Para/Intertextuality with a focus on Video Games
The Text It is commonly thought of within media theory that everything is a text… Text = A series of coherent sentences Text = A cultural object or media artefact that meaning can be extracted from. …because of this shift we can deconstruct and study any medium or object as a series of signs which meaning can be extracted from.
Intertextuality “An intertext is one or more texts which the reader must know in order to understand a work of literature in terms of its overall significance (as opposed to the discrete meanings of its successive words, phrases and sentences)” Riffaterre, M. Compulsory Reader Response: The Intertextual Drive in Worton, M. And Still J. [ed], (1990). Intertextuality: Theories and Practices, Manchester University Press The Simpsons., Dog of Death (2003). United States Fox, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment,
Intertexts Intertexts are works which inform or help construct a text. They can be from any medium but the main text relies on them to help construct meaning. Intertextality was first coined by the post-structuralist Julia Kristeva in the late 1960’s An intertext connects the studied text to media as a whole and stops the text from being an island.
“Seeing games as ‘intertextual’ reminds us that no game or instance of gameplay is an island; like literary texts, every game extends outward from itself in many directions. The relationship of text to context and intertext has after all been at the center of modern literary theory for decades” Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge. Jones’ book works as a series of case studies, using specific instances or examples of video games intertextuality. It traces video games permeation into culture and cultures symbiotic relationship with video games.
“[video games are] ...hybrid, extra-linguistic, open-ended, configurative and procedural systems” Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge. Jones’ draws on Gerard Genette’s theories of paratexts to examine video games and their place within the divergent systems of culture. The theory of paratext works with ideas of the “threshold of the text”. It looks at what constructs the text, and when working with literature would encompass the preface, epigraph, cover, advertising, distribution, intertexts... Paratextual studies expands what is included in the term text. The text grows is ever increasing spirals into society.
Peritext/Epitext Peritext – refers to all the text encompassed in the volume, for example the game itself, the disc art, the manual and its layout and the cover art Epitext – refers to all the related texts, interviews with the various members of the design team, the console, the publicity
Peritext/Epitext “Paratext = Peritext + Epitext” Paratexts create a area of “transition” or “transaction” in the texts reception. It is closley linked to areas of “social texts” Genette, G., 1997. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, Cambridge University Press. Paratextual Studies creates a THRESHOLD of the text.
THE FOLLOWING LISTS ARE NOT COMPLETE OR EXHAUSTIVE THEY ARE MERELY FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES THEY ADDRESS AN EVER EXPANDING FIELD OF STUDY SO AIM TO SKETCH AN AREA OF STUDY OR PRACTICE NOT TO BE ALL ENCOMPASSING THESE SLIDES ARE HEAVILY SUBSIDISED WITH ILLUSTATIVE VIDEOS
Transmediality “...a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes it own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story.” Confessions of an Aca/Fan: Archives: Transmedia Storytelling 101. Available at: http://www.henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html [Accessed October 19, 2009].
Transmediality ‘are stories told across multiple media. At the present time, the most significant stories tend to flow across multiple media platforms’ (Jenkins et al., 2006). Transmedia refers to narratives which cross media, this creates a networked universe of media which can be viewed through many medium. cross media (Bechmann Petersen, 2006) hybrid media (Boumans, 2004) intertextual commodity (Marshall, 2004) transmedialinteractions (Bardzell et al., 2007) multimodality (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) intermedia (Higgins, 1966).
The Creation of the Prosumer Poducer+Consumer = Prosumer We have seen a dramatic shift in media to the creation of the prosumer who doesn’t just consume media but plays an active role in it’s production.
Flash Halo CTF 16-bit Halo Halo 2 arcade The Unofficial Flash Games
The Unofficial Flash Games http://www.invalidmob.com/Flash_Games/Halo.html