Photography book pro forma


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Photography book pro forma

  1. 1. Photography Applications Alan Smith
  2. 2. Advertising Advertising photography refers to the art of taking pictures that are used to create awareness of a particular product or service to the public. The photographs are mostly used by advertising agencies to market a product Applying photography to advertising can be the most persuasive way when looking at a product and how you want it to be portrayed by the viewer. Advertising Photography is all about creating an image as ultimately it is about making your product look good enough for the targeted demographic. For example a photograph taken by Frederic Streicher for Audi. It is down to making it suitable for the client and where he is targeting Car owners who consider themselves achievers out of the psychographics concerned and that the image represents a quick, clean and stylish product. The other image of Hollister has used photograph advertising to another level. Having such a huge image representing the product it is almost impossible to not notice.
  3. 3. When looking at past and current ways of advertising through photographs you can see that how much influence it can have over the way people live their lives. You can see similarities to this day to how manipulated photographs with captions can make you buy a product that you have seen advertised. Old images were taken then developed to promote products such as cigarettes and alcohol. Advertising through photography is to create an image that best describes your product. Alcohol adverts use photographs to do this. As you can see the bottle has been merged together with a city. Here is a good example of photo manipulation as it has two images together in one.
  4. 4. Contexts that have Advertising photography are magazines that include images of products usually found in the back of the publishing, Newspapers where a small image can be taken of a certain product to advertise for a small fee and Web pages that are the most likely way of seeing photographs for a product. This is because of the increase in that target audience using the internet. Images that are taken are developed through the post production to look presentable and then uploaded to some social network sites such as twitter for the audience to see their work. Photographers will also keep their work on websites to show in their portfolio in order to attract more customers. A good example of advertising through photography is the Apple adverts. These include the product and all that is included in it on a simplistic photograph with a little caption. This is not a bright, colourful, expensive advert with a lot going on but instead it is describing the product from what people will already know about it. Due to their high reputation the advert does not have to be very technical. This particular advert can be seen in newspapers, technical magazines and on the internet.
  5. 5. A Current Advertising Photographer is that of Michael Molloy. He photographs people for brochures, press releases, websites & all forms of marketing and advertising. Here the image taken by Michael is a close up portrait, it has been taken inside in a studio because of the black background and lack of natural light coming onto the lens. The photographer likes to keep simplicity in his images and does not like to have too much going on. Here it is clear that two colours have been preferred, black and white. There has been no added saturation however the contrast has been lowered as the jacket is not as bold as can be. Jay Maisel, born January 18th 1931. Most known images is his photograph of Miles Davis that appeared on the cover of Davis's album Kind of Blue. (image on right)
  6. 6. This can also been seen as a candid photograph because Miles Davis is not looking at the camera and the photograph is designed to make it look like it is not expected. The shutter speed of the camera must have been quick as not a lot of light has been let through in the image. This again was on purpose to set the scene and relate to that deep, soul music. This promotional image by Maisel was taken with a lot of knowledge. As said before the photograph is taken it is important to relate it to the client so it will look better when selling to the audience targeted. The image of Miles Davis does not only include the instrument that he is playing which is clear to see when buying the product, but also that he is wearing a blue jacket. The blue being important as this goes hand in hand with the title of ‘Kind of Blue’. The musician is smiling to portray what that genre of music does to the listener and the expression is deliberately used because of this. The photograph is a close up on the musician. The image has been toned down and darkened to blend in to the black background of the studio it has been taken in. The composition of the image has been well thought about as it was clear that the client wanted space on the right to put the title.
