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Building Open Educational Resources for EAP at Hanoi Open University
Open Education Practitioner and Researcher for Open Resources and Open Practices in English Language Teaching
Concordia University / The Open Educational Resources Research Hub
Open Educational Resources in English for Academic PurposesHanoi Open University Workshop January 11th, 2013Alannah Fitzgerald Halong Bay by Saturn CC-BY-NC-SA
Overview• FLAX Open Source Data Driven Learning tools and collections – Windows into linked copyrighted and open corpora = super ELT resources that go beyond many published resources – More accessible for non-specialist users, namely teachers and students• Promotion, training and evaluation of resources – DDL is still not a popular sport in mainstream ELT (Tribble, 2012) – DDL approaches facilitate English for Specific (Academic) Purposes• Broadening the DDL stakeholder vision – How can we move beyond classroom practice to include open and distance learning? – How can we work more closely with international collaborators for OER?• UK OER International programme – Oxford creative commons resources & Oxford-managed corpora – Building your own collections = a new methodology for DDL in EAP & Resources Development – ORIEL Re-use game and Creative Commons licensing scenarios
Open Educational PracticesThe four Rs of OER in teaching & learning:Reuse – Use the work verbatim, just exactly as you found itRework – Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needsRemix – Combine the (verbatim or altered work) with other works to better meet your needsRedistribute – Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with othersDavid Wiley, 2007
Open Data-Driven Technology in Language Teaching and Learning Shaoqun Wu & Alannah Fitzgerald The Universities of Waikato and OxfordThe Higher Education Academy OER International
Data Driven Learning (DDL)In DDL, a student has access to a large body ofauthentic language, from which s/he can extractlanguage items in context. (Boulton, 2011)The student is a language “research worker”(Johns, 1994).
What is a Digital Library?The digital library concept is applied to acollection of digital resources including butnot restricted to those selected by theteacher.
Collocation Collocation database database Any other Any other resource resourceDigital LibraryDigital Library Glossary Glossary
Learning Collocations collection in FLAX FLAX team collections building:Shaoqun Wu, Ian Witten, Margaret Franken, Xiaofeng Yu – Waikato University http://tinyurl.com/73zcgac
The BAWE text sub collections http://tinyurl.com/cpwyefb
Wikify key words & phrases http://tinyurl.com/cpwyefb
How could you use the FLAXcollections in your teaching andlearning and in preparation forexams such as IELTS/TOEFL?
Using corpus-based resources tosupport student writing Shaoqun Wu The University of Waikato
Features of academic writing• Complexity• Formality• Hedging• Precision• Objectivity• Explicitness• Accuracy• Responsibility
Complexity• more lexical words than grammatical words• more noun-based phrases• more nominalizations• more lexical variation
Formality Avoiding use of:"stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of”, "cant","doesnt", "shouldnt”, "put off", "bring up"
Preparing for essay writing• for teachers: building a collection of articles on a relevant topic• for students: understanding more with linked resources and collecting relevant language on a related topic
Example IELTS writing topic: stress at work• … is caused by work stress• … is affected by work stress• … due to the work stress• …. suffer from work stress• … is under extreme work stress•• … causes higher levels of stress• Effects of work stress include …• Sources of work stress are …• … are the signs of work stress• As a result of work stress, …•• What can you do to reduce work stress?• How to manage work stress/handle work stress/cope with work stress• uses strategies/resources to cope with work stress• learn … ways of coping with work stress
Student feedback• Words or phrases I had heard before but had trouble understanding properly, it was very good to look up these in relation to my assignment.• Origins of words like notation that were used in a different context that I’m used to. Makes me understand the text better.• When reading other texts related to the assignment I could look words up that I didnt understand.• I looked up words that I normally overlook as normal dictionaries dont tend to have these phrases or words. (EC’s comments on using the system for her phonology assignment) 23
Writing Feedback SurveyPlease fill out the following survey and tell us about feedback to student writing and the type of resources you use.(Liang Li & Alannah Fitzgerald)http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/277L2QY
Open Training Resources for Wider Participation Alannah Fitzgerald & Shaoqun Wu The Universities of Waikato and OxfordThe Higher Education Academy OER International
Training Videos for FLAX on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyDG29aQo8Y
Training Videos for FLAX on YouKu http://www.youku.com/playlist_show/id_18115224.html
Beyond audience boundariesRussell Stannard - Teacher Training Videos http://www.teachertrainingvideos.com
International Collaboration OER & DDL for EAPFLAX OSS and Oxford resources TOETOE International
University of Oxford http://openspires.oucs.ox.ac.uk/resources/index.html#posters 30
It’s all in the downloads University Downloads Open University, UK Over 34 million since June 2008 University of Oxford Over 9 million since June 2008 Coventry University 2.5 million in 2010 alone University of Warwick 1 million Jan ‘09 – June ‘10http://www.slideshare.net/tbirdcymru/itunes-u-corporate-channel-of-free-educational-resources
What is Creative Commons?• Derived from free and open source software licensing• Founded in 2001 by Prof Lawrence Lessig at the University of Stanford• Designed to push back against increased enclosure of ‘intellectual commons’• Six ‘general’, regionalised licences for easy sharing of rights in content• A suite of machine-, human- and lawyer-readable licences
What are the conditions?Attribution• Author must be acknowledged on all copies and adaptations of the work, including a link to the original version of the work
What are the conditions?Non-commercial• The work can only be used for non-commercial purposes
What are the conditions?No Derivatives• The work can only be distributed in its original form; no adaptations or translations can be made
What are the conditions?Sharealike• The work can be modified and adapted, but the entire resulting work (including new material added by the adaptor) must be distributed under the same sharealike licence
What does adaptation mean?• Your authorship will always be acknowledged• Some examples – Re-use in educational material – Sampling your voice to use in electronic music – Incorporating still or moving images into a Youtube video• Re-use must avoid ‘derogatory treatment’ meaning adaptation that risks having a detrimental effect on your reputation
What could you do with theOxford Creative Commonspodcast content?
