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Gender and Everyday Sexism

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Since the 1980s, ‘hegemonic masculinity’ has been used to explain the privilege that men have in contemporary societies and as a means of explaining the ongoing inequalities between the sexes. …

Since the 1980s, ‘hegemonic masculinity’ has been used to explain the privilege that men have in contemporary societies and as a means of explaining the ongoing inequalities between the sexes. However, theorists, such as RW Connell, argue there is no way of being male, and that dominant narratives of what it means to be a man or a woman or socially constructed. We shall look at theories of hegemonic masculinity and discuss ongoing gender inequality, and what activists call ‘everyday sexism’. We shall also ask whether it can be said that we live in a ‘rape culture’, and if so, what link might there be to hegemonic masculinity.


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  • 1. Everyday Life 5 Gender & Everyday Sexism Dr Alana Lentin a.lentin@uws.edu.au Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 2. Overview Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 3. Overview ✓ Gender as a social construct ✓ Patriarchy ✓ ‘The juggling just gets too hard...’: Everyday gender roles ✓ ‘Bros before Hos’: hegemomic masculinity ✓ Everyday sexism & rape culture Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 4. Women & Men Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 5. Women & Men Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 6. Women & Men Wednesday, 28 August 13
  • 7. Gender as social construction Wednesday, 28 August 13 What is social construction? Central to sociology - Nothing is inevitable or natural. Our ideas about things develop socially, or are constructed at within a particular context. Hence ideas about thing such as gender may differ across cultures. How is gender a social construct? Although we might think that being a man and being a woman is defined by our biology, gender is a fluid construct. It is not determined by our biology, but is actually a product of our environment, our performance, our choices, and our society. Our society sets up gender as a dichotomy: masculine and feminine. Masculinity includes traits like brave, noisy, and strong. Femininity includes being timid, quiet, fragile, and nurturing. Nothing is genetically inherent in men to make them masculine, or in women to make them feminine. Global variations in behaviour and expectations show that gender is a cultural construct. In other words, there is no reason why the genitalia you have should have any impact on how you behave. But, in many if not most societies, we believe that our gender is influenced by our sex. Anne Oakley was one of the first feminist theorists to distinguish between sex and gender. In her 1985 book, ‘Sex, Gender and Society’, Oakley argues that “gender was distinct from sex, that gender referred to the social characteristics, masculinity and femininity, and were variable, whereas sex related to biological sex and were more fixed” (Alsop et al 2002: 66). “The constancy of sex must be admitted, but so too must the variability of gender” (Oakley 1985: 16) - this was central to early ideas about the social construction of gender. However, Oakley’s definition of biological sex as fixed is called into question by transgender and intersex people whose experience further developed social constructivist theorizations in the decades that followed but which are still often omitted from discussions of gender and feminism. According to Alsop et al. the problem with much early social constructionist approaches, such as Oakley’s, is that they fall into the trap of essentialism by failing to take into account that biological sex is, as much as gender is, socially mediated. For example, the picture of the transgender father carrying his baby shows that both sex and gender are socially constructed. The person has both masculine and feminine bodily features. He identifies as a man, but has used his female reproductive organs to carry a child.
  • 8. Gender as social construction “The constancy of sex must be admitted, but so too must the variability of gender” Ann Oakley (1985: 16) Wednesday, 28 August 13 What is social construction? Central to sociology - Nothing is inevitable or natural. Our ideas about things develop socially, or are constructed at within a particular context. Hence ideas about thing such as gender may differ across cultures. How is gender a social construct? Although we might think that being a man and being a woman is defined by our biology, gender is a fluid construct. It is not determined by our biology, but is actually a product of our environment, our performance, our choices, and our society. Our society sets up gender as a dichotomy: masculine and feminine. Masculinity includes traits like brave, noisy, and strong. Femininity includes being timid, quiet, fragile, and nurturing. Nothing is genetically inherent in men to make them masculine, or in women to make them feminine. Global variations in behaviour and expectations show that gender is a cultural construct. In other words, there is no reason why the genitalia you have should have any impact on how you behave. But, in many if not most societies, we believe that our gender is influenced by our sex. Anne Oakley was one of the first feminist theorists to distinguish between sex and gender. In her 1985 book, ‘Sex, Gender and Society’, Oakley argues that “gender was distinct from sex, that gender referred to the social characteristics, masculinity and femininity, and were variable, whereas sex related to biological sex and were more fixed” (Alsop et al 2002: 66). “The constancy of sex must be admitted, but so too must the variability of gender” (Oakley 1985: 16) - this was central to early ideas about the social construction of gender. However, Oakley’s definition of biological sex as fixed is called into question by transgender and intersex people whose experience further developed social constructivist theorizations in the decades that followed but which are still often omitted from discussions of gender and feminism. According to Alsop et al. the problem with much early social constructionist approaches, such as Oakley’s, is that they fall into the trap of essentialism by failing to take into account that biological sex is, as much as gender is, socially mediated. For example, the picture of the transgender father carrying his baby shows that both sex and gender are socially constructed. The person has both masculine and feminine bodily features. He identifies as a man, but has used his female reproductive organs to carry a child.