  7. 7. Promotion Promotional Photography is very similar to advertising as they share the way of taking a photograph to express what they feel the product needs to be seen as. However, Promotional photography focuses on raising profile rather than direct sales. Examples of this can be seen through a photographer that might go on tour with a band and make the public aware of where they are and how they are preforming, also just to give a clue to people that of what music genre they go under and to possibly recruit more of a fan base. Promotional Photography can be found in magazines or fanzines of the music culture. As well as some newspapers and if there is a local gig or performance it may be seen on a billboard or hoarding of a large size to make sure it stands out. Here an example on the right is a well enhanced image of a Musician, PitbulI. It is obvious that it has been post produced with a lot of artificial light and bright colours used to cover the majority of the original image. This is used to make the image look more appropriate to the demographic that listens to him, that of a vibrant and exciting person. Current promotional photography can be seen on the image of the tour bus here on the right. This was taken by Abel Longoria on a Digital SLR camera. As you can see it has had no flash on camera meaning a darker image can be seen. Also with a 0 Aperture priority the photograph has been designed to look black and white with a shadow. This could be to represent the music of that band, should they be a heavy metal or rock band, this would best describe them to viewers of the photographs that can be found on the authors website. 7
  8. 8. Fashion Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for advertisements or fashion magazines. Fashion Photography when taken appears in obvious magazines such as vogue, however the internet holds the well edited images. The fashion side also shares similarities when looking at advertising because both are heavily edited and adjusted to make the photograph appeal more to the magazine and to who they are targeting. As you can see on the image it is heavily worked on to apply to what the magazine is trying to get across. You can see how the special lighting makes the image look more professional and stands out from the page. The composition of the edited photograph here is seen as the image is covering the whole page and done deliberately. The colours used have been saturated to a darker red and purple because this is seen as a popular colour at the moment and the majority of the magazine will include red highlights in some form, such as text. Or background. The front of the magazine is setting a scene for the rest of the publication. The lighting used by the photographer here will be that of front light as it is focusing at the person, also there is no sign of shadow to indicate that of natural light being exposed. Here the woman on the photograph has been sharpened up to stand out from the background and white text. The brightness has been lowered and the contrast increased so the facial features can be seen more clearly and so the photograph becomes more bold.
  9. 9. A Current Fashion photographer is Sarah Bird, she is award winning for her images taken on hair and beauty and all that surrounds the fashion culture. She focuses on indoor studio photographs taken on women. She has worked for a variety of clients such as Oakley, Irregular Choice and Posthuman Wardrobe. Her photography work has been featured in British Vogue, Metro newspaper, Evening Standard and Fashion Capital. Her photographs taken have also been in books sold internationally and can be seen in exhibitions. Richard Avedon ( 1923 – 2004) was an American fashion and portrait photographer. An obituary published in The New York Times said that "his fashion and portrait photographs helped define America's image of style, beauty and culture for the last half-century“ A collection of his work can be seen on the right.
  10. 10. Photojournalism Photojournalism is where pictures are used to contribute to the news, it is used to further someone's understanding on a certain story being told in the media. Photojournalism can come in many forms, such as War and the paparazzi however sport can also be captured and in some of the best photographs. Here it is clear that a picture really can say more than words. An example of a famous sporting photograph that can go hand in hand with text is that of Muhammad Ali and that famous knock out image taken where he shouts at his opponent to get up. Photographic manipulation is a big issue concerning photojournalism as people believe that it will make their images look better. However when reporting on news in war zones, even any small adjustments will not be allowed as it is a profession that is providing a service to those watching through the news and reading in media and should be allowed to see the truth and nothing edited to make people believe it has been set up in an studio. Light in the image above was not needed and in fact it was the lack of colour which spoke a lot of the fight. Aggressive and not nice to look at however a victory. When looking at the war images taken, they should be taken and not adjusted because it is the emotion from the people in the photographs that is important not the colour or saturation added to them. Images taken for photojournalism are usually observational as it will give a better image to see what is happening in that particular war. The facial features of people when they are not expecting things will be more interesting than a staged photograph. This is why the paparazzi is so famous because of their desire to get the best reports and images. The sporting image is that of a wide lens, this was designed so not only does it let you see exactly was is going on around the ring and in it, it had enough detail to see the expression on the famous boxers face. The photograph is an observational iconic image around the sporting world. Neil Leifer’s image of Ali was such a good quality piece of photojournalism as it captured a lot of feeling in the image as well as keeping its simplicity.
