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CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems
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CarSharing Association - Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems

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  • 1. Our Sponsors
  • 2. Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand Systems MIT Media Lab Car Sharing Association, AutoShare Conference (Toronto, CA) Ryan C.C. Chin, Ph.D. Managing Director, City Science Initiative Research Scientist, MIT Media Lab
  • 3. Global Mega-trends Affecting Cities
  • 4. In 2007, the UN reported that over:
  • 5. In 2007, the UN reported that over: 50%Of the world’s population now lives in urban areas
  • 6. In the 21st century about:
  • 7. In the 21st century about: 90%Of the population growth will be in urban areas (UN Report 2007)
  • 8. Cities will account for:
  • 9. 80%Of all global CO2 Cities will account for:
  • 10. As well as:
  • 11. As well as: 75%of all global energy use
  • 12. In cities, transportation and building operations account for at least:
  • 13. In cities, transportation and building operations account for at least: 66%Of all urban energy use (Imperial College Urban Systems Project)
  • 14. China is and will experience EXTREME URBANIZATION over the next 15 years. An estimate of approximately:
  • 15. China is and will experience EXTREME URBANIZATION over the next 15 years. An estimate of approximately: 300,000,000+Rural Chinese will move to urban areas (McKinsey Report 2011)
  • 16. The Current State of Automotive-Centric Mobility in Cities
  • 17. A typical automobile weights ~3500 lbs. (1360 Kg), which is:
  • 18. A typical automobile weights ~3500 lbs. (1360 Kg), which is: 25XThe weight of the driver (average man is approx. 175lbs or 79Kg)
  • 19. A typical automobile weights ~3000 lbs. (1360 Kg), which is: 4050lbs (1837kg) 3830lbs (1737kg) 2712lbs (1230kg) 3235lbs (1467kg) 3362lbs (1525kg) 3803lbs (1725kg) 25XThe weight of the driver (average man is approx. 175lbs or 79Kg)
  • 20. A typical automobile’s top speed is over 115 mph (184kph), this is
  • 21. A typical automobile’s top speed is over 115 mph (184kph), this is
  • 22. A typical automobile’s top speed is over 115 mph (184kph), this is 6XMore than the average speed in NYC (18.8mph or 30kph)
  • 23. A typical automobile’s top speed is over 115 mph (184kph), this is 6XMore than the average speed in NYC (18.8mph or 30kph) Average Speeds London (11.8mph or 19kph) Beijing (17mph or 27.5kph)
  • 24. A typical automobile can travel more than 300 miles (482km) without refueling. This is:
  • 25. A typical automobile can travel more than 300 miles (482km) without refueling. This is: 7XMore than the average round trip in the US (50 miles or 80km)
  • 26. A typical gasoline powered automobile with an internal combustion energy produces:
  • 27. A typical gasoline powered automobile with an internal combustion energy produces: 3XMore CO2 than electric vehicles (MIT Transportation Report 2008)
  • 28. A typical parked automobile occupies ~90 Square Feet (8.3 Square Meters)
  • 29. A typical parked automobile occupies ~90 Square Feet (8.3 Square Meters) 23XMore space than a comfortable office chair (4 SQ or 0.4 SM)
  • 30. A typical automobile consumes ~1200 Square feet (112 Square meters) of space for parking, driving, and maintenance which is:
  • 31. A typical automobile consumes ~1200 Square feet (112 Square meters) of space for parking, driving, and maintenance which is: 3XMore than the average studio apartment in NYC (400SQ or 37SM)
  • 32. A typical automobile consumes ~1200 Square feet (112 Square meters) of space for parking, driving, and maintenance which is: 3XMore than the average studio apartment in NYC (~400SQ or 37SM)
  • 33. A typical automobile (privately-owned) that travels approximately 12,000 miles (19,300 km) a year is utilized only:
  • 34. A typical automobile (privately-owned) that travels approximately 12,000 miles (19,300 km) a year is utilized only: 7%Of each day (12,000mi at 18.8 mph over a 24h period).
  • 35. In congested urban areas about:
  • 36. In congested urban areas about: 40%of gasoline use is in looking for parking (Imperial College Urban Systems Project)
  • 37. Congestion (Beijing)
  • 38. Congestion (Bangalore)
  • 39. Pollution (Shanghai)
  • 40. Particulate Matter Levels in Beijing (Source: V. Karplus)
  • 41. Chinese New Passenger Vehicle Sales (2005 – 2010) (Not including heavy-duty or freight vehicles)
  • 42. Chinese New Passenger Vehicle Sales (2005 – 2010) (Not including heavy-duty or freight vehicles) China new car sales surpasses United States (13.6 vs. 10.4M)
  • 43. Increased Vehicle Ownership Compromises Global Energy Security
  • 44. Increased Vehicle Ownership Compromises Global Energy Security
  • 45. Sprawl (Los Angeles)
  • 46. Sprawl (Mexico City)
  • 47. Sprawl (Riyadh)
  • 48. Tower Sprawl(Guangzhou)
  • 49. Toronto Sprawl
  • 50. What Are Cities Doing about this?
