Open English Language Resources and Practices for Professional and Academic Settings

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Lecture given to the MA TESOL programme at Queen Mary University of London on March 25, 2014

Lecture given to the MA TESOL programme at Queen Mary University of London on March 25, 2014

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  • 1. Open English Language Resources and Practices for Professional and Academic Settings Alannah Fitzgerald @ Queen Mary University of London
  • 2. Overview • Changes in Higher Education • MOOCs and OERs • Open Source Language Development • FLAX Language Project at Waikato University • MOOCs and Domain-Specific Linguistic Support • Design Thinking • Creative Commons Licensing • Digital Scholarship & Open Educational Practices • Open Content and Open Communities
  • 4. The End of the University as We Know It “The future looks like this: Access to college-level education will be free for everyone; the residential college campus will become largely obsolete; tens of thousands of professors will lose their jobs; the bachelor’s degree will become increasingly irrelevant; and ten years from now Harvard will enroll ten million students.” (Harden, 2013)
  • 5. MOOCS, Mayhem and Madness
  • 6. Review of MOOCs
  • 7. 3 Generations of Learning
  • 8. MOOC Research Initiative
  • 9. The Education Apocalypse: #opened13 Keynote “Where in the stories we’re telling about the future of education are we seeing salvation? Why would we locate that in technology and not in humans, for example? Why would we locate that in markets and not in communities? What happens when we embrace a narrative about the end-times — about education crisis and education apocalypse? Who’s poised to take advantage of this crisis narrative? Why would we believe a gospel according to artificial intelligence, or according to Harvard Business School [Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation theory], or according to Techcrunch...?” (Watters, 2013)
  • 10. OER Research Hub
  • 11. OER Research Hypotheses
  • 12. Learning Journeys between Informal and Formal Education
  • 13. Educating in Beta
  • 15. Developing Language Collections in the Open The open source dictum, ‘release early and release often‘, in fact has morphed into an even more radical position, ‘the perpetual beta’, in which the product is developed in the open, with new features slipstreamed in on a monthly, weekly, or even daily basis. It’s no accident that services such as Gmail, Google Maps, Flickr,, and the like may be expected to bear a ‘Beta’ logo for years at a time. (O’Reilly, 2005)
  • 16. FLAX Language at Waikato University FLAX image by permission of non-commercial reuse by Jane Galloway
  • 17. FLAX – Flexible Language Acquisition Flexible Language Acquisition library
  • 18. Simple FLAX Interface Designs
  • 19. The traditional text analysis software interface for working with large language collections (corpora) has been the Key Word In Context (KWIC) interface. Corpus linguistics researchers and developers of KWIC interfaces have claimed over the years that learners of a language can deduce language use patterns by examining KWIC lines. This method is also known as data-driven learning.
  • 20. Domain-Specific Linguistic Support for MOOCs – Virology at Coursera
  • 21. Virology OER from Open Educational Practitioner, Vincent Racaniello
  • 22. Digital Scholarship and Open Educational Practices
  • 23. Collaboration with Subject Specialists “In the emerging academic literacies approach involving cooperation between subject specialists and writing teachers, the aim is to help the students develop metacognitive awareness of the roles and functions of writing in that discipline, to enable them to stand back from it and observe how it functions, and then to help them gradually participate in the genres, where genre is understood as a constellation of actions rather than a list of formal features.” (Breeze, 2012)
  • 24. FLAX Virology ESAP Collection • YouTube lectures streamed • This Week in Virology (TWiV) podcasts • Open Access articles • Virology Blog articles with hyperlinks to resources • Text analysis tools for e.g. lexical bundles, collocations, word lists, part-of-speech (POS) tags, and links to Wikipedia, the British National Corpus (BNC) and the live web • Digital library features: search, retrieve, save, interact and learn
  • 25. Vocabulary Across Academic Disciplines “Natural science might be characterized as a discipline of discovery, identifying and describing entities that had not been previously considered. As a result, natural science employs a large set of highly technical words, like dextrinoid, electrophoresis, and phallotoxins. Most of these words do not have commonplace synonyms, because they refer to entities, characteristics, or concepts that are not normally discussed in everyday conversation.” (Biber, 2006)
  • 26. Domain-specific Collocations We focus on lexical collocations with noun-based structures because they are the most salient and important patterns in topic-specific text: • verb + noun e.g. detect virus particles • noun + noun e.g. tobacco mosaic virus • adjective + noun e.g. negative strand virus • noun + of + noun e.g. genome of the virus
  • 27. Lexical Bundles “Lexical bundles” are multi-word sequences with distinctive syntactic patterns and discourse functions that are commonly used in academic prose (Biber & Barbieri, 2007; Biber et al, 2003, 2004). Typical patterns in the virology MOOC lectures include: •noun phrase + of e.g. a DNA copy of •prepositional phrase + of e.g. at the end of •it + verb/adjective phrase e.g. it turns out that •be + noun/adjective phrase e.g. is an example of •verb phrase + that e.g. you can see that
  • 29. Design Thinking
  • 30. Iterative Prototyping
  • 31. Design Issues with One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) 56 Wednesday 3 November 2010 dded#at=15
  • 33. Choose a Licence
  • 34. Chris’s Reusable Card Game Chris Pegler
