Designing Open Linguistic Support


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Presented at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada - An Introduction to Educational Computing with Steven Shaw (PhD supervisor) on November 11, 2013.

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  • Prepare handouts for group – if unsure of how to answer questions then we can help or direct to resources, e.g. JISC Legal
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  • Designing Open Linguistic Support

    2. 2. “The best way to predict the future is to design it” Buckminster Fuller
    3. 3. Overview • Data-Driven Learning for the Masses – FLAX Language Project at Waikato University – MOOCs and Specific Academic English Support • Open Oxford and Resource Reuse • Creative Commons Licensing • Open Educational Resources and Practices • Educational Computing and Punditry
    5. 5. MOOCs and the Massive Potential for Linguistic Support Development
    6. 6. MOOC Meltdowns ‘Charles Severance ran into the language barrier in week two of his seven-week course. After 45,000 people signed up, 23,000 actually logged in when the course began in June. By the end of the first week and the first quiz, 11,000 had stuck around. Not the kind of retention rate Severance was accustomed to at Michigan, but par for the course in a MOOC. That’s when Severance made what was, in retrospect, a tactical error. “I wanted to try the peer assessment as fast as possible,” he says. So he assigned a short essay -- 400 words or so...that’s when things started to go awry. “Probably a third of the students do not have English as a primary language,” says Severance. “A problem I have never had before is … suddenly I’ve got people in 15 languages. I’m trying to be subtle and draw out some insight, [and] they want something they can really translate and understand.” After that assignment, the active enrollment in his course dropped to 6,000.’ (Kolowich, 2012) ixzz2Qq92NBi2
    7. 7. FLAX Project at Waikato University FLAX image by permission of non-commercial reuse by Jane Galloway
    8. 8. FLAX – Flexible Language Acquisition Flexible Language Acquisition library
    9. 9. MOOC Linguistic Support with English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP)
    10. 10. Virology OER from Open Educational Practitioner, Vincent Racaniello
    11. 11. FLAX Virology ESAP Collection • YouTube lectures streamed • This Week in Virology (TWiV) podcasts • Open Access articles • Virology blog articles with hyperlinks to resources • Text analysis tools for e.g. lexical bundles, collocations, word lists, part-of-speech (POS) tags, and links to Wikipedia, the British National Corpus (BNC) and the live web • Digital library features: search, retrieve, save, interact and learn
    12. 12. The traditional text analysis software interface for working with large language collections (corpora) has been the Key Word In Context (KWIC) interface. Corpus linguistics researchers and developers of KWIC interfaces have claimed over the years that learners of a language can deduce language use patterns by examining KWIC lines. This method is also known as data-driven learning.
    13. 13. FLAX Interface Design
    15. 15. Re-using Oxford OpenSpires content in podcast corpora
    16. 16.
    17. 17. FLAX British Academic Written English (BAWE) Collections
    18. 18. FLAX Do-It-Yourself Podcast Corpora with Oxford OER
    19. 19. FLAX Do-It-Yourself Podcast Corpora 2: Building interactivity into your collections
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Chris’s Reusable Card Game Chris Pegler
    23. 23. 19. LICENSE TO USE 19. License to use Open licenses (e.g. Creative Commons) allow resources to be used without the need for rights clearance. Is the content you need openly licensed? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources axArt_Gold_Guys_With_Creative_Commons_S ymbol02.jpg
    24. 24. Licensing Scenarios (adapted from UKOpenUni workshop) I’ve found six images on the web for use in my course-related DVD and the resolutions are fine. However, they are available under a Creative Commons, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share- Alike licence. This clearance is fine for my initial use for staff and students, but we would probably eventually hope to sell the DVD. Should I not bother with these images?
    25. 25. Cont. I’ve found an article by Diane Nation on the web and this would be brilliant for my learning object intended for open use. I’ve tried to contact Ms Nation twice and have been in touch with the web master of the site to see if they can help but have had no response so far. I’ve amended the article, as I didn’t agree with some of the points she was making. I think I’ve improved the work actually and I’ve obviously left her acknowledged as the author. As I’ve had no response I’m just going to use it anyway. Everyone’s always talking about risk so I’ll take one. Is this OK?
    26. 26. Cont. My institution has an online open learning resource and is based in the UK. We have selected an England and Wales UK licence for the use of our content. However, a user in China has asked us if the CC licence still applies? Does the CC licence refer to where the content is being used or where it is hosted?
    27. 27. Cont. I have some software I would like to make available under a CC licence – would that be OK?
    28. 28. Cont. My institution is making some of its content available under a CC licence. How do we ensure that our trademarks/logos are protected?
