelatins, whichgive the organismresistancetotoxicheavymetals.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      In MediterraneanCuisine, Boletusedulis, is "the wild mushroompar excellence”. The flavourhasbeendescribedasnutty and slightlymeaty, with a smooth, creamytexture, and a distinctive aroma reminiscentofsourdough. Young, small porcini are mostappreciatedbygourmets, as the largeonesoftenharbormaggots (insectlarvae), and becomeslimy, soft and lesstastywithage.
      Porcini are sold fresh in markets in summer and autumn in Central and MediterraneanEurope, and dried or canned at othertimesof the year, and distributedworldwidetocountrieswherethey are nototherwisefound.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      They are eaten and enjoyedraw, sautéedwithbutter, groundinto pasta, in soups, and in manyotherdishes. Porcini risotto is a traditionalItalianautumndish. Porcini are a featureofmanycuisines, includingProvençal, and Viennese. Porcini can alsobefrozen—eitherraw, or first cooked in butter. The colour, aroma, and taste offrozen porcini deteriorate noticeablyiffrozenforperiodslongerthanfourmonths.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      In the vicinityofBorgotaro in the Province of Parma in northern Italy, Boletusedulis, havebeenrecognisedfortheirsuperior taste and officiallytermed “Fungo di Borgotaro”. Here, thesemushroomshavebeenpickedforcenturies, and exportedcommercially. However, due torecenttrends in the globalizationofmushroomtrade, mostof the porcini commerciallyavailable in Italy or exportedby Italy no longer originate from Italy. Porcini and othermushrooms are importedinto Italy fromvariouslocations, especially China and easternEuropeancountries; these are thenoftenre-exported under the "Italian porcini" label.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      A comparative studyof the amino acid compositionofelevenPortuguese wild ediblemushroomspeciesshowedBoletusedulistohave the highest total amino acid content, about 2.3 g per 100 g ofdriedmushroom. This total includes a full complementof 20 essential and nonessential amino acids. Analysisof the free amino acids (thatis, thosenotbound up in protein) revealedglutamine and alaninetobe the principal amino acids (eachabout 25% of total compounds); a separate analysisconcludedthatlysineisanotherpredominantcompound.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      Wholefruitbodiesalsocontainabout 200 mg ofvitamin D per 100 g dry weight. The relatively high ergosterolcontentof the fruitbodies can make the mushroomnutritionallypragmaticforvegetarians and vegans, whowouldotherwisehave a limitedintakeofvitamin D fromfoodsofanimalorigin. Furthermore, fruitbodies are rich in the antioxidantcompoundergothioneine. Porcini werethoughttohaveanticancerpropertiesaccordingtoHungarianresearchconducted in the 1950s, butlaterinvestigations in the UnitedStatesdidnotsupportthis.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      Boletusedulisfruitbodiescontainabout 500 mg ofergosterol per 100 g ofdriedmushroom. Ergosterolis a sterolcompound common in fungi. Additionally, the fruitbodieshaveabout 30 mg ofergosterolperoxide per 100 g ofdriedmushroom. Ergosterolperoxideis a steroid derivative with a wide spectrumofbiologicalactivity, includingantimicrobial and anti-inflammatoryactivity, and cytotoxicitytovarioustumorcelllinesgrown in laboratory culture.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean recipe for porcini is “Gratin of Mushrooms and Potatoes”(pages 325, 326 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are dried porcini, fresh commercial mushrooms, potatoes, tomatoes, grated parmigianoreggiano, mozzarella cheese, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • BoletusEdulis- Porcini
      Recipe
      A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for porcini is “Risotto con Funghi Porcini”, “Risotto with Dried Wild Mushrooms”(pages 229, 230 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are dried porcini, vegetable stock, rice (carnaroli, vialonenano or arborio), onion, grated parmigianoreggiano, extra virgin olive oil, salt and black pepper.
    • Truffle
      A truffle, tartufo, is a fungalfruiting body thatdevelops underground and relies on mycophagyfor spore dispersal. Almostalltruffles are usuallyfound in closeassociationwithtrees.
      There are hundredsofspeciesoftruffles, but the fruiting body of some are highlyprizedas a food. The 18th-century French gastronome Brillat-Savarincalledthesetruffles "the diamondof the kitchen". Edibletruffles are held in high esteem in French, Spanish, Italian and Croatiancooking, aswellas in internationalhaute cuisine.
    • Truffle
    • White Truffle
      The White truffle or Alba Truffle (Tubermagnatum) comesfrom the Langhe area of the Piedmontregion in northern Italy and, mostfamously, in the countrysidearound the city of Alba. Itisalsofound in Croatia, on the Istria peninsula in the Motovunforestalongside the Mirnariver. Like the Frenchblacktruffles, Italianwhitetruffles are veryhighlyesteemed. The whitetruffle market in Alba isbusiest in autumn; in December 2009 whitetruffleswerebeing sold at 10,200€ per kilogram.
    • White Truffle
      The Tubermagnatumpico White truffleismostlyfound in northern and central Italy, while the Tuberborchi, or Whitishtruffle, isfound in Tuscany, Romagna, the Marche and Molise. NeitheroftheseisasaromaticasthosefromPiedmont.
    • BlackTruffle
      The Blacktruffle or BlackPérigordTruffle (Tubermelanosporum) isnamedafter the Périgordregion in France and growsexclusivelywithoak.