  • 35. 19. LICENSE TO USE 19. License to use Open licenses (e.g. Creative Commons) allow resources to be used without the need for rights clearance. Is the content you need openly licensed? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources axArt_Gold_Guys_With_Creative_Commons_S ymbol02.jpg
  • 36. Licensing Scenarios (adapted from UKOpenUni workshop) I’ve found six images on the web for use in my course-related DVD and the resolutions are fine. However, they are available under a Creative Commons, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share- Alike licence. This clearance is fine for my initial use for staff and students, but we would probably eventually hope to sell the DVD. Should I not bother with these images?
  • 37. I’ve found an article by Diane Nation on the web and this would be brilliant for my learning object intended for open use. I’ve tried to contact Ms Nation twice and have been in touch with the web master of the site to see if they can help but have had no response so far. I’ve amended the article, as I didn’t agree with some of the points she was making. I think I’ve improved the work actually and I’ve obviously left her acknowledged as the author. As I’ve had no response I’m just going to use it anyway. Everyone’s always talking about risk so I’ll take one. Is this OK? Cont.
  • 38. Cont. My institution has an online open learning resource and is based in the UK. We have selected an England and Wales UK licence for the use of our content. However, a user in China has asked us if the CC licence still applies? Does the CC licence refer to where the content is being used or where it is hosted?
  • 39. Cont. I have some software I would like to make available under a CC licence – would that be OK?
  • 40. Cont. My institution is making some of its content available under a CC licence. How do we ensure that our trademarks/logos are protected?
  • 41. Extended Licensing Scenario My educational institution is going to be working in collaboration with at least two other educational institutions in the UK. You are going to create an innovative joint MA TESOL resource for Masters students studying and researching in the area of open corpora for teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP). This facility will act as a provider of online resources. All institutions will provide some of their own existing materials that contain third party content (journal articles, images, extracts from books, and website content) which are made up of text and audio-visual content. The collaboration would like to make the content openly available whilst ensuring that their intellectual property rights are not compromised. 43
  • 42. Consider the following questions for discussion: • How would you license this content to users? • Would you consider using a Creative Commons licence, if so which one? • Would you need to consider more than one type of licence? • What would you need to take care of contractually in relation to the content? • How would you ensure that the integrity of third party content is maintained? 44
  • 44. Open Communities and Open Content
  • 45.
  • 46. Russell Stannard Teacher Training Videos
  • 47. Directory of Open Access Journals
  • 48. EAP Social Networking @ EULEAP
  • 49. #tleap Google Group
  • 50. 3. SHARING IS GOOD 3. Sharing is good The ethos of education is to share learning. Can open content be a sound investment as well as the right thing to do? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources ByTobanBlack /
  • 51. • For the practitioner – Web presence; resources development expertise; professional recognition. • For the student – Preview of, access to and contribution to course content. • For the institution – Brand promotion; best practice showcasing. • For the EAP/ESP communities – Materials development collaboration; sharing best practice; providing an alternative to commercial publications (Specific vs General resources).
  • 52. 28. MY COMMUNITY 28. My community If I belong to a community already, then is this the best place to look for great reusable resources? Or would I miss something? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources ByMeer
  • 53. 7. LEARN NEW STUFF 7. Learn new stuff Does working with other people’s stuff offer effective development? Or would you miss the creative thrill of making your own? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources ByWayanVota 8/
  • 54. • For the practitioner – Development of practical skills in digital materials creation: reuse, repurpose, remix and redistribute. • For the student – Access to up-to-date resources: inside and beyond the classroom. • For the institution – Sustainable resources and continued recognition. • For the EAP/ESP communities – Exposure to new and relevant tools and resources for EAP/ESP (e.g. FLAX, DOAJ)
  • 55. References • Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2003). “Lexical bundles in speech and writing: an initial taxonomy.” In A. Wilson et al. (Eds.), Corpus linguistics by the lune (pp. 71– 92). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. • Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2004). “If you look at . . .: lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks.” Applied Linguistics, 25, 371–405. • Biber, D. (2006). University Language, A corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. • Biber, D., Barbieri F. (2007). “Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers.” English for Specific Purposes, 26, 263–286. • Breeze, R. (2012). Rethinking Academic Writing Pedagogy for the European University. Rodopi, Amsterdam. • Harden, N. (2013). The end of the university as we know it. The American Interest. Retrieved from • O’Reilly, T. (2005). “What Is Web 2.0″. • UK Government Department of Business Innovation & Skills. (2013). The maturing of the MOOC. London: UK Government Publications. • Watters, A. (2013, November 7). The Education Apocalypse #opened13. Retrieved from
  • 56. Alannah Fitzgerald:; @AlannahFitz TOETOE Blog Slideshare: