Prepare handouts for group – if unsure of how to answer questions then we can help or direct to resources, e.g. JISC Legal
If u know
Designing Open Linguistic Support
DESIGNING OPEN LINGUISTIC SUPPORT
ALANNAH FITZGERALD @ CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL
“The best way to predict the future
is to design it”
• Data-Driven Learning for the Masses
– FLAX Language Project at Waikato University
– MOOCs and Specific Academic English Support
• Open Oxford and Resource Reuse
• Creative Commons Licensing
• Open Educational Resources and Practices
• Educational Computing and Punditry
MOOCs and the Massive Potential for
Linguistic Support Development
‘Charles Severance ran into the language barrier in week two of his seven-week
course. After 45,000 people signed up, 23,000 actually logged in when
the course began in June. By the end of the first week and the first quiz,
11,000 had stuck around. Not the kind of retention rate Severance was
accustomed to at Michigan, but par for the course in a MOOC.
That’s when Severance made what was, in retrospect, a tactical error. “I
wanted to try the peer assessment as fast as possible,” he says. So he
assigned a short essay -- 400 words or so...that’s when things started to go
“Probably a third of the students do not have English as a primary language,”
says Severance. “A problem I have never had before is … suddenly I’ve got
people in 15 languages. I’m trying to be subtle and draw out some insight,
[and] they want something they can really translate and understand.”
After that assignment, the active enrollment in his course dropped to 6,000.’
FLAX Project at Waikato University
FLAX image by permission of non-commercial reuse by Jane Galloway
FLAX – Flexible Language Acquisition
Flexible Language Acquisition
MOOC Linguistic Support with English
for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP)
Virology OER from Open Educational
Practitioner, Vincent Racaniello
FLAX Virology ESAP Collection
• YouTube lectures streamed
• This Week in Virology (TWiV) podcasts
• Open Access articles
• Virology blog articles with hyperlinks to resources
• Text analysis tools for e.g. lexical bundles,
collocations, word lists, part-of-speech (POS)
tags, and links to Wikipedia, the British National
Corpus (BNC) and the live web
• Digital library features: search, retrieve, save,
interact and learn
The traditional text analysis software interface for
working with large language collections (corpora) has
been the Key Word In Context (KWIC) interface. Corpus
linguistics researchers and developers of KWIC
interfaces have claimed over the years that learners of
a language can deduce language use patterns by
examining KWIC lines. This method is also known as
19. LICENSE TO USE
19. License to use
Open licenses (e.g.
allow resources to be
used without the need
for rights clearance.
Is the content you need
(adapted from UKOpenUni workshop)
I’ve found six images on the web for use in my
course-related DVD and the resolutions are fine.
However, they are available under a Creative
Commons, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-
Alike licence. This clearance is fine for my initial
use for staff and students, but we would
probably eventually hope to sell the DVD.
Should I not bother with these images?
I’ve found an article by Diane Nation on the web
and this would be brilliant for my learning object
intended for open use. I’ve tried to contact Ms
Nation twice and have been in touch with the web
master of the site to see if they can help but have
had no response so far. I’ve amended the article, as
I didn’t agree with some of the points she was
making. I think I’ve improved the work actually and
I’ve obviously left her acknowledged as the author.
As I’ve had no response I’m just going to use it
anyway. Everyone’s always talking about risk so I’ll
take one. Is this OK?
My institution has an online open learning
resource and is based in the UK. We have
selected an England and Wales UK licence for
the use of our content. However, a user in China
has asked us if the CC licence still applies? Does
the CC licence refer to where the content is
being used or where it is hosted?
I have some software I would like to make
available under a CC licence – would that be OK?
My institution is making some of its content
available under a CC licence. How do we ensure
that our trademarks/logos are protected?
Extended Licensing Scenario
My educational institution is going to be working in collaboration with
at least two other educational institutions in Canada.
You are going to create an innovative joint MA TESOL resource for
Masters students studying and researching in the area of open
corpora for teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP).