  • 9. Patriarchy Wednesday, 28 August 13 The term patriarchy originates with Kate Millett (famous feminist in 1970. Patriarchy = one system of power/domination (among others). Patriarchy = literally ‘rule of the father’ Patriarchy is a system in which men have more power in society than women. Not all men are patriarchs, but all men benefit from the system of patriarchy vis-a-vis women. So, while a poor man of colour may not have as much power as a rich white women, he benefits from patriarchy relative to poor black women. Silvia Walby’s six structures of patriarchy: All women may not be victims of patriarchal domination in all spheres, but relative to men, in most societies, under each of these structures women are discriminated against. As we shall see, according to Raewynn Connell, this is most obvious in the realm of housework.
  • 10. Patriarchy Walby’s six structures of patriarchy (1989): ✓Paid work ✓Housework ✓Sexuality ✓Culture ✓Violence ✓The State Wednesday, 28 August 13 The term patriarchy originates with Kate Millett (famous feminist in 1970. Patriarchy = one system of power/domination (among others). Patriarchy = literally ‘rule of the father’ Patriarchy is a system in which men have more power in society than women. Not all men are patriarchs, but all men benefit from the system of patriarchy vis-a-vis women. So, while a poor man of colour may not have as much power as a rich white women, he benefits from patriarchy relative to poor black women. Silvia Walby’s six structures of patriarchy: All women may not be victims of patriarchal domination in all spheres, but relative to men, in most societies, under each of these structures women are discriminated against. As we shall see, according to Raewynn Connell, this is most obvious in the realm of housework.
  • 11. ‘The juggling just gets too hard’: Everyday gender roles Wednesday, 28 August 13 One area where patriarchy becomes very obvious is in the division between the world of work and the world of the home. Marxist feminism of the 1970s was particularly occupied with women’s unpaid domestic work. Women did not generally work outside the home. Men’s work - which was paid - was considered the only real form of work. Domestic or housework was both unpaid and unvalued. Feminists called for wages for housework. French feminist, Christine Delphy’s in a 1977 essay - ‘The Main Enemy’ - proposed that there is a second mode of production, alongside the industrial one: the domestic mode. Just as the industrial mode of production is the site for capitalist exploitation, the domestic site produces patriarchal exploitation. For Delphy, women should be seen as a class because as wives, mothers and domestic workers their unpaid labour is similarly exploited Today, many more men participate in housework but many women have described themselves as doing two jobs - one outside the house (paid) and one (unpaid) inside the house. [show Kimmel clip] [Click in Connell points]: RW Connell’s article on work-life balance raises five central issues that relate to how the gender roles that men and women are expected to perform have an impact on the amount of work that each do and how that is differently rewarded. This, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the public and the private spheres. Public-private divide:
  • 12. ‘The juggling just gets too hard’: Everyday gender roles ‘Modern capitalist society is thus marked by a structural subordination of women rather than by the direct personal power of individual men over individual women.’ Raewyn Connell (2005: 371) Wednesday, 28 August 13 One area where patriarchy becomes very obvious is in the division between the world of work and the world of the home. Marxist feminism of the 1970s was particularly occupied with women’s unpaid domestic work. Women did not generally work outside the home. Men’s work - which was paid - was considered the only real form of work. Domestic or housework was both unpaid and unvalued. Feminists called for wages for housework. French feminist, Christine Delphy’s in a 1977 essay - ‘The Main Enemy’ - proposed that there is a second mode of production, alongside the industrial one: the domestic mode. Just as the industrial mode of production is the site for capitalist exploitation, the domestic site produces patriarchal exploitation. For Delphy, women should be seen as a class because as wives, mothers and domestic workers their unpaid labour is similarly exploited Today, many more men participate in housework but many women have described themselves as doing two jobs - one outside the house (paid) and one (unpaid) inside the house. [show Kimmel clip] [Click in Connell points]: RW Connell’s article on work-life balance raises five central issues that relate to how the gender roles that men and women are expected to perform have an impact on the amount of work that each do and how that is differently rewarded. This, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the public and the private spheres. Public-private divide:
