THE HOLOCAUST<br />Alba Chocán Alexandre<br />1º Grado en Historia<br />Inglés<br />Universidad de Cantabria<br />Curso 2010-2011<br />
Introduction<br />● On January 30, 1933 the President Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor, the most powerful position in the German government.<br />●Ideology:<br /> - Racism: siththe "racial theory" proclaimedthesuperiority of a supposed "Germanrace“.<br /> - Nationalism: spread theloveforthe country towhichthe individual shouldbesubordinate.<br /> - Authoritarianism: Thecult of the leader. <br />
The Holocaust<br />● “Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire“.<br />● Persecutionand murder of approximately six million Jews by the <br />Nazi regime.<br />● The Nazis believed that Germans were "racially superior“.<br />● German authorities targeted other groups because of their perceived <br />"racial inferiority": Gypsies, Poles, Russians, and other <br />groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral <br />grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses <br />and homosexuals. <br />
Victims<br />● In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million.<br />● By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly 2/3 <br />European Jews as part of the "Final Solution“.<br />● Other victims: <br />- 200,000 Gypsies.<br />- 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients,<br /> were murdered in the Euthanasia Program.<br />
Children:<br /><ul><li>More thanonemillionchildrenweremurderedunder Nazi rule in Germany and Europe.
In theghettos, manydiedfromlack of food, clothing and housing.
Forced labor, gas chambers and medicalexperiments.</li></li></ul><li>A malnourished child eats in the streets of the ghetto in Warsaw, Poland, <br />between 1940 and 1943.- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum -<br />
Two brothers in the ghetto of Kovno. <br />A month later, they were deported to the Majdanek camp. <br />Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944. <br /> - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum -<br />
Women:<br /><ul><li>Both Jewish and non-Jews women, were subjected to a single strong persecution.
Ravensbrueck, the largest camp established for women.
Unethical human experiments, harassment and rape.
Ella Gartner, Regina Safir, Mat Wajsblum and Roza Robota </li></li></ul><li>Prisoners pulling wagons full of stones in the quarry area. <br />The field of Plaszow, Poland, 1944.<br />- Leopold Page Photographic Collection -<br />
In the last months of World War II, Allied forces moved across <br />Europe in a series of offensives against Germany. <br />They began to find and free the prisoners of concentration camps <br />until the May 7, 1945, the German armed forces surrendered <br />unconditionally to the Allies<br />“What has happened is a warning. Forget is a crime. It was possible that all this happened and it remains possible that at any time happen again”.<br /> Karl Theodor Jaspers<br />Germanpsychiatrist and philosopher.<br />