  • 51. Restrictions to Private Car Ownership 1. License Plate Lottery – Beijing has restricted number of licenses to 240,000 for new cars (2011) 2. Taxation and other limits – Certificate of Entitlement (COE) and Additional Registration Fee (ARF) of Singapore designed to limit the total number of cars through a bidding system and taxation (140% in addition to cost of vehicle) 3. Congestion Pricing – London, Singapore, Stockholm, Milan 4. License Plate Rationing – Restricts driving based on license plate number (Mexico City, Bogotá, São Paulo, Auckland, Athens, and Santiago) MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 52. The Emergence of Vehicle Sharing 1. Bicycle Sharing is exploding: By 2008 more than 80 cities around the world will offer the service. Paris’s Vélib bike sharing system utilizes over 30,000 bikes at 1400 stations. 2. Car Sharing systems like ZipCar, Car2go (by Daimler-Benz), and Autolib (car version of Vélib) are rapidly expanding. 3. 5000 cars in the US, 10% adoption rates in cities, over 600 cities in the world have it. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 53. “Since the end of World War II, new cars and suburban houses have powered the world’s largest economy and propelled our most impressive recoveries……Millennials may have lost interest in both.”
  • 54. Mobility-on-Demand (where alternatives to the private automobile are more convenient, affordable, and pleasurable, and traffic congestion is essentially eliminated)
  • 55. Walking (Privileged Mode) Shared Bikes Shared Electric Bikes Shared Electric Tram/Bus Shared Electric PEVs Shared CityCars Shared Electric Scooters Mobility-on-Demand Modes
  • 56. A collaboration with: Sanyang (SYM) and Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan The RoboScooter Folding Electric Motor Scooter The GreenWheel Smart Electric Bicycle
  • 57. RoboScooter and GreenWheel
  • 58. Persuasive Electric Vehicle for Bike-Lanes (PEV) Democratizing bike-lane access while addressing the problems of: energy congestion mobility aging obesity
  • 59. 250 Watt Hub Motor (with higher power options) Swappable Module: Child Seat, Groceries, Mail & Package Delivery, Fast-food Delivery, etc. Rain Screen Headlights Battery Chain Drive Charging Carving Mechanism Charging/Docking Port Persuasive Electric Vehicle for Bike-Lanes (PEV) (EU Bike Lane Regulations) Weight Limitation: 60 Kg Weight Speed Limitation: 20 KpH
  • 60. Persuasive Electric Vehicle for Bike-Lanes (PEV)
  • 61. CityCar (A Foldable, Sharable, Electric, Modular, 2-Passenger Vehicle for Cities)
  • 62. In-Wheel Electric Motor Technology (Robot Wheels) 1. Integrated in-Wheel Motor Module – Contains electric drive motors, electric steering, braking, suspension in one self-contained unit. 2. Utilization of by-wire controls – Electronic control of Wheel Robot provides design flexibility with vehicle architecture and programmability of vehicle control system. 3. Lightweight Manufacture and Servicing – Economies of Scale at Wheel assembly level and easy maintenance and replacement. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 63. In-Wheel Electric Motor Technology (Robot Wheels) 1. Integrated in-Wheel Motor Module – Contains electric drive motors, electric steering, braking, suspension in one self-contained unit. 2. Utilization of by-wire controls – Electronic control of Wheel Robot provides design flexibility with vehicle architecture and programmability of vehicle control system. 3. Lightweight Manufacture and Servicing – Economies of Scale at Wheel assembly level and easy maintenance and replacement. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 64. MIT CityCar: A Sharable, Foldable, 2-Passenger, Electric Vehicle MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 65. Energy and Space Efficient CityCar Target Specifications (Unfolded) Length: 2500mm Width: 1700mm Weight: 450kg Range: 100km
  • 66. CityCar Parking Ratios: 3 to 1 vs. Traditional Vehicles MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 67. 5X cars/area with folding and autonomous parking
  • 68. CityCar Study in Hong Kong MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 69. CityCar Study in Singapore MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 70. CityCar Study in Bilbao, Spain
  • 71. Commercialization of the MIT CityCar in Spain (Hiriko)
  • 72. Hiriko CityCar by MIT Media lab Sponsor Denokinn – Vitoria Gasteiz MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 73. Automotive Suppliers, F2 Engineering, MIT Media Lab