  11. 11. A photographer taking candid images taken to show what exactly is happening in the places of war. Candid being that of unexpected photography. This is taken from a wide lens, and taken to show the amount of people unhappy. The photograph is not staged and uses the Natural light to show the people in the image. This image is taken from a longer telephoto lens as it has to be taken from far away for the safety of the photographer Sky Clean sand Rubble, hard ground The context of the photographs taken by the photojournalists will be found in mainly on the front pages of newspapers should it be breaking news, on the internet through websites of newspapers or broadcast centers such as BBC. Also eventually on social network sites in the form of Twitter and Facebook Here the Photograph has been taken at a medium wide shot in order to fit the soldiers as well as the desert they are walking in. The rule of thirds has been used for the background. That being 2 thirds land and 1 third sky. These photographers are very skilled in their department and also very brave. The Photograph taken is that of a close up. Photojournalists take serious images like this, it is Photojournalists therefore important not to start work within the editing the images as it is vital same ethical people take the image seriously approaches as other for what it is. journalists!
  12. 12. Robert Capa October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954 Hungarian war photographer and photojournalist who covered five different wars. He documented the course of World War II in London, North Africa, Italy, the Battle of Normandy on Omaha Beach and the liberation of Paris. Here it is clear that the images have not been heavily edited because it is trying to get across the daily actions of what these men had to go through. Again, observational candid images are taken as it is the best way to see what exactly is happening and so nothing is staged. 12
  13. 13. A good example of where photojournalism can be found in media is that of magazines such as National Geographic. These have images that go hand in hand with text to give the reader information about a certain topic concerning the environment we live in. Photojournalism is found in magazines relating to every topic. For example Sport and football, Magazines such as ‘Match’ or ‘Goal’ will include images of footballers to go with an article written. Photographs are just used to help you understand what is being said. To compare the two photographs on the page. The frog has been taken to blend in whereas the hyena has been taken to stand out from its surroundings. Here the see-through frog has been taken from above to show how it can blend in with the surroundings. The picture at the bottom has been taken from ground level. The way the aperture is used to create the depth of field from the rest of the animals is used well as the main animal is seen more clear. 13
  14. 14. Portraiture Portraiture is photography of a person or group of people that displays the expression, personality, and mood of the subject. The facial features of that person are very important as it becomes clear on close up photographs. In portraiture any person can be the model unlike other types of photography where a certain person or subject has to be used such as fashion or advertising. In this type of photography it just depends on facial features and what expression you make from it to how good the image is. From this it is clear that there is 4 sides to the Portrait photography spectrum. The constructionist approach, which is where the particular photographer bases the idea or theme on the portrait side. Such as a wedding or a Happy family. This is often taken place in a studio of the photographers. It is to construct the idea and send a message across. The second approach is the Environmental approach, this depends on the persons background whether or not it is from work or leisure. The so called ‘story’ is told through the environment and their location. A candid approach is that of where the person who is being pictured does not realize or pretends that they do not see the camera. Examples of this can come from photographing strangers. Images taken in Candid photographs do not appear in constructive ones as it is not pre meditated. The creative approach is the more developed way of photographing people as this includes manipulation and post production. The introduction of Adobe Photoshop has allowed photographers to make their images better and make composite images. That of having more layers making up the photograph. Such as the image on the right. This can lead to a photomontage and should the photographer wish to go further they can fully develop the image into something abstract. Creative and environmental photographs are found online and in many magazines such as readers digest and many family orientated books. Whereas Candid and Constructionist images are located with those who have purchased the photographs
  15. 15. The photograph is taken using a wide lens to capture the full family and the background. The grid method has been thought about when placing the people near the objects outside. The light used is that of natural light as you can see from the shadow on the tree. From this technique it can make the photograph look more professional as well as allowing the light to be spread equally onto the image. The photograph is controlled as the people have been told where to position themselves in an almost unnatural position to what they usually would. The camera is using a flash to make the image brighter as well as setting the camera to a slower shutter speed to allow more light into the lens. The photograph is a good example of an constructionist approach as well as sharing the environmental way of thinking due to the natural background rather than in a studio with a plain coloured setting.