Linking open tools and open pods http://http://openspires.oucs.ox.ac.uk/crunch/ 43
Materials Development with OERArguably, competencies with resources cut across the whole of the TEAP framework. http://www.baleap.org.uk/baleap/parties-projects/eap-teacher-competencies/ 51
Why make educational resources open?A growing momentum behind OER worldwide Commitment to social justice and widening participation Helps build markets and reputation Bridges the divide between formal and informal learning A test bed for new e-learning developments and an opportunity to research and evaluate them A way of drawing in materials from other organisations A means for attracting the attention of publishers Provides the basis for world-wide collaboration
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Reuse of OER•The blue cards are on a general theme ofMOTIVATION – what leads to OER reuse ordiscourages it.•The grey cards are on the theme of TECHNOLOGY –how this may affect OER reuse•The pink cards are on the theme of QUALITY – howthis affects OER use decisions 55
Open licensing scenarios with Creative Commons
Licensing ScenariosGroup work:Read and discuss the following licensing scenarios asthey would apply to language teaching and materialsdevelopment practice.(Adapted from copyright resources created by Bernie Atwell at the OU;adapted for language resource developers)
Use clearanceI’ve found an open access pre-publication article byDiane Nation on the web and this would be brilliant touse in my EAP class. I intend to develop a languagelearning resource with these materials and then toupload it onto the web for open use. I’ve tried to contactMs Nation twice and have been in touch with the webmaster of the site to see if s/he can help but have had noresponse so far. I’ve amended the article, as I didn’tagree with some of the points she was making. I thinkI’ve improved the work actually and I’ve obviously lefther acknowledged as the author. As I’ve had no responseI’m just going to use it anyway. Everyone’s always talkingabout risk so I’ll take one. Is this OK?
CC licensing worldwideMy institution has an online open learning resourceand is based in Vietnam. We have selected aVietnamese licence for the use of our content.However, a user in China has asked us if the CC licencestill applies? Does the CC licence refer to where thecontent is being used or where it is hosted?
Open software licensesI have some software I would like to make available under a CC licence – would that be OK?
Logo protectionMy institution is making some of its content availableunder a CC licence. How do we ensure that ourtrademarks/logos are protected?
Extended Licensing ScenarioThe following scenario is intended to promotediscussion around the areas of creative commonslicensing, the collaborations involved, and any otherissues the discussion may highlight.
Your educational institution is going to be working incollaboration with at least two other educational institutionsin Vietnam and one in the UK.You are going to create an innovative joint MA TESOLresource for Masters students studying and researching inthe area of open corpora for teaching English for AcademicPurposes (EAP). This facility will act as a provider of onlineresources. All institutions will provide some of their ownexisting materials that contain third party content (journalarticles, images, extracts from books, and website content)which are made up of text and audio-visual content.The collaboration would like to make the content openlyavailable whilst ensuring that their intellectual propertyrights are not compromised.
Consider the following questions for discussion:• How would you license this content to users?• Would you consider using a Creative Commons licence, if so which one?• Would you need to consider more than one type of licence?• What would you need to take care of contractually in relation to the content?• How would you ensure that the integrity of third party content is maintained?
Thank youEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com FLAX Language: flax.nzdl.org; Twitter: @AlannahFitz Slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/AlannahOpenEd/ Blog: Technology for Open English – Toying with Open E-resources www.alannahfitzgerald.org