  • 74. Full Scale Prototype Development
  • 75. Hiriko CityCar Robot Wheel
  • 76. Full-scale Foam Model and Comparison
  • 77. Hiriko Modules and Primary Co-manufacturers Members of HIRIKO CARS: Copyright © AFYPAIDA 2010. This document is the property of AFYPAIDA and must not be disclosed to any third party without the written permission of the company. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 78. Hiriko Size Comparison MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 79. Hiriko CityCar Body, Mechanicals, and Electronics MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 80. Hiriko CityCar Full-Scale Body and Interior (August 2011)
  • 81. Unveiling the CityCar at the European Union Commission (EU) – Brussels (Jan 24th,2012)
  • 82. Unveiling with EU President – José Manuel Barroso MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 83. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 84. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 85. MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 86. CityCar Test Drive – Vitoria, Spain
  • 87. What’s Next: Autonomous Vehicles
  • 88. Emergence of Autonomous Vehicles 1. DARPA Urban Challenge has help to fund and ignite research in autonomous self-driving automobiles 2. Improved Safety – V2V communication and sensing to avoid accidents 3. Improved Traffic Flow – Close platooning capability to improve traffic flow and throughput. 4. Potential to Lower Weight of Vehicle – Accident avoidance provides the potential to lighten the vehicle (Chris Borroni-Bird) MIT Media Lab City Science
  • 89. Automobile Deaths (USA, Globally 2010) (10,228) – Alcohol Related (5,919) – Drug Related (Marijuana, Cocaine, etc.) (5,920) – Distracted Driving (Texting, Calls, Eating, etc.) (10,852) – Other (Sleeping, Aging, Roadway and vehicle factors) Source: Center for Disease and Control and Prevention (CDCP) 32,918 Deaths in the USA (2010) 1,200,000 Deaths Globally Estimated Cost for Motor Vehicle Collisions (USA, 2000) = $230B (by CDCP) 31% 18%18% 33%
  • 90. Automobile Deaths (USA, Globally 2010) (10,228) – Alcohol Related (5,919) – Drug Related (Marijuana, Cocaine, etc.) (5,920) – Distracted Driving (Texting, Calls, Eating, etc.) (10,852) – Other (Sleeping, Aging, Roadway and vehicle factors) Source: Center for Disease and Control and Prevention (CDCP) 32,918 Deaths in the USA (2010) 1,200,000 Deaths Globally Estimated Cost for Motor Vehicle Collisions (USA, 2000) = $230B (by CDCP) 31% 18%18% 33% Autonomy Can Address these Issues
  • 91. LIDAR Sensing (E. Frazzoli, S. Karaman)
  • 92. Autonomous Intersection (E. Frazzoli, S. Karaman)
  • 93. AEVITA (Autonomous Electric Vehicle Interaction Array)
  • 94. Active Safety Availability Accessibility Native integration High utilization Efficient design Affordability Autonomy Car Sharing Electrification
  • 95. What Else Can An Autonomous Electric Shared Vehicle Fleet Do?
  • 96. Resilient Energy Networks for EVs (where micro-grids, and locally produced renewables create agile, adaptable, efficient energy networks for electric charging)
  • 97. Non-Resilient Energy Networks Image: New York Magazine, Nov 2012 MIT Media Lab Changing Places
  • 98. New Energy Networks for Electric Mobility With large-scale use, car stacks throw enormous battery capacity into the electrical grid. Effective utilization of inexpensive, off-peak power and clean but intermittent power sources – solar, wind, wave, etc. A smart, distributed power generation system composed of these sources (the entire city as a virtual power plant) minimizes transmission losses. MIT Media Lab Changing Places & Smart Cities Group Energy Buffer
  • 99. Second-Life EV Battery Buffer Building Transformer Electrical Grid DC2DC Level-3 Charging LEV LEV LEV LEV LEV Community Heating and Cooling Second Life EV batteries as Energy Storage and Buffer to the Grid Design of a New Energy Ecosystem
  • 100. In Memory of William J. Mitchell (1944-2010) Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences (MIT)
  • 101. The mission of City Science is to develop urban strategies that can result in: 100X Reduction in CO2 emissions 10X Reduction in traffic congestion 5X Improvement in livability 2X Improvement in creativity http://cities.media.mit.edu Ryan C.C. Chin, Ph.D. Managing Director, City Science Initiative, MIT Media Lab rchin@mit.edu

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