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  • 1. 1 Letter of Transmittal 23rd July 2013 Subir Kumar Banerjee (MHCIMA-UK) Director of College of Tourism and Hospitality Management (CTHM) IUBAT—International University of Business Agriculture and Technology Subject: Submission of the report on Indian Cuisine. Dear Sir, I have been advised to prepare a presentation on Indian Cuisine. I have followed your guidelines to prepare this report and all steps of communication system. To make this report I have faced many problem, but crossing this hardship I have tried my lavel best to make it successful. I have added lots of information about Indian Cuisines as per your guidelines on this report. From this report I have learned a lot of basic knowledge of Indian Cuisine and i think it will help me a lot in my future career. Due to the short span of time I faced a lot of problems to prepare this report. Crossing all the challenges finally I am able to submit my report on due time. I will be grateful if you accept my report with the care of limitations. Sincerely Yours, -------------------------------- Md. Al-Amin Khan ID: 11111011
  • 2. 2 Acknowledgement This Introduction to Indian Cuisine report is prepared on the basis of the assignment taken from the book and internet . It was a magnificent practice while working on Indian Cuisines. I am grateful to all the respondents for patiently furnishing the required information, which was needed for successful completion of this report. Lots of people helped me by contributing information to make this report. I would like to thanks, Subir Kumar Banerjee (MHCIMAUK) (Director of College of Tourism and Hospitality Management.) Md. Ismail Hossen (santo) ( Work on Kazana,Indian resturant ), I am expressing my immense gratitude to all of them who have extended support, direction and speared their valuable time on preparing this report. I am also grateful to the internet (Wikipedia) to give information about my queries and their support and to all those who have in some way contributed to the preparation of this report. my heartiest thanks for all of them.I will be always pleased to them.
  • 3. 3 Executive summary First of all to make this report I have set an objective on which segment of the communication. I will conduct my research. So that, I choose Indian Cuisine and also evolution of communicating strategy followed by Indian Cuisine through which I can predict the present situation of Indian Cuisine. To evaluate about Indian Cuisines I have to get different information from the internet about present situation of Indian Cuisine compares with other. I have visited various websites to congregate information about Indian cuisine. After visiting the website I devoted myself into analyzing the respond which I have been found through the research to portray findings which I have given later in this report. I have tried to make it writing easy and rich by information.
  • 4. 4 Table of Contents Title Name Page Number Part: 1 Prefactory Part………………………………………………… Title Fly Title page Letter of Transmittal 1 Acknowledgement 2 Executive summary 3 Table of Contents 4 -7 Part:2 introductory Part of the Report…………………………………. 2.1Introduction 9 -10 Part:3 History of Indian Food…………………………………………… 3.1 Introduction to the Indian Food 12 3.2 Indian Appetizers and Snacks 13-14 3.3 Indian Sweets. 15-16 3.4 Conclusion 17 Part:4 Types of Indian Regional Cuisine………………………………….. 4.1 Introduction 19 Part :5 North Indian Cuisine……………………………………………… 5.1 introduction 21 5.2 Awadhi cuisine 21-22 5.2.1 Awadhi dastarkhwan 22-24 5.2.2Desserts comprise 24-25 5.2.3 Kebab 26-27 5.2.4 Curry preparations 28 5.2.5Rice preparations 29 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 5. 5 5.2.6 Bread preparations 30-31 5.2.7 Desserts 32 5.3 Bihari cuisine 33 5.3.1 Bihari thali 33-34 5.3.2 Traditional cuisine 34 5.3.3 Vegetarian cuisine 35 5.3.4 Non-vegetarian cuisine 35 5.3.5 Breads 36 5.3.6 Bihari fast food 36-37 5.3.7 Sweets 37-39 5.4 Bhojpuri cuisine 39 5.4.1 Staple Diet 40 5.4.2 Spices & Condiments 40-42 5.4.3 Tools & Techniques 42 5.4.4 Dishes 43-44 5.4.5 Bread 44 5.4.6 Desserts 45-47 5.4.7 Drinks 47-48 5.4.8 Snacks 49 5.4.9 Pickle 49 5.5 Kumauni cuisine 50 5.6 Cuisine of Kashmir 50 5.6.1 Kashmiri Pandit Cuisine 50-51 5.6.2 Wazwan 51-53 5.6.3 Kashmiri beverages 53 5.6.4 Kahwah 54 5.7 Mughlai cuisine 54 5.7.1 Dishes 54-55
