Stuart Hall is a sociologist and
cultural theorist. He looked into
audience interpretation of
media and the three ways that
they can be read. The three
readers of media are seen as
Preferred, Negotiated and
This is where people believe exactly what
has been said and are fully convinced
about what a particular media product is
telling them. This therefore is the ideal
response media producers will want from
their products. Examples include seeing an
McDonalds advert on the television and the
next time you drive pass one you have the
impulse to buy one. Again another example
can be something a certain person reads
on a Newspaper. A Preferred person would
believe exactly what has been put. So here
on the image of the Daily Mail, they would
consider the headline of cancer to be true.
This is where a person acknowledges what has
been said through the media. They believe
what has been put similarly to the preferred
view. However they put their own stamp on
what has been said to them. For Example
McDonalds again, they would notice the
commercial on the television but instead of
buying straight away the next time they see
one they would look at going but only on
occasion. For an article in the newspaper, a
Negotiated person would take time to look at
what has been put, and after reading it all, only
then would they believe what has been put.
However these would add their own views and
beliefs to it, So here they would put themselves
in the shoes of someone with cancer.
This is where a person takes an alternative
message of what has been said, this is
seen as the opposite of preferred as this
rejects the idea of what the media is
suggesting. For example an Oppositional
person would reject everything about the
McDonalds advert because of how they are
made, these people could be health
conscious or vegetarians. So here on the
Newspaper article, An oppositional person
would completely disagree and think it is
nonsense that Cancer can come from
reading that particular media.
This is where the audience can play an active role in collecting and
analysing data for a certain media product. This role can come in
many forms of two way networks and digital media such as
Facebook and Twitter to share views with others about the show
you are watching, Some people will even make video blogs and
podcasts to share what they think with the public.
This theory came about from Henry Jenkins who believed that ‘Not
everyone must participate, but everyone must believe that if they
participate it will be valued’ This means that with a much greater
community of viewers it is important to let them know their
contributions matters to what they watch,
Examples can come from shows such as X Factor where peoples
votes can decide what happens to the signing contestants. This
encourages Audience Participation. Another example comes
heavily from twitter and it is the Hashtag key. When applying a
certain topic to the Hashtag, it allows you participate in what
service that media is providing. Such as polls or answering
questions about shows they watch.
Cultural Competence is the way we communicate with people
through technology and how from that we can understand
cultures from around the world. For example the internet, this
has improved a lot from when it first came about. We can
communicate with so many people using a variety of sites such
as Skype, Twitter, Facebook, Facetime and many more. However
some cultures are frowned upon for using such things on the
internet and are monitored on what they do. Using the internet
you can explore what is happening around the world and can
try to understand what other people are going through.
When looking at things on the internet you will see things different to others
looking at that source of media. For example you could both see a car however
one could see a much deeper understanding of what is represented by a car
such as wealth or power. Cultural Competence is therefore important when
understanding certain aspects in the media. So say a commercial had a person
wearing a leather coat, this should you be a Negotiated person would mean
rebellion. On the other hand should a preferred person see the commercial then
it will not say anything other then what it says on the advert.
Cultural competence comprises four components:
Awareness of one's own cultural worldview,
Attitude towards cultural differences,
Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews,
Cross-cultural skills. Developing cultural competence results in an ability
to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people
The word culture is used because it implies the integrated pattern of human behaviour.
The word competence is used because it implies having the capacity to function effectively.
This is where fans of a similar interests come together and share
their views towards a media product. They often have interests in
minor details of that product. They are often migrated and found
on the internet due to a common conception that fans are lacking
social skills. Types of culture fans participate in to be closer to a
product can be Fanzines, conventions and digital forums.
An example of a growing fan culture is that of the fans of the Star
Trek films. Commonly known as trekkies, these are serious fans
who have a good level of understanding of what the product
brings. Other viewers would not see what these fans do. This is
because the language used in the films of Klingon has been given
as an official language and ‘Hardcore’ fans have learnt all of it.
Learning this gives them a deeper insight to the product and can
interpret signs and symbols quicker then new viewers.
Henry Jenkins ‘fan culture is a culture produced by fans
and other amateurs for circulation through an
underground economy and that draws much of its content
from the commercial culture’
From this culture there have been many products brought
out through the devoted fans such as Anime, video games
and movies however Fanzines have become the
mainstream within fans.
Typically no money is made from the magazines as it is
fans together sharing what they think about a certain
topic. Fanzines should not be mistaken with Fan
Magazines as they are made by publishers for commercial
use and by fans.
This is a good example of how a small gathering of people can start a
mainstream fan culture, with thousands of trekkies around the world
gathering for conventions. Another example of fan culture can come in the
way of a re-creation of films or scripts. Fans will make their own type of
product with pieces of the actual film or book and with what the fans
wanted to be included. YouTube offers another part of fan culture, because
of the constant use of the internet fans do not see the need for magazines,
CD’s or any other type of media that was once a popular way of interacting
with a product. Now YouTube can offer thousands of different videos from
instructions on how to do something to songs that have just been released.
Using YouTube as a way of interacting is a good updated way of keeping
up to date with your favourite bands as you can comment below about
your thoughts towards something show. You can have debates with
individuals who have strong opinions about the same interests.