  16. 16. A famous Portrait photographer was Yousuf Karsh (19082002). He had a long career that involved taking photographs of iconic names such as Einstein, Nelson Mandela and his most famous image of Winston Churchill on the right hand side. The image of Churchill has been taken well because a space has been left on the left hand side to make the image look more professional. A current portrait photographer is that of Chris Gloag. He is a talented portrait and lifestyle photographer providing studio and location images for agency, editorial and corporate clients. This is a image taken by Gloag below. Leading lines is used in the photograph below as it can make the person look far way and makes you look at them. The way it works is that your eyes start looking at the rail from the left and eventually see the profile of the person.
  17. 17. High Street studio High street studio can include portrait and wedding photography in its portfolios. Large franchises such as Venture focus on family portraits and it is those who have eventually made modern family portraits popular. These are becoming popular because of the way in which they can enhance the images. As competition is fierce, studios now use artificial lights to give the brightness rather than relying on natural. Families are becoming more keen on the techniques used because of the post production stage, they can be made to look completely different to how they do. With colours being adjusted on the facial features to make them look better than they thought. The contexts where this type of photography is found is that of online or with those of who purchased off the photographer. A famous Photographer surrounding the wedding and portrait images taken is Hugo Burnand, he has taken many photographs for the royal family and most recent the royal wedding. In the High street studio photographs they all share the same emotions, that of being happy. This is because they focus on portraiture and it is important when thinking about where they may be seen and in what context. Should the images be from weddings then they will be found with the couple and their guests and being happy will be a must. Also with the royal wedding photographs it is important that as they will be seen throughout media such as the internet and magazines so the person has to be seen to being friendly.
  18. 18. Architectural Architectural photography is images taken of buildings and similar structures. Ezra Stoller (16 May 1915 – 29 October 2004) was an American architectural photographer. The work on the right hand side is that of complex images taken from unusual angles. In many of Stollers images they are not coloured and focus on patterns and abstract design. To take these images Architectural photographers use tilt shift lenses to get photographs that are not normally seen from the human eye. Images can be used for architects, consulting engineers, surveyors and property developers.
  19. 19. Simon Kennedy Architectural Photographer Simon’s work has been exhibited and published widely, and his recent clients include The BBC, Sheppard Robson Architects and Hopkins Architects. The photographs mainly are used with telephoto lenses to take images from far away. However to capture images such as the one on the top of the page, wide lenses are used to fill the page up with the building’s. They are rarely edited but may be sharpened up if a particular client wants something different. The light used is that of natural light and using the the buildings themselves to provide the colour to the images. Here it is clear that all architectural images are observational and take photographs of buildings how they are. They move the camera instead of moving the object.
  20. 20. Illustration Photographs are often used alongside newspapers to tell the reader something. This in some ways is similar to photojournalism as this can help tell a story better than words. An example can come from a body language book about dogs. This is because it provides step by step images to help tell the original idea of interpreting canines. Photographs used to illustrate can provide huge help to people especially should they not be able to understand writing itself. There are no well known illustration photographers as the images for books such as these are uploaded to be purchased for separate use and photographs bought individually. The owner is to be paid royalties for the use of the image. Illustration photography can be used to either teach something such as guide books or can be books on how to distinguish certain animals from another. For example different birds that are in the Cayman islands.
  21. 21. You can clearly see that the picture has not had any post production done to it. This is because the photographer/ writer want to create a trustworthy appearance and not that of a false one. The candid approach on the photograph is used well as the dog is doing an unusual shape and does relate very well to the title of body language. As the image has been taken from an outside environment and over an unexpected animal, the photographer has had to rely on natural light to bright out the animals details. The photography used on books always has to topic on the front cover. This is so straight away the person knows what the book is about and if they should consider reading it. The photographer has used the wide lens well as the canine is directly in the middle of the photograph and still keeps a sense of the rule of thirds. Two thirds of the background being grass and one third hay. This only makes the canine stand out more from the page.
  22. 22. Medical Photography Medical Photography is a specialized area of photography that concerns itself with the documentation of injuries or diseases. An example of a company that is involved in medical photography is The Bio Communications Association. The company uses quality images in visual communications for teaching, documentation and presentations in the life sciences and medicine. The photographs can be found in research papers and articles. The photographers use specialist photo imaging techniques such as micro- and macrography to capture the things normal cameras or the human eye cannot see. As well as this the images can be just of equipment. A wide lens has been used to capture the full room and all the equipment that is used in the medical profession To compare both photographs. The one above is a wide lens to show everything and educate whilst the photograph below has been taken with a long lens to capture what they want. The image has been taken from above. This is to show the detail rom up close of the whole object. Artificial light has been used so it can make the micro organisms stand out from the background.
  23. 23. Fine Art Photography Everything can be considered to be Art. So Fine Art Photography can have many definitions. Photography that is done as a fine art -- that is, done to express the artist's perceptions and emotions and to share them with others Thomas D'agostino is a Fine Art photographer working in London. His work is very abstract and unusual. The Photographer has decided not to add colour or any saturation to the image as it would make the image look less realistic. Photographs can be of anything. In the sector nudes, architecture and wildlife are all popular. Images can be colour or black and white. A picture that is produced for sale or display rather than one that is produced in response to a commercial commission. The photograph is taken from below looking up to create the effect that the person is powerful. Depth of field has been created again as the distance between the person alive and the back of room has been made to look far away. This makes the image focus on the portrayed killer without looking at anything else.
  24. 24. Ansel Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) Ansel Adams was an American photographer and environmentalist. His black-and-white landscape photographs of the American West have been widely reproduced on calendars, posters, and in books. In the photograph on the right taken by Adams, he has used photographic techniques well as not only does it include the foreground, middle ground and background of the mountains in a well balanced landscape rule of thirds, but leading lines has been used very well as the eyes are instantly drawn to the road. The photograph taken was with a wide lens as it has managed to capture the whole landscape. This was an observational photograph as nothing was adjusted or moved to create it.
  25. 25. Documentary Documentary photography refers to a popular form of photography. This is used to report on a historical or long term project. This can be misunderstood to be the same type of photography as photojournalism however this focuses more on images themselves and close ups on people. Whereas Photojournalism focuses on breaking news and quicker images taken to correspond with text. Also the images taken with documentary photography are trying to give a deeper understanding on what is happening, therefore post production can be used in this type. As the images are edited they are most likely to feature on magazines as people are more likely to take more time looking at it than skipping through a newspaper very quickly A present day Documentary photographer is Cristian Movila. He focuses on taking images that are very disturbing for the reader such as this cruel image of a young boy learning how to use a gun to be told to go to war. The images can tell a lot more than words by looking at them. Looking at the expression on his face you can see confusion. Many documentary photographers work becomes like a piece of art and like Movila his work has appeared in exhibitions. Also Movila has worked for the Sunday times magazine, the telegraph magazine and stern.
  26. 26. Dorothea Lange (May 26, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration. The photograph taken in the 1930’s was capturing the emotion of what people in America were going through and that famous image represented the depression as a whole. The photograph unlike the newly documented post production images was not touched or enhanced at all. The photograph was an observational image taken with the rule of thirds in mind due to the way it is equally spread on each side of the migrant mother. Natural light is required in the image and it seems that it is a candid photograph as the family is not looking at the camera.
  27. 27. References