  • 6. 6 5.7.2 Desserts 56 5.8 Punjabi cuisine 56 5.8.1Background and overview 56-58 5.8.2Non-Vegetarian 58 5.8.3 Vegetarian 59 5.8.4Bread preparations 59 5.9 Rajasthani cuisine 60 5.9.1Sweet dishes 61-62 5.10 Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh 63-64 5.10.1Traditional Desserts 65 5.10.2Popular drinks from Uttar Pradesh 66 Part :6 South India cuisine………………………………………………… 6.1 Introduction 68 6.2 Andhra food 69 6.3 Regional variations 69 6.4 Popular Andhra dishes / Vegetarian 70 6.5 Non-vegetarian 70-71 6.6 Karnataka food 71 6.7 Regional Karnataka cuisine 71 6.7.1 North Karnataka cuisine 72 6.7.2 Coastal Karnataka cuisine 72 6.7.3 Coorgi cuisine 72 6.7.4 South Karnataka cuisine 73 6.8 Udipi hotels 73 6.9 Most famous food items 73 6.10 Kerala food 74-75 6.11Tamil food 76-77 6.12 Chettinad cuisine 77-78
  • 7. 7 Part: 7 East India cuisine…………………………………….. Introduction 80 Part :8 North-East India cuisine………………………………. 8.1Assamese cuisine 82-87 8.2 Manipuri cuisine 88-89 8.3Tripuri cuisine 89-92 8.4 Bodo cuisine 92-93 8.5Naga cuisine 94 8.6 Mizo cuisine 95 8.7Garo cuisine 96 8.8Khasi cuisine 96 Part :9 West India cuisine…………………………………………… 9.1 introduction 98-100 9.2 Characteristics of Bengali cuisine 100-105 9.3 Special Dishes of Dhaka 105-108 9.4 Instruments and utensils 108-110 9.5 Cooking styles 110-111 9.5.1 Common Bengali recipe styles 111-115 9.6 Bengali meals 116-125 9.7Snacks 125-127 Part:10 Beverages………………………………………………………… 10.1Alcoholic, traditional 129-130 10.2Alcoholic, non-traditional 130 10.3Non-alcoholic 130 10.4Other milk-based 130-131 Part: 11 APPENDIX……………………………………………………….. 11.1 Photo Gelary 133-138 Part: 12 References and Bibliography………………………………………. 140
  • 8. 8 Part:2 introductory Part of the Report
  • 9. 9 2.1 Introduction Indian cuisine can be said to have evolved along lines parallel to Indian history. India has ancient cultural heritage which is dependent on religion, geography and socio-economic conditions. Traditionally Indian cooking has been handed down through the generations by demonstrations and word of mouth. Strong impact was made on Indian cuisine during the reign of Mughals in the sixteenth century, who were fond of good living. Cooking and eating. Muslim cooking was based on meat. Their Influence was sti-ongesl In North and Central India. Since then, well-known Mughlat flt.shcs wci-revolved which have soon developed into an Important culinary art and is part of Indian cuisine. Extreme South, the Mughal influence was less. where cooking is mainly vegetarian. The regional dishes from different parts of India are Influenced by religion. availability of Ingredients and old traditions and customs, many of them being Influenced by the different invasions.'Thus it is a combination of cookery of many nationalities. The cooking habits of india vary not within the religious communities but from area to area. Indian cuisine or Indian food encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate and occupations, these cuisines vary significantly from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, meat, vegetables, and fruits. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious and cultural choices. The development of these cuisines have been shaped by Dharmic beliefs, and in particular by vegetarianism, which is a growing dietary trend in Indian society. There has also been Central Asian influence on North Indian cuisine from the years of Mughal and Turkic Delhi Sultanate rule. Indian cuisine has been and is still evolving, as a result of the nation's cultural interactions with other societies. Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations and colonialism have also played a role in introducing certain foods to the country. For instance, potato, a staple of Indian diet was brought to India by the Portuguese, who also introduced chillies and breadfruit.Indian cuisine has also shaped the history of international relations; the spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.Spices were
  • 10. 10 bought from India and traded around Europe and Asia. It has also influenced other cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean. Indian cuisine reflects a 5000-year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the subcontinent, leading to diversity of flavours and regional cuisines found in modern-day India. Later British and Portuguese influence added to the already diverse Indian Cuisine. Indian dishes are popular all over the world for its taste and variety. There are people who travel a long distance to have the taste of it. There is so many things that you never forget about India, one of them is Tasty dishes. Nothing reaveals the variety in Indian culture better than the diversity of its sensational food.