  • 13. ‘The juggling just gets too hard’: Everyday gender roles ‘Modern capitalist society is thus marked by a structural subordination of women rather than by the direct personal power of individual men over individual women.’ Raewyn Connell (2005: 371) Wednesday, 28 August 13 One area where patriarchy becomes very obvious is in the division between the world of work and the world of the home. Marxist feminism of the 1970s was particularly occupied with women’s unpaid domestic work. Women did not generally work outside the home. Men’s work - which was paid - was considered the only real form of work. Domestic or housework was both unpaid and unvalued. Feminists called for wages for housework. French feminist, Christine Delphy’s in a 1977 essay - ‘The Main Enemy’ - proposed that there is a second mode of production, alongside the industrial one: the domestic mode. Just as the industrial mode of production is the site for capitalist exploitation, the domestic site produces patriarchal exploitation. For Delphy, women should be seen as a class because as wives, mothers and domestic workers their unpaid labour is similarly exploited Today, many more men participate in housework but many women have described themselves as doing two jobs - one outside the house (paid) and one (unpaid) inside the house. [show Kimmel clip] [Click in Connell points]: RW Connell’s article on work-life balance raises five central issues that relate to how the gender roles that men and women are expected to perform have an impact on the amount of work that each do and how that is differently rewarded. This, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the public and the private spheres. Public-private divide:
  • 14. ‘The juggling just gets too hard’: Everyday gender roles ✓Public-Private divide ✓Choice ✓Juggling ✓Caring ✓Managing ‘like a man’ ✓Maternity Wednesday, 28 August 13 One area where patriarchy becomes very obvious is in the division between the world of work and the world of the home. Marxist feminism of the 1970s was particularly occupied with women’s unpaid domestic work. Women did not generally work outside the home. Men’s work - which was paid - was considered the only real form of work. Domestic or housework was both unpaid and unvalued. Feminists called for wages for housework. French feminist, Christine Delphy’s in a 1977 essay - ‘The Main Enemy’ - proposed that there is a second mode of production, alongside the industrial one: the domestic mode. Just as the industrial mode of production is the site for capitalist exploitation, the domestic site produces patriarchal exploitation. For Delphy, women should be seen as a class because as wives, mothers and domestic workers their unpaid labour is similarly exploited Today, many more men participate in housework but many women have described themselves as doing two jobs - one outside the house (paid) and one (unpaid) inside the house. [show Kimmel clip] [Click in Connell points]: RW Connell’s article on work-life balance raises five central issues that relate to how the gender roles that men and women are expected to perform have an impact on the amount of work that each do and how that is differently rewarded. This, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the public and the private spheres. Public-private divide:
  • 15. ‘Bros before Hos’: Hegemonic masculinity Wednesday, 28 August 13 In recent decades, there has been a move towards men and masculinity studies. It is influenced by feminist studies and the emphasis on gender as a central analytical category. Studying men can help us to understand concepts such as patriarchy or the type of practical problems of gendered divisions of labour that Connell outlines. It can also help us to understand why sexism is so pervasive in most if not all societies. Masculinities in the plural => because clearly there is no one way to be a man, just as there is not one way of being a woman. There are multiple and often conflicting ideas about what being a man means. However, many authors (following Connell) refer to the idea of ‘hegemonic masculinity’. This refers to the fact that, despite variety of masculinities, there is one dominant or more socially/culturally acceptable way of being a man. This version of masculinity tends to dominate globally and has an impact, not only on the relationship with women, but also on the relationship between men. Men are policed according to the ideals of hegemonic masculinity. Kimmel quote: the dominance of masculinity means that most men do not think actively about gender. Gender is a central way of organising power in society - by dividing masculinity and femininity up according to the gender system, we are actually enacting power - to be masculine is to have power, to be feminine is not to have it. Similarly, if a man is perceived as being unmasculine he loses power. A woman can gain