This facility will act as a provider of online resources. All institutions
will provide some of their own existing materials that contain third
party content (journal articles, images, extracts from books, and
website content) which are made up of text and audio-visual
The collaboration would like to make the content openly available
whilst ensuring that their intellectual property rights are not
Consider the following questions for
• How would you license this content to users?
• Would you consider using a Creative Commons
licence, if so which one?
• Would you need to consider more than one type
• What would you need to take care of
contractually in relation to the content?
• How would you ensure that the integrity of third
party content is maintained?
3. SHARING IS GOOD
3. Sharing is good
The ethos of education is
to share learning.
Can open content be a
sound investment as well
as the right thing to do?
By Toban Black
• For the practitioner
– Web presence; resources development expertise;
• For the student
– Preview of, access to and contribution to course content.
• For the institution
– Brand promotion; best practice showcasing.
• For the EAP community
– Materials development collaboration; sharing best
practice; providing an alternative to commercial
publications (Specific vs General EAP).
28. MY COMMUNITY
28. My community
If I belong to a
then is this the best
place to look for great
reusable resources? Or
would I miss
7. LEARN NEW STUFF
7. Learn new stuff
Does working with other
people’s stuff offer
Or would you miss the
creative thrill of making
By Wayan Vota
• For the practitioner
– Development of practical skills in digital materials
creation: reuse, repurpose, remix and redistribute.
• For the student
– Access to up-to-date resources: inside and beyond the
• For the institution
– Sustainable resources and continued recognition.
• For the EAP community
– Exposure to new and relevant tools and resources for
EAP (e.g. FLAX)
The end of the university as we know it
“The future looks like this: Access to college-level
education will be free for everyone; the residential
college campus will become largely obsolete; tens of
thousands of professors will lose their jobs; the
bachelor’s degree will become increasingly irrelevant;
and ten years from now Harvard will enroll ten million
students.” (Harden, 2013)
The Education Apocalypse:
“Where in the stories we’re telling about the future of
education are we seeing salvation? Why would we locate
that in technology and not in humans, for example? Why
would we locate that in markets and not in communities?
What happens when we embrace a narrative about the
end-times — about education crisis and education
apocalypse? Who’s poised to take advantage of this crisis
narrative? Why would we believe a gospel according to
artificial intelligence, or according to Harvard Business
School [Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation theory], or
according to Techcrunch...?” (Watters, 2013)
Shifting Predictions within Disruptive
Innovation for Education
“People did not create new disruptive business
models in public education [K-12], however.,”
Christensen writes. "Why not? Almost all
disruptions take root among non-consumers. In
education, there was little opportunity to do
that. Public education is set up as a public utility,
and state laws mandate attendance for virtually
everyone. There was no large, untapped pool of
non-consumers that new school models could
target.” (Christensen, Horn & Staker, 2013)
OERu: Disruptive Innovation Aimed at
an Untapped Pool of Non-consumers?
From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg: What you
really need to know about the Internet
“We’re in the midst of a major upheaval in our
information environment, and none of us has any real
idea of where it will end up. So we need to put it into
perspective. As it happens, Johannes Gutenberg
triggered a comparable revolution five and a half
centuries ago when he introduced printing by moveable
type. His invention shaped the world into which the
Internet was born. What can we learn from that
experience?” (Naughton, 2011)
MOOC Research Initiative
• Christensen, C., Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K–12 blended learning
disruptive?An introduction of the theory of hybrids | Christensen Institute. Clayton
Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation. Retrieved from
• Kolowich, S. (2012). Learning from one another. Inside Higher Ed, August 30.
Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/08/30/first-humanities-
• Harden, N. (2013). The end of the university as we know it. The American Interest.
Retrieved from http://www.the-american-interest.com/article.cfm?piece=1352
• Naughton, J. (2011). From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg: What you really need to know
about the Internet. Quercus, London.
• Parr, C. (2013, October 31). Mooc rival OERu puts accreditation on menu. Times
Higher Education. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from
• Watters, A. (2013, November 7). The Education Apocalypse #opened13. Retrieved
Alannah Fitzgerald: email@example.com; @AlannahFitz
www.alannahfitzgerald.org TOETOE Blog