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Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio
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Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using GNU Radio

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  • 1. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksIntroduction to Digital Signal ProcessingUsing GNU RadioAlbert Chun-Chieh HuangPyCon Taiwan 2013May 25, 2013
  • 2. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksAbout the AuthorHe is both a programmer and a communication engineer.He learned Python in 2000 and has used it extensively onimproving his workflow ever since. He has been working incommunication IC industry for more than eight years. Hisinterests include communication engineering andengineering communication, which consists of fields fromphysical layer to MAC layer as well as typesetting.Blog: Random Notes,http://alberthuang314.blogspot.com/LinkedIn:http://www.linkedin.com/in/alberthuang314Email address: alberthuang314 AT gmail DOT com
  • 3. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksOutline1 Introduction to SDR and GNU Radio2 Adding a Filter in GNU Radio3 Analyzing Filters4 Concluding Remarks
  • 4. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksSoftware-Defined RadioSoftware-Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communicationsystem implemented (mostly) in software.
  • 5. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksSoftware-Defined RadioSoftware-Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communicationsystem implemented (mostly) in software.Application areasMilitary systems, space exploration, base stations, NVIDIAi500 LTE SDR modems, etc.
  • 6. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksSoftware-Defined RadioSoftware-Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communicationsystem implemented (mostly) in software.Application areasMilitary systems, space exploration, base stations, NVIDIAi500 LTE SDR modems, etc.Background knowledge required for SDR programmerDigital Signal Processing (the most fundamentalknowledge)ProgrammingProbability and StatisticsCommunication System
  • 7. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksSoftware-Defined RadioSoftware-Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communicationsystem implemented (mostly) in software.Application areasMilitary systems, space exploration, base stations, NVIDIAi500 LTE SDR modems, etc.Background knowledge required for SDR programmerDigital Signal Processing (the most fundamentalknowledge)ProgrammingProbability and StatisticsCommunication SystemThis talk is going to illustrate how easy digital signalprocessing is! Don’t be hesitated!
  • 8. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksIntroduction to GNU RadioGNU Radio is a free & open-source software developmenttoolkit that provides signal processing blocks to implementsoftware radios.Primarily written in Python with performance-criticalsignal processing components written in C++ [1].C++ classes are wrapped by SWIG [2].Python can be used to develop rapid prototype for SDR inan elegant and fast way.“Install GNU Radio 3.6.2 on MacOSX 10.8.2”http://goo.gl/mJQmA“A Glimpse into Developing Software-Defined Radio byPython” on SlideShare.net
  • 9. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksGNU Radio Companion
  • 10. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTop Block1 #!/ us r / bin /env python2 from PyQt4 import Qt3 # Other imports are hidden4 c l a s s top bl ock ( gr . top block , Qt . QWidget ) :5 def i n i t ( s e l f ) :6 # GUI−r e l a t e d s t u f f are hidden here7 s e l f . samp rate = samp rate = 160008 # q t g u i s i n k s t u f f hidden9 s e l f . t o p l a y o u t . addWidget ( s e l f . q t g u i s i n k x10 s e l f . a n a l o g s i g s o u r c e x 1 = analog . s i g s o u r11 samp rate , analog . GR COS WAVE, 8000 ,12 s e l f . connect (( s e l f . a n a l o g s i g s o u r c e x 1 , 0)13 ( s e l f . a u d i o s i n k 0 , 0))14 s e l f . connect (( s e l f . a n a l o g s i g s o u r c e x 1 , 0)15 ( s e l f . q t g u i s i n k x 0 , 0))1617 i f name == ’ m a i n ’ :18 tb = top bl ock ()19 tb . s t a r t ()20 tb . show ()21 tb . stop ()
