Everyday racism
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Everyday racism

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Racism is a complex phenomenon rooted in the history of modern states and the histories of colonialism and slavery. However, racism is often thought of as individual prejudice, an approach which sees ...

Racism is a complex phenomenon rooted in the history of modern states and the histories of colonialism and slavery. However, racism is often thought of as individual prejudice, an approach which sees racism as a psychological state of mind rather than a political phenomenon. Everyday racism can be seen in acts of violence, exploitation, discrimination, etc. – but it is not always overt. Indeed, much racism is covert, embedded in institutions such as the education system, healthcare, the police, etc. How can we identify racism in everyday situations? What tools of understanding do we need to identify a situation as racist or non-racist? In which ways does everyday racism affect the health and well-being of racialised people? What do we need to know about racism in order to address our prejudices?

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Everyday racism Everyday racism Document Transcript

  • Everyday Racism Everyday Life, Week 12 Monday, 14 October 13 Dr Alana Lentin a.lentin@uws.edu.au
  • Overview Facts & Figures: Racism in Australia What is racism? Psychological or systemic? The lived experience of racism Recognising everyday racism Examples of everyday racism Everyday racism in popular culture & social media Monday, 14 October 13
  • Facts & Figures: Racism in Australia UWS Challenging Racism Project: National Level Findings Monday, 14 October 13 As we saw last week, Australia is a diverse country. 26% of Australians were born overseas 20% have a parent who was not born here. UWS Challenging Racism project (ongoing) studied 12,500 people. Summary of overall findings: Australians are largely tolerant people who are accepting and welcoming of other cultures. The survey data indicate that a large majority of Australians are positive about living in a multicultural country. Most Australians feel secure and comfortable with cultural difference. The data also indicate that most Australians recognise that racism is a problem in society. Too many Australians (41%) have a narrow view of who belongs in Australia. About one - in -ten Australians have very problematic views on diversity and on ethnic difference. They believe that some races are naturally inferior or superior, and they believe in the need to keep groups separated. Look at tables.
  • Facts & figures: Aboriginal discrimination Aboriginal disadvantage Aboriginal crime figures Behind the numbers Monday, 14 October 13 We get a more close up picture when we look at Aboriginal disadvantage and the disproportionate arrest and incarceration of Aboriginal people in Australia. 1. Aboriginal disadvantage: - Life expectancy - 16-17% lower than for average Australians - 30% of Aboriginal adults have Type 2 diabetes - Aboriginal children are 30 times more likely to suffer malnutrition - 83% of Aboriginal children in the NT have decaying/missing/filled teeth - 13% of Aboriginals are unemployed (but the real rate is much higher as there is no work where they are). - Much higher proportions of drug use according to the figures. 2. Aboriginal crime figures Homicide and victimisation: The Indigenous homicide rate rests at around 20 per 100,000, with victimisation at 14 per 100,000. Non-Indigenous homicide offending and victimisation have never exceeded 2 per 100,000. A higher proportion of Indigenous homicides appear to be intra-racial: they occur within the family (often being the out-come of a domestic altercation), in rural locations, where alcohol is often a factor (Mouzos, 2001: 1). Indigenous females are twice as likely as non-Indigenous females to commit a homicide (20 percent of all homicides compared with 10 percent); and Indigenous females are more likely to be homicide victims than non-Indigenous females (41 percent of all victims compared with
  • What is racism? A system of domination Constrains equality Considers human traits to be fixed Sustained by state power. Brings about internalisation of racial identity. Monday, 14 October 13 Need to understand racism in historical context. Introduce The Racial State Unit.
  • What is racism? A system of domination Constrains equality Considers human traits to be fixed Sustained by state power. Brings about internalisation of racial identity. Monday, 14 October 13 Need to understand racism in historical context. Introduce The Racial State Unit.
