Literary Theory Recap - Key Terms <ul><li>Poetics – The study of literary conventions and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Hermeneu...
Poetics <ul><li>Silicon Knights founder and president Denis Dyack states “In short, we need to develop a  Poetics  for the...
Hermeneutics <ul><li>Hermeneutics (of the game) </li></ul><ul><li>A game (as we have established) is a text, to be read an...
Hermeneutics <ul><li>Hermeneutics –  Intertexts </li></ul><ul><li>Games can be but within a context, they may reference Fi...
Aesthetics of the Game <ul><li>Aesthetics looks at how a text elicits an emotional response from the reader / user / playe...
Games as Text <ul><li>Text – (used to refer to) a sequence of coherent sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Text – A cultural objec...
Jones, S.E., 2008.  The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies  1st ed., Routledge.  
<ul><li>“ the burgeoning field has relied on formalist approaches to its object of study” </li></ul><ul><li>Bogost, I. 200...
<ul><li>“ Seeing games as ‘intertextual’ reminds us that no game or instance of gameplay is an island; like literary texts...
<ul><li>“ [video games are] ...hybrid, extra-linguistic, open-ended,  configurative and procedural systems” </li></ul>Jone...
Peritext/Epitext <ul><li>Peritext – refers to all the text encompassed in the volume, for example the game itself, the dis...
THE FOLLOWING LISTS ARE NOT COMPLETE OR EXHAUSTIVE THEY ARE MERELY FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES THEY ADDRESS AN EVER EXPANDIN...
 
Core Games
Pokemon Evolution Capsule Novels Graphic Novels
Films and TV Program
Trading Cards and Characters
Trading Cards
 
The Core Games (and mods)
Iconic Characters
The Promotion Models
The Movie
The Comics The Interactive DVD The Animated Series Pre-Teen Raider
User and Commercial erotica and pornography
Fanfic (Fan Fiction)
 
Spore To The Power of Ten
 
The Box Art and Packaging (including limited edition releases) The Core Games
The  Additional  Games
The Game Soundtracks
Flash Halo CTF   16-bit Halo   Halo 2 arcade   The  Unofficial  Flash Games
http://www.invalidmob.com/Flash_Games/Halo.html The  Unofficial  Flash Games
The Novels
The Graphic Novels and Comics
The Art of Books The Guide Books Mod Books
 
The Movie Short Films Adverts and TV Spots
Alternative Reality Games
LARP (Live Action Role play) Forum Based Roleplay/Fanfic
Table Top Role Playing Games
Machinima Red Vs. Blue This Spartain Life Warthog Jump
User produced  Pornography and Erotica (Porn Stars play strip Halo 3)
 
 
 
Wark, M., 2007.  Gamer Theory , Harvard University Press.   http://www.futureofthebook.org/gamertheory/ http://www.thisspa...
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Paratextual Studies and Video Games

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This lecture looks at gamings wider cultures and games within culture. Video Games permiate our wider culture and do not stand alone. Video Games create a space of/for play but influence and are influenced by a wider culture. This lecture takes 3 case examples and examines the paratexts of Video Games. Games are not an island

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Paratextual Studies and Video Games

  1. 2. Literary Theory Recap - Key Terms <ul><li>Poetics – The study of literary conventions and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Hermeneutics – The study of literature’s meaning, what signifiers mean within the text </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics – The study of literature’s effects </li></ul>
  2. 3. Poetics <ul><li>Silicon Knights founder and president Denis Dyack states “In short, we need to develop a Poetics for the games industry, a universal theory of game development, a theory that can provide a blueprint or foundation from which we can build our craft.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dyack D, http://www.gamedaily.com/articles/features/poetics-for-the-games-industry/?biz </li></ul>
  3. 4. Hermeneutics <ul><li>Hermeneutics (of the game) </li></ul><ul><li>A game (as we have established) is a text, to be read and examined to extract meaning. As a “cultural object” it does not stand alone but sits within a wider culture (or cultures) . A game is designed for a demographic but may be played by users outside that demographic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ American Army” will mean something different to an American Teen to an Iraqi. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Hermeneutics <ul><li>Hermeneutics – Intertexts </li></ul><ul><li>Games can be but within a context, they may reference Film, Art, Musical Styles and Fashions, Historical Texts etc. these additional texts that are used to give the studied text (in our case the game) context and these references are called intertexts. Games may reference many texts and other media and genres to create an intertextuality. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Aesthetics of the Game <ul><li>Aesthetics looks at how a text elicits an emotional response from the reader / user / player, with a game this is usually visual but also auditory and can be the twists and turns of a narrative, or character development etc. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Games as Text <ul><li>Text – (used to refer to) a sequence of coherent sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Text – A cultural object that can be “read” and meaning extracted </li></ul>
  7. 8. Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.  
  8. 9. <ul><li>“ the burgeoning field has relied on formalist approaches to its object of study” </li></ul><ul><li>Bogost, I. 2008. Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism , The MIT Press. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...[it] reaps what they sowed – functionalist separatism” </li></ul><ul><li>Bogost, I., 2006. Comparative Video Game Criticism. Games and Culture , 1(1), 41-46. </li></ul><ul><li>Klevjer calls for... “a typical textual practice, at once configurative and interpretive, both unique and intertextual” </li></ul><ul><li>Klevjer, R., 2002. In Defense of Cutscenes . http://folk.uib.no/smkrk/docs/klevjerpaper.htm [accessed 08/02/09] </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>“ Seeing games as ‘intertextual’ reminds us that no game or instance of gameplay is an island; like literary texts, every game extends outward from itself in many directions. The relationship of text to context and intertext has after all been at the center of modern literary theory for decades” </li></ul>Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.   Jones’ book works as a series of case studies, using specific instances or examples of video games intertextuality. It traces video games permeation into culture and cultures symbiotic relationship with video games.
  10. 11. <ul><li>“ [video games are] ...hybrid, extra-linguistic, open-ended, configurative and procedural systems” </li></ul>Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.   Jones’ draws on Gerard Genette’s theories of paratexts to examine video games and their place within the divergent systems of culture. (Genette is known for is work in the field of narratology) The theory of paratext works with ideas of the “threshold of the text”. It looks at what constructs the text, and when working with literature would encompass the preface, epigraph, cover, advertising, distribution, intertexts... Paratextual studies expands what is included in the term text. The text grows is ever increasing spirals into society.
  11. 12. Peritext/Epitext <ul><li>Peritext – refers to all the text encompassed in the volume, for example the game itself, the disc art, the manual and its layout and the cover art </li></ul><ul><li>Epitext – refers to all the related texts, interviews with the various members of the design team, the console, the publicity </li></ul><ul><li>“ Paratext = Peritext + Epitext” </li></ul><ul><li>Paratexts create a area of “ transition ” or “ transaction ” in the texts reception. It is closley linked to areas of “ social texts ” </li></ul><ul><li>Genette, G., 1997. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation , Cambridge University Press.   </li></ul>
  12. 13. THE FOLLOWING LISTS ARE NOT COMPLETE OR EXHAUSTIVE THEY ARE MERELY FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES THEY ADDRESS AN EVER EXPANDING FIELD OF STUDY SO AIM TO SKETCH AN AREA OF STUDY OR PRACTICE NOT TO BE ALL ENCOMPASSING THESE SLIDES ARE HEAVILY SUBSIDISED WITH ILLUSTATIVE VIDEOS
  13. 15. Core Games
  14. 16. Pokemon Evolution Capsule Novels Graphic Novels
  15. 17. Films and TV Program
  16. 18. Trading Cards and Characters
  17. 19. Trading Cards
  18. 21. The Core Games (and mods)
  19. 22. Iconic Characters
  20. 23. The Promotion Models
  21. 24. The Movie
  22. 25. The Comics The Interactive DVD The Animated Series Pre-Teen Raider
  23. 26. User and Commercial erotica and pornography
  24. 27. Fanfic (Fan Fiction)
  25. 29. Spore To The Power of Ten
  26. 31. The Box Art and Packaging (including limited edition releases) The Core Games
  27. 32. The Additional Games
  28. 33. The Game Soundtracks
  29. 34. Flash Halo CTF 16-bit Halo Halo 2 arcade The Unofficial Flash Games
  30. 35. http://www.invalidmob.com/Flash_Games/Halo.html The Unofficial Flash Games
  31. 36. The Novels
  32. 37. The Graphic Novels and Comics
  33. 38. The Art of Books The Guide Books Mod Books
  34. 40. The Movie Short Films Adverts and TV Spots
  35. 41. Alternative Reality Games
  36. 42. LARP (Live Action Role play) Forum Based Roleplay/Fanfic
  37. 43. Table Top Role Playing Games
  38. 44. Machinima Red Vs. Blue This Spartain Life Warthog Jump
  39. 45. User produced Pornography and Erotica (Porn Stars play strip Halo 3)
  40. 49. Wark, M., 2007. Gamer Theory , Harvard University Press.   http://www.futureofthebook.org/gamertheory/ http://www.thisspartanlife.com/episodes/1004_mod3.php
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