  • 11. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksAdding a Simple Moving Average Filter1 #!/ us r / bin /env python2 from gnuradio import f i l t e r # Add t h i s l i n e i n t o top bl ock . p3 # Other imports are hidden4 c l a s s top bl ock ( gr . top block , Qt . QWidget ) :5 def i n i t ( s e l f ) :6 # GUI−r e l a t e d s t u f f are hidden here7 s e l f . samp rate = samp rate = 441008 # q t g u i s i n k s t u f f hidden9 s e l f . t o p l a y o u t . addWidget ( s e l f . q t g u i s i n k x1011 s e l f . a n a l o g s i g s o u r c e x 1 = analog . s i g s o u r12 # ==============================13 taps = (0. 25 , 0. 25 , 0. 25 , 0. 25)14 s e l f . f l t = f i l t e r . f i r f i l t e r f f f (1 , taps )15 s e l f . connect (( s e l f . a n a l o g s i g s o u r c e x 1 , 0)16 ( s e l f . f l t , 0))17 s e l f . connect (( s e l f . f l t , 0) ,18 ( s e l f . q t g u i s i n k x 0 , 0))19 s e l f . connect (( s e l f . f l t , 0) ,20 ( s e l f . a u d i o s i n k 0 , 0))2122 # ==============================
  • 12. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksWhat Is This Filter?!self.flt = filter.fir filter fff(1, (0.25, 0.25, 0.25, 0.25) )FIR filter blockInput: FloatOutput: FloatCoefficients: FloatTime domain equation:y[n] = 0.25x[n]+0.25x[n −1]+0.25x[n −2]+0.25x[n −3]x[n]: current input sample, x[n-1] previous one inputsample, and so on...y[n]: current output sampleIt’s just adding/multiplying numbers together, right?Pretty easy, huh?
  • 13. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDigital FrequencyDigital frequency is not related to real frequency (yet).So forget about Hz right now.Normally mapped to [0, π] or [0, 1].
  • 14. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDigital Frequency: Highest0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2-1012Figure : π in [0, π], or 1 in [0, 1]
  • 15. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDigital Frequency: Lowest or DC0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2-1012Figure : 0
  • 16. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDigital Frequency: Middle0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2-1012Figure : π/2 in [0, π], or 0.5 in [0, 1]
  • 17. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksHow to Analyze This Filter?Back-of-the-Envelope MethodDo fast calculation in the back of the envelopeHandy to get a feel of this filter’s frequency responseDiscrete Fourier Transform (DFT)All transformations are giving us different perspectivesDFT gives us frequency response of a filterz TransformGives us more than just frequency responseAlso give us more thorough information, such as stability,etc.
  • 18. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope MethodIs the filter low pass filter, high pass filter, or?
  • 19. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope MethodIs the filter low pass filter, high pass filter, or?Let’s input these coefficients into Octave to tell us...
  • 20. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope MethodIs the filter low pass filter, high pass filter, or?Let’s input these coefficients into Octave to tell us...What if your Octave is not installed, like most ofattendees here...
  • 21. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope MethodIs the filter low pass filter, high pass filter, or?Let’s input these coefficients into Octave to tell us...What if your Octave is not installed, like most ofattendees here...Let’s use back-of-the-envelope method
  • 22. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope MethodIs the filter low pass filter, high pass filter, or?Let’s input these coefficients into Octave to tell us...What if your Octave is not installed, like most ofattendees here...Let’s use back-of-the-envelope methodRemember the filter time domain equation isy[n] = (x[n] + x[n − 1] + x[n − 2] + x[n − 3])/4
  • 23. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope: Highest0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1010 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-101Figure : π in [0, π], or 1 in [0, 1]
  • 24. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope: Middle0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1010 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-101Figure : π/2 in [0, π], or 0.5 in [0, 1]
  • 25. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope: Lowest or DC0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1010 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-101
  • 26. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksBack-of-the-Envelope: Frequency Response0 101
  • 27. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksComplete Frequency Response0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5−60−50−40−30−20−100dBradian/sample
  • 28. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTransforming Time Domain Equations intoz-Domainy[n] = x[n]+x[n−1]+x[n−2]+x[n−3]4
  • 29. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTransforming Time Domain Equations intoz-Domainy[n] = x[n]+x[n−1]+x[n−2]+x[n−3]4Looking up z transform pairs in DSP textbook, and youwill get...x[n − k]− > X[z] × z−ky[n]− > Y [z]
  • 30. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTransforming Time Domain Equations intoz-Domainy[n] = x[n]+x[n−1]+x[n−2]+x[n−3]4Looking up z transform pairs in DSP textbook, and youwill get...x[n − k]− > X[z] × z−ky[n]− > Y [z]Y [z] = X[z]+X[z]×z−1+X[z]×z−2+X[z]×z−34
  • 31. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTransforming Time Domain Equations intoz-Domainy[n] = x[n]+x[n−1]+x[n−2]+x[n−3]4Looking up z transform pairs in DSP textbook, and youwill get...x[n − k]− > X[z] × z−ky[n]− > Y [z]Y [z] = X[z]+X[z]×z−1+X[z]×z−2+X[z]×z−34H[z] = Y [z]X[z] = 1+z−1+z−2+z−34 = B[z]A[z]
  • 32. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksTransforming Time Domain Equations intoz-Domainy[n] = x[n]+x[n−1]+x[n−2]+x[n−3]4Looking up z transform pairs in DSP textbook, and youwill get...x[n − k]− > X[z] × z−ky[n]− > Y [z]Y [z] = X[z]+X[z]×z−1+X[z]×z−2+X[z]×z−34H[z] = Y [z]X[z] = 1+z−1+z−2+z−34 = B[z]A[z]Zeros are values to make |H[z]| = 0 and are roots ofB[z] = 1 + z−1 + z−2 + z−3 = 0 (There are three zeros atz=1j, z=-1, and z=-1j)Poles are values to make |H[z]| = ∞ and are roots ofA[z] = 0 (There isn’t any pole for this filter)
  • 33. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksVisualization of equations: z Plane
  • 34. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksVisualization of z Plane 1/3“Logic will get you from A to Z (Plane); imaginationwill get you everywhere.” – Albert Einstein
  • 35. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksVisualization of z Plane 2/3Imagine...Zeros drag surface to groundPoles bring surface up in the sky
  • 36. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksVisualization of z Plane 3/3−2−1.5−1−0.500.511.52−2−1.5−1−0.500.511.52−30−20−100102030
  • 37. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksz Transform and Frequency Response−2−1.5−1−0.500.511.52−2−1.5−1−0.500.511.52−30−20−1001020300 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5−60−50−40−30−20−100dBradian/sample
  • 38. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksSampling Rate and Real Frequency[0, 1] −→ [0, 12 Fs][0, π] −→ [0, 12Fs]Fs is sampling rateThe highest digital frequency we can represent is 1, and itwill be mapped to Fs2 .Fs2 plays an important role in digital signal processing, andis called Nyquist frequency.To sample 8kHz analog signals, you need Fs2 ≥ 8 kHz, i.e.Fs ≥ 16 kHz to represent it. (Nyquist-Shannon samplingtheorem)
  • 39. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDemo: Seeing Is BelievingNo, in this case,
  • 40. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksDemo: Seeing Is BelievingNo, in this case,Hearing is believing!
  • 41. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksConcluding RemarksGNU Radio provides us a signal processing framework inPython.Digital signal processing seems not easy at first glance.By visualizing z plane and frequency response, DSPbecomes easier to understand!Finally, don’t forget Fs ≥ 2 Finterest, where Finterest is thehighest frequency for signal you’re interested in.With these visualization techniques, you can usegr filter design tool in GNU Radio to design filter withoutanalyzing it.
  • 42. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksQ & A
  • 43. Introductionto DigitalSignalProcessingUsing GNURadioAlbertChun-ChiehHuangPyCon Taiwan2013Introductionto SDR andGNU RadioAdding aFilter in GNURadioAnalyzingFiltersConcludingRemarksReferences“GNU Radio Project Wiki.” [Online]. Available:http://gnuradio.org/redmine/projects/gnuradio/wiki“SWIG - Simple Wrapper and Interface Generator.”[Online]. Available: http://swig.orgJ. Mitola, III, “Software radios-survey, critical evaluationand future directions,” in Telesystems Conference, 1992.NTC-92., National, 1992, p. 13.

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