  • All in the mind? Monday, 14 October 13 Many people believe that we are all a little bit racist. How many people here believe this to be true? In a way, it might be true to say that if we are honest with ourselves we might all be a little bit racist, but we need to look at where that comes from. Saying that racism is inherent turns it into a psychological state of mind or an attitude that some people have. [click in 2nd picture] Take this campaign against racism for example - it plays on the idea that we tend to be frightened of black men, especially in the dark. But where does this ‘fear’ come from? Can we assume that it is a psychological state? If we were to do so, we might think that there was some natural inclination to fear people who look a certain way. However, in reality, fear is based on knowledge that we possess - we make associations in the mind between the person we see in front of us (a black man in this instance) and stereotypes from the media, society, history. Paul Gilroy: In the 1970s/80s in Britain, there was much moral panic about street crime (mugging). Street crime was associated with young black men, although statistically they were no more likely to carry out these crimes than whites. Because of the amount of reporting in the press linking mugging to young black men, people started to identify their
  • All in the mind? Monday, 14 October 13 Many people believe that we are all a little bit racist. How many people here believe this to be true? In a way, it might be true to say that if we are honest with ourselves we might all be a little bit racist, but we need to look at where that comes from. Saying that racism is inherent turns it into a psychological state of mind or an attitude that some people have. [click in 2nd picture] Take this campaign against racism for example - it plays on the idea that we tend to be frightened of black men, especially in the dark. But where does this ‘fear’ come from? Can we assume that it is a psychological state? If we were to do so, we might think that there was some natural inclination to fear people who look a certain way. However, in reality, fear is based on knowledge that we possess - we make associations in the mind between the person we see in front of us (a black man in this instance) and stereotypes from the media, society, history. Paul Gilroy: In the 1970s/80s in Britain, there was much moral panic about street crime (mugging). Street crime was associated with young black men, although statistically they were no more likely to carry out these crimes than whites. Because of the amount of reporting in the press linking mugging to young black men, people started to identify their
  • Systemic racism Systemic racism is a ‘material, social and ideological reality that is well embedded in major US institutions.’ Feagin (2006: 2) Institutional racism ‘reflects the cultural assumptions of the dominant group, so that the practices of that group are seen as the norm to which other cultural practices should conform. It regularly and systematically advantages some ethnic and cultural groups and disadvantages and marginalises others.’ Racism No Way Campaign Website Monday, 14 October 13 It may be more fruitful to look at racism as systemic or institutional. These more macro accounts of how racism works, root it historically. These accounts then explain individual racist attitudes or acts. This does not mean that we should excuse people who behave in a racist way, but we may not be able to explain or work towards eliminating racism if we see it as a purely individual/ psychological issue. Systemic racism: Joe Feagin: writes about US case, but very similar issues in Australia which, like the US, is a settler colonial state. - Racial oppression is deeply ingrained in US history and can be found in group relations, institutions, organisations and power structures. - Racial oppression entails grouping people according to hierarchy and giving those lower down the pecking order less access to power and resources. - Systemic racism produces institutions that reproduce this hierarchy, e.g. creating socioeconomic disparity between groups. So, for example, the argument that immigrants take jobs away from citizens (underpinned White Australia Act) is based on a racialised idea of the labour market, whereby only whites are deserving of good, well-paid jobs. Another example is the government - why has no government in Australia (post-Multiculturalism) been representative of the ethnic diversity in the country? It is mainly dominated by white men. Institutional racism: The argument for institutional racism tries to counter the ‘bad apple thesis’ - i.e. that a few bad apples ‘spoil’ an institution. A focus on systemic/institutionalised racism shows that the ‘bad apples’ are produced by the society and the institution, not the other way round.
  • The lived experience of racism ‘For not only must the black man be black, he must be black in relation to the white man.’ Fanon (1952[1983]: 110) ‘I discovered my own blackness, my ethnic characteristics; and I was battered down by tom-toms, cannibalism, intellectual deficiency, fetichism, racial defects, slave-ships, and above else, above all: “Sho´ good eatin”.’ Fanon (1952[1983]: 112) Monday, 14 October 13 Frantz Fanon (give brief background) Black Skin White Masks. Experience of colonialism. Racism needs to be understood in terms of lived experience. Fanon explains how blackness is brought into being and given negative connotations. Quote 1: Black people do not ‘realise’ they are black, or rather that their blackness has a particular meaning. In other words, skin colour (or other racialised attributes) only take on importance in the context of racial domination where the system is set up to privilege those with white skin and disadvantage people of colour. This was very clear in the colonial situation (e.g. white settlers’ relationship to Aboriginals, who were seen as less than human). Quote 2: The colonial relationship means that black people start to internalise the negative attributes associated with blackness. The internalisation of racism can be seen at a very young age and seems to be reproduced in societies with high levels of racial oppression and where the norm is generally considered to be white. e.g. if there are very few black people in public life, positions of power, or in the media. Or of your school/workplace/neighbourhood interactions etc. reinforce negative stereotypes associated with belonging to a racialised minority, it is highly likely that the racialised person will internalise these feelings of inferiority which can have damaging social and psychological implications.
  • Black Doll-White Doll Internalising negative stereotypes Monday, 14 October 13 [show video] The “doll test” was first performed by Drs. Kenneth and Mamie Clark in the 1940s. They found that while most black children identified with the black doll, they would much rather play with the white doll. The test has been repeated numerous times since with the same results; for example, student Kiri Davis re-did the test in Tampa Bay, Florida and found that 15 out of the 21 black children preferred the white doll. Another experiment done by Good Morning America had similar findings. GMA found that out of the 19 young black girls they interviewed, 47% believed the white doll was prettier.
  • Black Doll-White Doll Internalising negative stereotypes Monday, 14 October 13 [show video] The “doll test” was first performed by Drs. Kenneth and Mamie Clark in the 1940s. They found that while most black children identified with the black doll, they would much rather play with the white doll. The test has been repeated numerous times since with the same results; for example, student Kiri Davis re-did the test in Tampa Bay, Florida and found that 15 out of the 21 black children preferred the white doll. Another experiment done by Good Morning America had similar findings. GMA found that out of the 19 young black girls they interviewed, 47% believed the white doll was prettier.
  • Black Doll-White Doll Internalising negative stereotypes Monday, 14 October 13 [show video] The “doll test” was first performed by Drs. Kenneth and Mamie Clark in the 1940s. They found that while most black children identified with the black doll, they would much rather play with the white doll. The test has been repeated numerous times since with the same results; for example, student Kiri Davis re-did the test in Tampa Bay, Florida and found that 15 out of the 21 black children preferred the white doll. Another experiment done by Good Morning America had similar findings. GMA found that out of the 19 young black girls they interviewed, 47% believed the white doll was prettier.
  • Invisibility & Dehumanisation Monday, 14 October 13 Fanon: the outcome of racism is invisibility which is connected to dehumanisation. Racism is based on the idea that the racial other is less human or non-human. Because we do not see the racial other as being like ourselves, they easily become invisible to us. David Goldberg: When people are rendered invisible it is possible for harm against them to go unnoticed, because their suffering is simply not seen. Picture example of 2 Roma girls, Christina and Violetta who were left to drown while people went on sunbathing and having lunch around them in Rome in July 2008. Example from reading: A study found that white people assume that black people feel less pain and feel more empathy with a white person if seeing that person in pain. But black people, too, displayed less empathy towards other blacks. The study concluded that in general, people feel more empathy towards those considered more privileged. In other words, we have internalised the idea that more privileged people (whites in this instance) deserve our attention and concern. The ‘racial empathy gap’ between whites and blacks is said to stem from the belief that all black people have the same experiences (common racial idea - all X are the same). So, in terms of pain, black people are believed to experience less pain because they have been through more hardships. One repercussion of this is that black people in the US are routinely given less pain medication than whites even when they need it.
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Acceptable excuses? Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Acceptable excuses? Is it because I am black? Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Acceptable excuses? Is it because I am black? Is the specific event excusable? Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Acceptable excuses? Is it because I am black? Is the specific event excusable? Is the event socially significant? Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Recognising Everyday Racism Procedure for assessing racist events (Essed 1991): Acceptable or not? Acceptable excuses? Is it because I am black? Is the specific event excusable? Is the event socially significant? Evaluation Monday, 14 October 13 Essed (1991) - groundbreaking study of everyday racism in the Netherlands and the US. Interviewed women of colour about their experiences of everyday racism. Everyday racism = events which may appear banal, and which may not be recognised as racist by the individual. They happen so often that they appear ‘normal’. Everyday racism often happens in routine situations - while shopping, driving, at work, applying for a job, at school, etc. In other words, it is not about being abused verbally or physically (although that also happens regularly). Essed explores how to assess whether or not a situation is racist. Interestingly, she has to work through internalised feelings of racism (as discussed in relation to Fanon) that may make an individual deny that a situation is racist! In order to be able to assess whether or not a situation is racist, there is the need for (1) general knowledge about racism. This must include historical information (where does racism originate?) as well as realisation that racism changes continually, is different across times and contexts. NB: People become experts through dealing with racism (link to lived experience). 6 steps to assessing whether or not an event is racist. 1. Acceptable or not? This may be difficult to judge especially when racism is covert. e.g. in a job interview situation, how can you tell if you didn’t get the job because you are Muslim or because you were less qualified than the other candidates?
  • Examples of everyday racism Monday, 14 October 13 Let’s look at two recent incidents of racism in public life that have received attention in the media. 1. Adam Goodes incident: -Goodes is upset - reveals the affect of racism on the individual. He said at a press conference the following day that the event completely marred the win. -We often try to excuse racism as a ‘joke’ or unintended. The argument is that you have to have intent to hurt someone or to be racist. -Racial discrimination law takes the effect on the individual into consideration, not the intent. - The Racism 101 blog points out that no one would ever say, ‘I didn’t mean to hit you with my car so I didn’t really hit you.’ - The issue of intent came up when Collingwood boss, Eddie McGuire went on to make a ‘joke’ about Adam Goodes, saying that he could play King Kong in the new movie. When the obvious racism of this statement, particularly following the event at the match, was made clear, McGuire claimed that he was not racist and that ‘"It's hard to be portrayed as the opposite of what you are." McGuire was supported by his club. - What is the message being sent here? - There was a lot of talk after the event that this had nothing to do with race, but was about respect. Do you think this is fair? Why is it racist to call someone an ape? Would it have had the same meaning of Goodes was white? 2. Henry Louis Gates incident - Questions to think about: what levels of systemic racism, based on preconceived ideas about racialised people, have to be in existence for this to happen? - Can you imagine a scenario in which a white person in a wealthy area would be treated with the same level of suspicion outside their own house leading to their arrest? - This is not an isolated incident. A short while after this, actor Forrest Whitaker was followed in a store by a security guard who thought he was shoplifting.
  • Examples of everyday racism Monday, 14 October 13 Let’s look at two recent incidents of racism in public life that have received attention in the media. 1. Adam Goodes incident: -Goodes is upset - reveals the affect of racism on the individual. He said at a press conference the following day that the event completely marred the win. -We often try to excuse racism as a ‘joke’ or unintended. The argument is that you have to have intent to hurt someone or to be racist. -Racial discrimination law takes the effect on the individual into consideration, not the intent. - The Racism 101 blog points out that no one would ever say, ‘I didn’t mean to hit you with my car so I didn’t really hit you.’ - The issue of intent came up when Collingwood boss, Eddie McGuire went on to make a ‘joke’ about Adam Goodes, saying that he could play King Kong in the new movie. When the obvious racism of this statement, particularly following the event at the match, was made clear, McGuire claimed that he was not racist and that ‘"It's hard to be portrayed as the opposite of what you are." McGuire was supported by his club. - What is the message being sent here? - There was a lot of talk after the event that this had nothing to do with race, but was about respect. Do you think this is fair? Why is it racist to call someone an ape? Would it have had the same meaning of Goodes was white? 2. Henry Louis Gates incident - Questions to think about: what levels of systemic racism, based on preconceived ideas about racialised people, have to be in existence for this to happen? - Can you imagine a scenario in which a white person in a wealthy area would be treated with the same level of suspicion outside their own house leading to their arrest? - This is not an isolated incident. A short while after this, actor Forrest Whitaker was followed in a store by a security guard who thought he was shoplifting.
  • Examples of everyday racism Monday, 14 October 13 Let’s look at two recent incidents of racism in public life that have received attention in the media. 1. Adam Goodes incident: -Goodes is upset - reveals the affect of racism on the individual. He said at a press conference the following day that the event completely marred the win. -We often try to excuse racism as a ‘joke’ or unintended. The argument is that you have to have intent to hurt someone or to be racist. -Racial discrimination law takes the effect on the individual into consideration, not the intent. - The Racism 101 blog points out that no one would ever say, ‘I didn’t mean to hit you with my car so I didn’t really hit you.’ - The issue of intent came up when Collingwood boss, Eddie McGuire went on to make a ‘joke’ about Adam Goodes, saying that he could play King Kong in the new movie. When the obvious racism of this statement, particularly following the event at the match, was made clear, McGuire claimed that he was not racist and that ‘"It's hard to be portrayed as the opposite of what you are." McGuire was supported by his club. - What is the message being sent here? - There was a lot of talk after the event that this had nothing to do with race, but was about respect. Do you think this is fair? Why is it racist to call someone an ape? Would it have had the same meaning of Goodes was white? 2. Henry Louis Gates incident - Questions to think about: what levels of systemic racism, based on preconceived ideas about racialised people, have to be in existence for this to happen? - Can you imagine a scenario in which a white person in a wealthy area would be treated with the same level of suspicion outside their own house leading to their arrest? - This is not an isolated incident. A short while after this, actor Forrest Whitaker was followed in a store by a security guard who thought he was shoplifting.
  • Racism in popular culture Hey Hey it’s Saturday and Blackface Monday, 14 October 13 Hey Hey it’s saturday Blackface originates in the US and is exported over the world. Blackface was donned by ‘black and white minstrels’, a popular form of entertainment. For example, the Black and White Minstreal Show was on TV in the UK until 1978. Minstrelsy is about white people pretending to be exaggerated versions of black people who are often caricaturised in the shows as childlike loveable simpletons. Minstrelsy began during the era of slavery, so cannot be divorced from black domination in the US. David Roediger: ‘American blackface helped to define what whiteness was in the United States. Writing that blackface usually involved a conscious declaration of whiteness and white supremacy’ (Stratton) What about outside the US? Does blackface have the same meaning in Australia? Stratton: ‘we can begin to understand blackface in Australia in terms of the establishment of whiteness against an excluded Other, an absent Other who has been excluded from Australia as well as from Australian society.’ He discusses the case of when In March 1999, Sam Newman, on The Footy Show , blacked up and pretended to be the Indigenous Australian Rules football star, Nicky Winmar. The Herald Sun conducted a poll to determine whether Newman should apologise: ̳Of the voters, 1445 people did not believe Newman need apologise and 465 believed that he should. Stratton argues there was particular ire against Nicky Winmar because he was committed to
  • Racism in popular culture Hey Hey it’s Saturday and Blackface Monday, 14 October 13 Hey Hey it’s saturday Blackface originates in the US and is exported over the world. Blackface was donned by ‘black and white minstrels’, a popular form of entertainment. For example, the Black and White Minstreal Show was on TV in the UK until 1978. Minstrelsy is about white people pretending to be exaggerated versions of black people who are often caricaturised in the shows as childlike loveable simpletons. Minstrelsy began during the era of slavery, so cannot be divorced from black domination in the US. David Roediger: ‘American blackface helped to define what whiteness was in the United States. Writing that blackface usually involved a conscious declaration of whiteness and white supremacy’ (Stratton) What about outside the US? Does blackface have the same meaning in Australia? Stratton: ‘we can begin to understand blackface in Australia in terms of the establishment of whiteness against an excluded Other, an absent Other who has been excluded from Australia as well as from Australian society.’ He discusses the case of when In March 1999, Sam Newman, on The Footy Show , blacked up and pretended to be the Indigenous Australian Rules football star, Nicky Winmar. The Herald Sun conducted a poll to determine whether Newman should apologise: ̳Of the voters, 1445 people did not believe Newman need apologise and 465 believed that he should. Stratton argues there was particular ire against Nicky Winmar because he was committed to
  • Racism in popular culture Hey Hey it’s Saturday and Blackface Monday, 14 October 13 Hey Hey it’s saturday Blackface originates in the US and is exported over the world. Blackface was donned by ‘black and white minstrels’, a popular form of entertainment. For example, the Black and White Minstreal Show was on TV in the UK until 1978. Minstrelsy is about white people pretending to be exaggerated versions of black people who are often caricaturised in the shows as childlike loveable simpletons. Minstrelsy began during the era of slavery, so cannot be divorced from black domination in the US. David Roediger: ‘American blackface helped to define what whiteness was in the United States. Writing that blackface usually involved a conscious declaration of whiteness and white supremacy’ (Stratton) What about outside the US? Does blackface have the same meaning in Australia? Stratton: ‘we can begin to understand blackface in Australia in terms of the establishment of whiteness against an excluded Other, an absent Other who has been excluded from Australia as well as from Australian society.’ He discusses the case of when In March 1999, Sam Newman, on The Footy Show , blacked up and pretended to be the Indigenous Australian Rules football star, Nicky Winmar. The Herald Sun conducted a poll to determine whether Newman should apologise: ̳Of the voters, 1445 people did not believe Newman need apologise and 465 believed that he should. Stratton argues there was particular ire against Nicky Winmar because he was committed to
  • Racism in popular culture ‘In presenting Winmar as blackface, he became a figure of fun thus undermining his status as a fighter against racism. In other words, Newman‘s blackface can be read as a power ploy, an attack on an Indigenous footballer highly regarded for his actions both on and off the field. The uncritical acceptance of the blackface by a large proportion of the Australian population signals the continued Othering of Aborigines.’ Jon Stratton (2011) Monday, 14 October 13 Hey Hey it’s saturday Blackface originates in the US and is exported over the world. Blackface was donned by ‘black and white minstrels’, a popular form of entertainment. For example, the Black and White Minstreal Show was on TV in the UK until 1978. Minstrelsy is about white people pretending to be exaggerated versions of black people who are often caricaturised in the shows as childlike loveable simpletons. Minstrelsy began during the era of slavery, so cannot be divorced from black domination in the US. David Roediger: ‘American blackface helped to define what whiteness was in the United States. Writing that blackface usually involved a conscious declaration of whiteness and white supremacy’ (Stratton) What about outside the US? Does blackface have the same meaning in Australia? Stratton: ‘we can begin to understand blackface in Australia in terms of the establishment of whiteness against an excluded Other, an absent Other who has been excluded from Australia as well as from Australian society.’ He discusses the case of when In March 1999, Sam Newman, on The Footy Show , blacked up and pretended to be the Indigenous Australian Rules football star, Nicky Winmar. The Herald Sun conducted a poll to determine whether Newman should apologise: ̳Of the voters, 1445 people did not believe Newman need apologise and 465 believed that he should. Stratton argues there was particular ire against Nicky Winmar because he was committed to
  • ... and social media Monday, 14 October 13 Social media and the internet are rife with racism. Sanjay Sharma: ‘Modalities of race wildly proliferate in social media sites such as Facebook, Youtube and Twitter: casual racial banter, race-hate comments, ‘griefing’, images, videos and anti-racist sentiment bewilderingly intermingle, mash-up and virally circulate; and researchers struggle to comprehend the meanings and affects of a racialized info-overload.’ Many researchers are concerned with racist extremism and hate speech online. In Australia there is the Online Hate Prevention Institute. For example, Anders Behring Breivik (explain background) produced a ‘Compendium’ to explain his anti-Muslim stance. Most of articles, blogs, etc. he relied on were from mainstream news sources and websites easy to find online. The anonymity of the web and social media may exacerbate racism - people may be more ready to be openly racist online than they would in public. e.gs. - Attacks against me on ‘Stormfront Downunder’ - Aboriginal memes - Twitter furore after Miss USA was named an Indian American woman While the first is an example of an extreme right wing organisation, the others are everyday people with no necessary affiliation to extremist groups. How can we understand everyday racism in the era of social media? Is social media merely a representation of ‘real life’ or are there other dynamics at play? Is racism in social media another example of cyber bullying? It seems that despite the fact that many advances have been made on combating racism that