  • 11. 11 Part: 3 History of Indian Food
  • 12. 12 3.1 Introduction to the Indian Food Once considered the shining jewel in the British Empire’s crown, India can today be easily deemed as the huge, 60-carat diamond in the World’s flavored cuisine ring. The large variety of dishes, appetizers, snacks, side dishes and desserts have found numerous fans on an international scale, as Indian restaurants spread at an incredible rate, with an enormous success in every possible culture and in every possible corner of the World. Combining all tastes possible, the Indian cuisine is bound to satisfy spice-lovers, “salty” people and persons with a sweet tooth alike (although the latter will feel right at home, since India is a “sweet” country). Some say that the Indian cuisine is almost as diverse as the entire European cuisine, because of the four different main regional styles: the North Indian cuisine (the regions Benaras, Kashmir, Mughlai, Punjab and Rajasthan), the South Indian cuisine (regions Andhra, Kannada, Kerala and Tamil), East Indian cuisine (regions Assamese and Bengali) and Western Indian cuisine (regions Gujarat, Maharashtrian and Malwani). The northern part of India is mostly rural, although it contains large cities such as Delphi or Calcutta, thus its cuisine is more agricultural than anything, wheat being a primary constituent of this region’s dishes. Southern regions however tend to be more exotic, more spicy in their dishes and rice is a constant ingredient in their food. To give the taste of their main dishes, North Indians use onions and coriander whilst southerners use a more exotic coconut base for their dishes. The history of Indian food tells us that during the reign of the British Empire in India (the British Raj), the local cuisine was considered by the Europeans closely to what Gods taught of ambrosia: a delightful, heavenly and delicate dish. Many times, we ask how the Indian cuisine grew to be so popular, so diverse and so delightful. In truth, the question is quite dim…from a population of one billion people, is it really that hard to believe some of them are great cooks?… But let’s take a closer look at what Indian dishes and snacks have to offer, providing a history of Indian food and a few related legends alongside. Ready your taste buds, because it’s going to be one juicy ride!
