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Transcript

  • 1. Alan Smith
  • 2. The hypodermic needle model is about audiences. The idea is that messages are directly received and accepted by the audience you are targeting at. The theory suggests that people will do as they are told, However it is now feared that it could no longer exist as said by theorists Katz and lazarfeld. An example can come from what was the Nazi propaganda and how something as little as a poster with a soldier acting positively to the situation persuaded people. It tried to show that the Jews were ‘bad guys’ and was put in place to recruit people or support what was happening. The main theorist behind this was Harold Lasswell. This is considered to be passive consumption and what media can do to people. The pictures show what hypodermic needle is supposed to do and make you think in a certain way.
  • 3. The hypodermic needle theory implied mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences. The factors that effected it were:     the fast rise and popularization of radio and television - the emergence of the persuasion industries, such as advertising and propaganda - the Payne Fund studies of the 1930s, which focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and - Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during WWII to unify the German public behind the Nazi party A popular example of the theory being in use was the Magic Bullet theory. This came about in 1938 by Orson Welles and the newly formed radio show he presented was interrupted by a news ‘bulletin’. It said that Martians has started to invade the earth. The alert was in fact for entertainment purposes only however many listeners did take it seriously. This proves that what you hear can effect your actions and the media has a very strong grasp on peoples actions. The bullet in the theory suggesting it is being shot into the public and how they may sometimes be portrayed as gullible.
  • 4. Uses and Gratifications theory tries to explain why people consume media products and what they will receive from it. It discusses how users deliberately choose media that will satisfy given needs. This is seen as active consumption and what people do to the media. It is based on Communication to a mass media target. The main theorists behind this are Herta Herzog who founded the earliest form, Jay Blumer and Denis McQuail who studied the election in the UK and looked at how peoples motives changed by watching mass marketed television programmes, from this they could tell how people were influenced by what they saw. Since then the radio and TV have had a very big influence on the media.
  • 5. Denis McQuail, like all the other theorists looked into why people use the Media. He came up with 4 categories. Information; Where you want to find out news for self-education. Personal Identity; To reinforce personal values and models of behaviour being found in actions. Integration and Social interaction; Having a substitute for human companionship such as social network sites like Facebook. Entertainment; escaping problems and relaxing.
  • 6. This theory looks how the audience interprets the media that they consume. Stuart Hall developed this theory and made it with 2 parts. The first being that of Encoding and Decoding. Encoding is that of where the product wants to get a message across but through a subtle way. Anchoring is used in Newspapers to relate the images and headlines with a goal of making you buy it. Decoding is almost the opposite and where the media product lets the consumer decode the message of what has been put inside. The second part looks at how someone understands a product and what their views are towards it.
  • 7. Hall’s idea said that there were 3 ways in interpreting a media text. Preferred, Negotiated and Oppositional. Preferred is where the reader understands what has happened or been reported and agrees with the general view about it. Negotiated is where the reader generally accepts what they are reading however puts themselves in that position and tries to understand that from their own experiences. Oppositional is where the reader understands the reading but does not agree with what has been put and has the opposite view to it.
  • 8. Passive audiences do not apply their own ideas when buying a product, the hypodermic needle therefore assumes audiences are passive. They are Passive because they tell the audience what to think and how they should interpret the media given to them. This is where the person does not pay attention to what is being said but gets psychologically effected by the media. For example seeing an advert where someone eats some crisps makes you want to eat crisps. Active audiences apply their own thoughts, ideas and experiences to the media, Uses and Gratifications are therefore active. This is the opposite to passive and where someone goes out their way to pay attention to what has been written.
  • 9. When looking at Television programmes such as Family guy you can easily understand the meanings on what influences an audience. A Preferred reading on this would be that when looking at the main character Peter Griffin. It would insist that all American males are obese and do stupid things. This is because they take what has been said to be true and do not believe anything else.
  • 10. A Negotiated view on it could be that they accept the stupid things Peter does however they believe that there may be a reason behind it. A Oppositional view would be that they completely disagree with the content and consider the characters to be false and not to be taken seriously. Also that it should not represent all males in America as it is only one person.
  • 11. When applying hypodermic Needle to a Television programme such as Family Guy then it is clear to see that it is telling you in a passive way what to believe about the show and how to interpret the way the characters behave. Using the 4 categories distinguished by McQuail it is clear that watching the show it is found in the entertainment side and that of escaping your own problems and can also be seen as relaxing.
  • 12. http://a2media-bhabishya.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/hypodermicneedle-theory.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uses_and_gratifications_theory#Stage_1 http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Mas s%20Media/Hypodermic_Needle_Theory/