  • 16. ‘Bros before Hos’: Hegemonic masculinity ‘...men have come to think of themselves as genderless, in part because they can afford the luxury of ignoring the centrality of gender...’ Kimmel (1993) Wednesday, 28 August 13 In recent decades, there has been a move towards men and masculinity studies. It is influenced by feminist studies and the emphasis on gender as a central analytical category. Studying men can help us to understand concepts such as patriarchy or the type of practical problems of gendered divisions of labour that Connell outlines. It can also help us to understand why sexism is so pervasive in most if not all societies. Masculinities in the plural => because clearly there is no one way to be a man, just as there is not one way of being a woman. There are multiple and often conflicting ideas about what being a man means. However, many authors (following Connell) refer to the idea of ‘hegemonic masculinity’. This refers to the fact that, despite variety of masculinities, there is one dominant or more socially/culturally acceptable way of being a man. This version of masculinity tends to dominate globally and has an impact, not only on the relationship with women, but also on the relationship between men. Men are policed according to the ideals of hegemonic masculinity. Kimmel quote: the dominance of masculinity means that most men do not think actively about gender. Gender is a central way of organising power in society - by dividing masculinity and femininity up according to the gender system, we are actually enacting power - to be masculine is to have power, to be feminine is not to have it. Similarly, if a man is perceived as being unmasculine he loses power. A woman can gain
  • 17. ‘Bros before Hos’: Hegemonic masculinity ✓ ‘Boys Don’t Cry’ ✓ ‘It’s better to be mad than sad’ ✓ ‘Don’t get mad - get even’ ✓ ‘Take it like a man’ ✓ ‘He who has the most toys when he dies, wins’ ✓ ‘Just do it’ or ‘Ride and die’ ✓ ‘Size matters’ ✓ ‘I don’t stop to ask for directions’ ✓ ‘Nice guys finish last’ ✓ ‘It’s all good’ Wednesday, 28 August 13 In recent decades, there has been a move towards men and masculinity studies. It is influenced by feminist studies and the emphasis on gender as a central analytical category. Studying men can help us to understand concepts such as patriarchy or the type of practical problems of gendered divisions of labour that Connell outlines. It can also help us to understand why sexism is so pervasive in most if not all societies. Masculinities in the plural => because clearly there is no one way to be a man, just as there is not one way of being a woman. There are multiple and often conflicting ideas about what being a man means. However, many authors (following Connell) refer to the idea of ‘hegemonic masculinity’. This refers to the fact that, despite variety of masculinities, there is one dominant or more socially/culturally acceptable way of being a man. This version of masculinity tends to dominate globally and has an impact, not only on the relationship with women, but also on the relationship between men. Men are policed according to the ideals of hegemonic masculinity. Kimmel quote: the dominance of masculinity means that most men do not think actively about gender. Gender is a central way of organising power in society - by dividing masculinity and femininity up according to the gender system, we are actually enacting power - to be masculine is to have power, to be feminine is not to have it. Similarly, if a man is perceived as being unmasculine he loses power. A woman can gain
  • 18. Policing gender Wednesday, 28 August 13 One of the main ways in which the guy code is enforced is through what Kimmel calls gender policing. The most common put-down in any US high school is ‘that’s so gay’ (true for Australia too?) To be gay is to be stupid or just plain wrong. Kimmel cites Eminem: ‘faggot’ is not really about literally being gay (homosexual) it means having your manhood taken away. As Kimmel says, this extends to women - women reported suspecting a man of being gay if ‘he’s looking at my eyes, and not down my blouse.’ Kimmel notes that gender policing begins at an early age. Story about an African-American father who takes his child to the hairdressers. The child has a painful chemical treatment on his hair and cries from pain. The barber tells the father that the buy should not be allowed to spend so much time with his mother, or he’ll become a ‘sissy’. The child is only three and half! Boys learn early that emotions they associate with the maternal - compassion, nurturance, vulnerability and dependency - should be suppressed. Do you think this is the case?