    29. 29. Extended Licensing Scenario My educational institution is going to be working in collaboration with at least two other educational institutions in Canada. You are going to create an innovative joint MA TESOL resource for Masters students studying and researching in the area of open corpora for teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP). This facility will act as a provider of online resources. All institutions will provide some of their own existing materials that contain third party content (journal articles, images, extracts from books, and website content) which are made up of text and audio-visual content. The collaboration would like to make the content openly available whilst ensuring that their intellectual property rights are not compromised. 30
    30. 30. Consider the following questions for discussion: • How would you license this content to users? • Would you consider using a Creative Commons licence, if so which one? • Would you need to consider more than one type of licence? • What would you need to take care of contractually in relation to the content? • How would you ensure that the integrity of third party content is maintained? 31
    32. 32. 3. SHARING IS GOOD 3. Sharing is good The ethos of education is to share learning. Can open content be a sound investment as well as the right thing to do? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources By Toban Black /
    33. 33. • For the practitioner – Web presence; resources development expertise; professional recognition. • For the student – Preview of, access to and contribution to course content. • For the institution – Brand promotion; best practice showcasing. • For the EAP community – Materials development collaboration; sharing best practice; providing an alternative to commercial publications (Specific vs General EAP).
    34. 34. 28. MY COMMUNITY 28. My community If I belong to a community already, then is this the best place to look for great reusable resources? Or would I miss something? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources By Meer
    35. 35. 7. LEARN NEW STUFF 7. Learn new stuff Does working with other people’s stuff offer effective development? Or would you miss the creative thrill of making your own? Purpose Concerns Quality Technology Resources By Wayan Vota 8/
    36. 36. • For the practitioner – Development of practical skills in digital materials creation: reuse, repurpose, remix and redistribute. • For the student – Access to up-to-date resources: inside and beyond the classroom. • For the institution – Sustainable resources and continued recognition. • For the EAP community – Exposure to new and relevant tools and resources for EAP (e.g. FLAX)
    38. 38. The end of the university as we know it “The future looks like this: Access to college-level education will be free for everyone; the residential college campus will become largely obsolete; tens of thousands of professors will lose their jobs; the bachelor’s degree will become increasingly irrelevant; and ten years from now Harvard will enroll ten million students.” (Harden, 2013)
    39. 39. The Education Apocalypse: #opened13 Keynote “Where in the stories we’re telling about the future of education are we seeing salvation? Why would we locate that in technology and not in humans, for example? Why would we locate that in markets and not in communities? What happens when we embrace a narrative about the end-times — about education crisis and education apocalypse? Who’s poised to take advantage of this crisis narrative? Why would we believe a gospel according to artificial intelligence, or according to Harvard Business School [Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation theory], or according to Techcrunch...?” (Watters, 2013)
    40. 40. Shifting Predictions within Disruptive Innovation for Education “People did not create new disruptive business models in public education [K-12], however.,” Christensen writes. "Why not? Almost all disruptions take root among non-consumers. In education, there was little opportunity to do that. Public education is set up as a public utility, and state laws mandate attendance for virtually everyone. There was no large, untapped pool of non-consumers that new school models could target.” (Christensen, Horn & Staker, 2013)
    41. 41. OERu: Disruptive Innovation Aimed at an Untapped Pool of Non-consumers?
    42. 42. From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg: What you really need to know about the Internet “We’re in the midst of a major upheaval in our information environment, and none of us has any real idea of where it will end up. So we need to put it into perspective. As it happens, Johannes Gutenberg triggered a comparable revolution five and a half centuries ago when he introduced printing by moveable type. His invention shaped the world into which the Internet was born. What can we learn from that experience?” (Naughton, 2011)
    43. 43. OER Research Hub
    44. 44. MOOC Research Initiative
    45. 45. References • Christensen, C., Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K–12 blended learning disruptive?An introduction of the theory of hybrids | Christensen Institute. Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation. Retrieved from • Kolowich, S. (2012). Learning from one another. Inside Higher Ed, August 30. Retrieved from mooc-professors-road-test-courseras-peer-grading-model • Harden, N. (2013). The end of the university as we know it. The American Interest. Retrieved from • Naughton, J. (2011). From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg: What you really need to know about the Internet. Quercus, London. • Parr, C. (2013, October 31). Mooc rival OERu puts accreditation on menu. Times Higher Education. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from on-menu/2008571.article • Watters, A. (2013, November 7). The Education Apocalypse #opened13. Retrieved from
    46. 46. Thank you Alannah Fitzgerald:; @AlannahFitz TOETOE Blog Slideshare: