A Focus on Immersion
Technological Determinism
Termed coined by Thorstein Veblen in 1920s

Belief that technology is the agent of social change...
The openness
Technological                                              of new media
Determinism                          ...
“…any theoretical engagement with this thing
 called technoculture needs to be as dynamic
as its object. Theory needs to b...
Technology has now become so ubiquitous that
  it is said we now live in technology

  “technology has been generalised to...
“Video games are a window onto a new kind of intimacy
with machines that is characteristic of the nascent computer
culture...
“When you create a programmed world, you work in it, you
experiment in it, you live in it. The computer’s chameleonlike
 q...
Becoming Cyborg
 “*Digital+ games offer a singular opportunity to think
          through what it means to be a cyborg”

“...
Hamlet on the Holodeck
3 areas of understanding


  Agency         Transformation        Immersion




Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New Y...
Agency
 “Agency is the satisfying power to take
meaningful action and see the results of our
          decisions and choic...
Transformation
    “It *the computer+ makes us eager for
  masquerade, eager to pick up the joystick and
       become a c...
Immersion
“The sensation of being surrounded by a
        completely other reality”
   Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck...
Immersion
“The experience of being transported to an
elaborately simulated place is pleasurable in
 itself, regardless of ...
Immersion
“…in a participatory medium, immersion implies
    learning to swim, to do the things that the
      new environ...
Looking at the Terms

   Agency        Can be thought of in terms of   Interactivity



Transformation   Can be thought of...
Looking at the Terms



            Agency        AESTHETICS OF CONTROL
                                                  ...
“If we could someday make holographic adventures
      as compelling as Lucy Davenport, would the
     power of such a viv...
“Will the increasingly alluring narratives spun out for us by the
  new digital technologies be as benign and responsible ...
“Do we believe that kissing a hologram (or engaging
   in cybersex) is an act of infidelity to a flash-and-
              ...
3 other areas of understanding



         Immersion        Engagement           Presence




McMahan, A. The Video Game T...
Immersion
“Hotshot digital cinematography doesn’t make a
      digital story immersive. What makes it
  immersive is a wor...
Immersion
“Immersion means the player is caught up in the
   world of the game’s story (the diegetic level),
    but it al...
Immersion
 “Three conditions create a sense of immersion in a
   virtual reality or 3-D computer game: (1) the user’s
    ...
Engagement
 “…narrative is not a key component of most games.
       Instead, many users appreciate games at a
    nondieg...
Presence
“we experience what is made of information as being
                      material”

     Ryan, M.L. Narrative as...
Presence/Telepresence
       Telepresence is the communication mediated with
    technology, giving a sense that you are p...
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Technoculture and the Game: A Focus on Immersion and Murry

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Technoculture and the Game: A Focus on Immersion and Murry