  • 19. Policing gender ‘Take it like a man’ ‘Don’t be asissy’ ‘Mummy’s boy’ ‘Don’t be a cry baby’ Wednesday, 28 August 13 One of the main ways in which the guy code is enforced is through what Kimmel calls gender policing. The most common put-down in any US high school is ‘that’s so gay’ (true for Australia too?) To be gay is to be stupid or just plain wrong. Kimmel cites Eminem: ‘faggot’ is not really about literally being gay (homosexual) it means having your manhood taken away. As Kimmel says, this extends to women - women reported suspecting a man of being gay if ‘he’s looking at my eyes, and not down my blouse.’ Kimmel notes that gender policing begins at an early age. Story about an African-American father who takes his child to the hairdressers. The child has a painful chemical treatment on his hair and cries from pain. The barber tells the father that the buy should not be allowed to spend so much time with his mother, or he’ll become a ‘sissy’. The child is only three and half! Boys learn early that emotions they associate with the maternal - compassion, nurturance, vulnerability and dependency - should be suppressed. Do you think this is the case?
  • 20. Everyday Sexism Wednesday, 28 August 13 If we follow Connell and Kimmel, it is hegemonic masculinity and the guy code that legitimise the persistence of sexism in our societies. We hear a lot about sexism in other societies (especially the Middle east, India, etc.) but what about everyday sexism in western countries like Australia? Julia Gillard: The Australian feminist writer Anne Summers has written extensively about sexism in Australia, most recently in relation to the treatment of Julia Gillard when she was PM. Everyone is familiar with Gillard’s misogyny speech targeting Tony Abbott. Summers claims that the sexist treatment of Gillard began as soon as she entered the prime minister’s role. Summers argues that while it may be common for politicians from opposite sides of the house to call each other names, the name calling sustained by Gillard went over and above anything experienced by her male colleagues. She also points out more subtle issues, such as the prime minister being referred to by her first name in the media. Every one of her physical features was also under scrutiny by the media. Gillard was frequently referred to as a bitch, etc. Summers’ main point is that Gillard was treated unfairly not because of any political disagreement but because she is a woman.
  • 21. Everyday Sexism ‘[O]f course not all men hate women. But culture hates women, so men who grow up in a sexist culture have a tendency to do and say sexist things, often without meaning to. We aren’t judging you for who you are but that doesn’t mean we’re not asking you to change your behaviour...You can be the gentlest, sweetest man in the world yet still benefit from sexism. That’s how oppression works.’ Laurie Penny 16 August 2013 Wednesday, 28 August 13 If we follow Connell and Kimmel, it is hegemonic masculinity and the guy code that legitimise the persistence of sexism in our societies. We hear a lot about sexism in other societies (especially the Middle east, India, etc.) but what about everyday sexism in western countries like Australia? Julia Gillard: The Australian feminist writer Anne Summers has written extensively about sexism in Australia, most recently in relation to the treatment of Julia Gillard when she was PM. Everyone is familiar with Gillard’s misogyny speech targeting Tony Abbott. Summers claims that the sexist treatment of Gillard began as soon as she entered the prime minister’s role. Summers argues that while it may be common for politicians from opposite sides of the house to call each other names, the name calling sustained by Gillard went over and above anything experienced by her male colleagues. She also points out more subtle issues, such as the prime minister being referred to by her first name in the media. Every one of her physical features was also under scrutiny by the media. Gillard was frequently referred to as a bitch, etc. Summers’ main point is that Gillard was treated unfairly not because of any political disagreement but because she is a woman.
  • 22. Everyday Sexism ‘[O]f course not all men hate women. But culture hates women, so men who grow up in a sexist culture have a tendency to do and say sexist things, often without meaning to. We aren’t judging you for who you are but that doesn’t mean we’re not asking you to change your behaviour...You can be the gentlest, sweetest man in the world yet still benefit from sexism. That’s how oppression works.’ Laurie Penny 16 August 2013 Wednesday, 28 August 13 If we follow Connell and Kimmel, it is hegemonic masculinity and the guy code that legitimise the persistence of sexism in our societies. We hear a lot about sexism in other societies (especially the Middle east, India, etc.) but what about everyday sexism in western countries like Australia? Julia Gillard: The Australian feminist writer Anne Summers has written extensively about sexism in Australia, most recently in relation to the treatment of Julia Gillard when she was PM. Everyone is familiar with Gillard’s misogyny speech targeting Tony Abbott. Summers claims that the sexist treatment of Gillard began as soon as she entered the prime minister’s role. Summers argues that while it may be common for politicians from opposite sides of the house to call each other names, the name calling sustained by Gillard went over and above anything experienced by her male colleagues. She also points out more subtle issues, such as the prime minister being referred to by her first name in the media. Every one of her physical features was also under scrutiny by the media. Gillard was frequently referred to as a bitch, etc. Summers’ main point is that Gillard was treated unfairly not because of any political disagreement but because she is a woman.