      Production isalmostexclusivelyEuropean, with France accounting for 45%, Spain 35%, Italy 20%, and smallamountsfrom Slovenia and Croatia. The largesttruffle market in south west France is at Lalbenque in Quercy. Thesemarkets are busiest in the monthofJanuarywhen the blacktruffleshavetheirhighest aroma. As ofDecember 2009, blacktruffleswereretailed at 3,490€ per kg.
    • Truffle
      The truffleis aroma par excellence. Truffles go wellwith risotto, polenta (cornmeal), potatoes and variouskindof gnocchi (pasta). A verysmallwhitetruffle, shavedoverfresheggmakes a wonderfulmeal.
      The appeal of the aroma oftrufflesis nature’s way ofgettingcertainanimalstoeatthem and so spread spores in nature. Anotherfactor in the appeal oftrufflesis the presenceof UMAMI flavour, and why the combinationoftruffle and parmesanis so agreeable.
    • Protein
      Proteins are complexcompoundsthatare madeofdifferentconnected amino acids, whichuniquelycontainnitrogen. Body proteins are constantlychanging, withnewproteinsbeingmade and oldonesbroken down.
      In nutrition, proteins are broken down in the stomachduringdigestionbyenzymesknownasproteasesintosmallerpolypeptidestoprovide amino acidsfor the organism, including the essential amino acidsthat the organismcannotbiosynthesizeitself. Asidefromtheirrole in proteinsynthesis, amino acids are alsoimportantnutritionalsourcesofnitrogen.
    • Protein
      Proteinslikecarbohydratescontain 16.8 kilojoules (4 kilocalories) per gramasopposedtofatswhichcontain 37.8 kilojoules (9 kilocalories) and alcoholswhichcontain 29.4 kilojoules (7 kilocalories). The liver, and to a muchlesserextent the kidneys, can convert amino acidsusedbycells in proteinbiosynthesisintoglucoseby a processknownasgluconeogenesis.
    • ProteinQuality
      Proteinqualityisdeterminedby the presence (or absence) ofessential amino acids. Itis “essential” thatwereceivethese amino acidsfromfoodbecausewe are notcapableof manufacturing them. Non-essential amino acids can besynthesized, so itisnot “essential” thatweconsumefoodsthatcontainthem.
      Mostfoodscontainbothnon-essential and essential amino acids, butitis the presenceof a comprehensive set ofessential amino acidsthatmakes a high-qualityprotein.
    • Amino Acids
      Eight amino acids are generallyregardedasessentialforhumans: phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, and lysine. Additionally, cysteine (or sulphur-containing amino acids), tyrosine (or aromatic amino acids), histidine and arginine are requiredbyinfants and growingchildren. Essential amino acids are so callednotbecausethey are more importantto life than the others, butbecause the body doesnotsynthesizethem, makingitessentialto include them in one's diet in ordertoobtainthem.
    • Amino Acids
      Complete proteinscontain a balanced set ofessential amino acidsforhumans. Animalsourcessuchasmeat, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, and cheeseprovideallof the essential amino acids. Near-completeproteins are alsofound in some plantsourcessuchasquinoa,buckwheat, and amaranth. Soyaappearsaslower in methionine and cysteine. Itisnotnecessarytoconsumeplantfoodscontaining complete proteinsas long as a reasonablyvarieddietismaintained. Byconsuming a wide varietyofplantfoods, a full set ofessential amino acidswillbesuppliedand the human body can convert the amino acidsintoproteins.
    • ProteinIntake
      Most people consume far more proteinthantheyneed. The non-athlete (average) adultrequirmentforproteinis 0,8 grams per kilogramof body weight. A non-athletepersonwhoweighs 180 lb (1 kg = 2,20 lb 180/2,20= 82 kg) needs 66 g ofprotein per day (82 kg*0,8g= 66). At 4 kilocalories per gram, thisisabout 264 kilocaloriesfromprotein per day. Usually in the MediterraneanDiet the recommendedintakeofproteinis 12-15% of total calories.
    • RecommendedProteinIntake
      Infants: 2,2 grams per kg of body weight.
      Children: 1,0-1,6 grams per kg of body weight.
      Adults: 0,8 grams per kg of body weight.
      Adultathletes: 1,5-2,0 grams per kg of body weight.
      Carbohydrates and fats are the gasolineforour body, proteins are the mostimportant building block for the body.
    • ProteinFunctions
      Enzymes and proteinsynthesis. There are hundredsofuniquetissues and enzymesthat are proteins.
      Transportnutrientto the right place. Proteinsmake “smart” carriers, enablingnutrientsto go to the right tissues.
      A source ofenergy. The carbon in proteinprovides the sameamountofenergy per unitofweightascarbohydrates (4 kilocalories per grams)
    • ProteinFunctions
      Hormone production. Hormonescontrolmanychemicalactivities in the body, and these are madeofuniqueproteins (forinstance testosterone)
      Fluidbalance. Proteinhelpstocontrol the fluidbalancebetween the blood and surroundingtissues. Thishelps people maintainblood volume and sweetratesduringphysicalactivity.
      Acid-basebalance. Proteins can makean acid environmentlessacidic and alkalineenvironmentlessalkaline.
    • ProteinFunctions
      Growth and tissuemaintenance. Proteinisneededtobuild and maintaintissue. Thisisoneof the reasonswhy the proteinrequirementforgrowingchildren can bedoublethatofadults and slightlyhigherforathletes.
      Synthesisofnon-protein, nitrogen-containingcompounds. The compoundphosphocreatineis a high-energy, nitrogen-containingcompoundthat can quicklyreleaseenergyover a short durationforquick-burstactivities.