  1. 1. A Focus on Immersion
  2. 2. Technological Determinism Termed coined by Thorstein Veblen in 1920s Belief that technology is the agent of social change – “You can’t stop progress” Linked to the idea of progress and became a common sense attitude during 19C Technology defines its uses through its production
  3. 3. The openness Technological of new media Determinism (Technoculture) “The effects of a technology… are not determined by its production, its physical form or its capability. Rather than being built into the technology, these depend on how they are consumed” Mackay, H. (ed.) Consumption and Everyday Life: Culture, Media and Identities. (1997)
  4. 4. “…any theoretical engagement with this thing called technoculture needs to be as dynamic as its object. Theory needs to be supple, not monolithic.” Murphy, A. Potts J. Culture and Technology (2003)
  5. 5. Technology has now become so ubiquitous that it is said we now live in technology “technology has been generalised to the point of abstraction: it suggests an overarching system that we inhabit” Murphy, A. Potts J. Culture and Technology (2003)
  6. 6. “Video games are a window onto a new kind of intimacy with machines that is characteristic of the nascent computer culture. The special relationship that players form with video games has elements that are common to interactions with other kinds of computers. The holding power of video games, their most hypnotic fascination, is computer holding power” Turkle, S. The Second Life: Computers & The Human Spirit (1984)
  7. 7. “When you create a programmed world, you work in it, you experiment in it, you live in it. The computer’s chameleonlike quality, the fact that when you program it, it becomes your creature, makes it an ideal medium for the construction of a wide variety of private worlds and through them, for self- exploration…computers enter into development of personality, of identity, and even of sexuality” Turkle, S. The Second Life: Computers & The Human Spirit (1984)
  8. 8. Becoming Cyborg “*Digital+ games offer a singular opportunity to think through what it means to be a cyborg” “The perpetual feedback between a player’s choice, the computer’s almost-instantanious response, the player’s response to that response, and so on – is a cybernetic loop, in which the line demarcating the end of the player’s consciousness and the beginning of the computer’s worlds blurs.” Friedman, T. (1999) Civilisation and its discontents: simulation, subjectivity, and space, http://www.duke.edu/~tlove/civ.htm accessed - 09/11/08
  9. 9. Hamlet on the Holodeck
  10. 10. 3 areas of understanding Agency Transformation Immersion Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  11. 11. Agency “Agency is the satisfying power to take meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  12. 12. Transformation “It *the computer+ makes us eager for masquerade, eager to pick up the joystick and become a cowboy or space fighter” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997) Transformation refers to the computers ability to create and simulate an environment to role play.
  13. 13. Immersion “The sensation of being surrounded by a completely other reality” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  14. 14. Immersion “The experience of being transported to an elaborately simulated place is pleasurable in itself, regardless of the fantasy content. We refer to this experience as immersion. Immersion is a metaphorical term derived from the physical experience of being submerged in water.” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  15. 15. Immersion “…in a participatory medium, immersion implies learning to swim, to do the things that the new environment makes possible… the enjoyment of immersion as a participatory activity” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  16. 16. Looking at the Terms Agency Can be thought of in terms of Interactivity Transformation Can be thought of in terms of Identification Suspension of Immersion Can be thought of in terms of disbelief
  17. 17. Looking at the Terms Agency AESTHETICS OF CONTROL Transformation (interactivity) (identification) These terms are interlinked
  18. 18. “If we could someday make holographic adventures as compelling as Lucy Davenport, would the power of such a vividly realized fantasy world destroy our grip on the actual world?” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  19. 19. “Will the increasingly alluring narratives spun out for us by the new digital technologies be as benign and responsible as a nineteenth-century novel or as dangerous and debilitating as a hallucinogenic drug?” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997)
  20. 20. “Do we believe that kissing a hologram (or engaging in cybersex) is an act of infidelity to a flash-and- blood partner?” Murray, J.H. Hamlet on the Holodeck, New York: Free Press (1997) Virtually Jenna Ver 2.0, PC Download, 2008, http://www.virtuallyjenna.com/
  21. 21. 3 other areas of understanding Immersion Engagement Presence McMahan, A. The Video Game Theory Reader - Immersion, Engagement and Presence – a method for analyzing 3-D Video Games, New York: Routeldge (2003)
  22. 22. Immersion “Hotshot digital cinematography doesn’t make a digital story immersive. What makes it immersive is a world where no territory is off- limits, anything you see is fair game, and all your actions have consequences” Provenzo, E. Video Kids: Making Sense of Nintendo Cambridge,MA: Harvard University Press (1991)
  23. 23. Immersion “Immersion means the player is caught up in the world of the game’s story (the diegetic level), but it also refers to the player’s love of the game and the strategy that goes into it (the nondiegetic level)” McMahan, A. The Video Game Theory Reader - Immersion, Engagement and Presence – a method for analyzing 3-D Video Games, New York: Routeldge (2003)
  24. 24. Immersion “Three conditions create a sense of immersion in a virtual reality or 3-D computer game: (1) the user’s expectations of the game or environment must match the environment’s conventions fairly closely; (2) the user’s actions must have a non-trivial impact on the environment; and (3) the conventions of the world must be consistent, even if they don’t match those of ‘meatspace’.” McMahan, A. The Video Game Theory Reader - Immersion, Engagement and Presence – a method for analyzing 3-D Video Games, New York: Routeldge (2003)
  25. 25. Engagement “…narrative is not a key component of most games. Instead, many users appreciate games at a nondiegetic level–at the level of gaining points, devising a winning (or at least a spectacular) strategy, and showing off their prowess to other players during the game and afterward, during the replay.” McMahan, A. The Video Game Theory Reader - Immersion, Engagement and Presence – a method for analyzing 3-D Video Games, New York: Routeldge (2003)
  26. 26. Presence “we experience what is made of information as being material” Ryan, M.L. Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media, Baltimore MD: The John Hopkins University Press (2001)
  27. 27. Presence/Telepresence Telepresence is the communication mediated with technology, giving a sense that you are present in another location Paul Sermon – Telematic Dreaming 1992 Britney on her phone in her car

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