  • 23. Rape culture & victim blaming Wednesday, 28 August 13 Following the horrific gang rape and killing of the young woman in Delhi at the end of 2012, the term rape culture has come on the agenda. Definition: ‘Rape culture is the condoning and normalising of physical, emotional and sexual terrorism against women and girls and marginalised subjects.’( Mohadesa Najumi 9 June 2013) Kimmel tells a variety of stories in Guyland about situations in which young men rape a girl and, while some people, refuse to participate, there is a wall of silence around the event. No one talks about it and no one reports it. This was the case in Steubenville, Ohio, where two men were convicted of raping a 16 year old girl. What is striking is the relative shortness of the sentences they received as well as the reactions to the sentencing. [Show clip] The emotional reaction to the sentencing of the Steubenville rapists can be explained by the prevalence of victim blaming. Most rapes go unreported because in most cases rape victims are not believed. Very often, defendants in rape cases get light sentences or acquittals because emphasis is placed on what the women was wearing, how she was behaving or her ‘reputation’ - she was ‘asking for it’. Most recently, in the UK, a judge was admonished after he called a thirteen year old who a 41 year old man admitted to having sex with ‘sexually predatory’, blaming the girl for the abuse.
  • 24. Rape culture & victim blaming ‘Rape culture is the condoning and normalising of physical, emotional and sexual terrorism against women and girls and marginalised subjects.’ Mohadesa Najumi 9 June 2013 Wednesday, 28 August 13 Following the horrific gang rape and killing of the young woman in Delhi at the end of 2012, the term rape culture has come on the agenda. Definition: ‘Rape culture is the condoning and normalising of physical, emotional and sexual terrorism against women and girls and marginalised subjects.’( Mohadesa Najumi 9 June 2013) Kimmel tells a variety of stories in Guyland about situations in which young men rape a girl and, while some people, refuse to participate, there is a wall of silence around the event. No one talks about it and no one reports it. This was the case in Steubenville, Ohio, where two men were convicted of raping a 16 year old girl. What is striking is the relative shortness of the sentences they received as well as the reactions to the sentencing. [Show clip] The emotional reaction to the sentencing of the Steubenville rapists can be explained by the prevalence of victim blaming. Most rapes go unreported because in most cases rape victims are not believed. Very often, defendants in rape cases get light sentences or acquittals because emphasis is placed on what the women was wearing, how she was behaving or her ‘reputation’ - she was ‘asking for it’. Most recently, in the UK, a judge was admonished after he called a thirteen year old who a 41 year old man admitted to having sex with ‘sexually predatory’, blaming the girl for the abuse.
  • 25. Rape culture & victim blaming Wednesday, 28 August 13 Following the horrific gang rape and killing of the young woman in Delhi at the end of 2012, the term rape culture has come on the agenda. Definition: ‘Rape culture is the condoning and normalising of physical, emotional and sexual terrorism against women and girls and marginalised subjects.’( Mohadesa Najumi 9 June 2013) Kimmel tells a variety of stories in Guyland about situations in which young men rape a girl and, while some people, refuse to participate, there is a wall of silence around the event. No one talks about it and no one reports it. This was the case in Steubenville, Ohio, where two men were convicted of raping a 16 year old girl. What is striking is the relative shortness of the sentences they received as well as the reactions to the sentencing. [Show clip] The emotional reaction to the sentencing of the Steubenville rapists can be explained by the prevalence of victim blaming. Most rapes go unreported because in most cases rape victims are not believed. Very often, defendants in rape cases get light sentences or acquittals because emphasis is placed on what the women was wearing, how she was behaving or her ‘reputation’ - she was ‘asking for it’. Most recently, in the UK, a judge was admonished after he called a thirteen year old who a 41 year old man admitted to having sex with ‘sexually predatory’, blaming the girl for the abuse.