  • 13. 13 3.2 Indian Appetizers and Snacks. The history of Indian food and especially of Indian appetizers is closely related to the country’s culture and traditions. The Indian cuisine is as diverse as the Indian people and it has a large (and extremely rich) selection of appetizers, hors d'oeuvres, and snacks. Besides being extremely tasty and actually stimulating your appetite rather than diminishing it like some other cuisines’ appetizers, these fast snacks are also quite low in fat, since they are based on a number of spices and herbs, such as ginger, cinnamon, garlic, cloves, asafetida, aniseed or coriander, rather that the fat appetizers you’ll find mostly anywhere else in the World. The majority of Indian appetizers and snacks are based on potatoes, combined with different spices. The Alu Ki Tikki for example, which is one of the oldest snacks recorded by the history of Indian food, is made out of mashed potatoes coriander and onions. Another snack greatly enjoyed by the British during the Raj period, the Samosa appetizer, made out of steamed potatoes, peas and vegetables, is one of the many Indian recipes that was passed on from ancient times. Although most appetizers and snacks usually follow the same ingredients for each particular recipe, it should be noted that authentic Indian dishes can never be limited to a strict formula, since they differ from household to household. For example if you go to the North, in Punjab for instance and try out a Dahi Barra yogurt and fritter appetizer, it will definitely taste and even look slightly different than a similar Dahi Barra appetizer dish in Southern India’s Tamil region. Because of this, when the British armies set foot in India, their cooks were dazzled by the sheer number of variations of the same dish. One legend stands out of the crowd from the history of Indian food, namely that of the British cook William Harold. William was quite an experienced chef, working for a rather successful restaurant in central London, when he was sent to India to help the war effort with his meals. Because his dishes were so delightfully well done, he was promoted to be the personal cook of a high ranking officer in the British Empire’s Army. One day, the officer ordered William to get the recipe for a local dish he ate and thoroughly enjoyed that day, named by the locals Bhel Puri, in order to mass-cook it for the troops. Because there were very few written recipes in India back then (locals were passing on their cuisine with each generation, usually orally) William started walking from home to home,
  • 14. 14 knocking from door to door, in order to find the recipe for the Bhel Puri, which, even today, is quite a complicated appetizer. With every house he went to, he got another recipe, another kind of spice to put on top of the potatoes and rice (seemingly the only ingredients that remained constant in the dish) and another kind of oil to use. After a long day of inquiries in which the poor cook was unable to find a stable recipe for the wonderful snack, he returned to the barracks, beaten and amazed by the variety of semi-recipes he managed to pile up. Seeing that he is back, the officer asked if he could serve the first portion of Bhel Puri that night, but William told him he couldn’t get any real recipe in his hands and ironically stated that “we’ll have to stick to French fries again tonight, Sir!”. Legend says that the officer, berserk with fury, took out his handgun and shot the cook dead, causing a mutiny amongst the barrack’s soldiers, who were both fed up with the officer’s cruel and disrespectful ways and in love with William’s heavenly cooking. That’s how a small bowl of Bhel Puri (or should I say the lack of it) shook an entire British barracks and caused a long night in the Court Martial offices… All legends aside, we now know an approximate recipe to the Bhel Puri (somehow thanks to poor William too). The tasty Indian snack is made out of crispy puris, puffed rice, Indian sevs, chilli powder, potatoes, red onion, chat masala, coriander and lemon or mango juice. It comes in two dish “versions”, spicy or sweet. The spicy chutney includes garlic cloves, mint leaves, salt and green chilies, while the sweet chutney’s ingredients are cumin seeds, jaggery, sugar, tamarind pulp and boiled dates pulp.
  • 15. 15 3.3 Indian Sweets. Indian cuisine is known throughout the entire World as a sweet cuisine and this tag doesn’t come along without some extremely solid arguments. How else would you call a country’s cuisine if almost half its dishes are either sweets or desserts? Actually, Indian sweets have not only made Indian food famous throughout history, but they have been acquired and accommodated to European and North American dishes, finding great success in fancy “Baltic” restaurants through-out England, France, the United States or Spain. The Rasgulla for example, one of the most popular relished sweetmeats in India, originating from the Eastern part of the country, has an interesting modern history. This dish produced by the boiling of small pops of casein in sugar syrup has become emblematic of the quintessentially effeminate stuff of ridicule of the Bengali people. This sweet dessert can be found in almost all Eastern Indian households, while global malls sell it like there’s no tomorrow. Another Indian dessert that blends with the Hindu culture is the Payasam (or Kheer as it is called by the Hindi). This dessert has been an essential dish throughout the history of India, being usually found at ceremonies, feasts and celebrations. In Southern India, ancient traditions tell that a wedding is not fully blessed if Payasam is not served at the wedding feast, this tradition being kept alive with each generation, still being practiced by newly wedded couples, mostly in the southern regions, from where the tradition started in the first place. The best and most popular Payasam dishes are found in the temples of Guruvayoor and Ambalappuzha. In the Ambalappuzha temple, Payasam is served as part of a tradition, based on an ancient legend. The legend states that Lord Krishna (the eight avatar of Vishnu, playing a major role in the Hindu religion) took the form of an old sage and challenged the great king who ruled over that region to a game of chess. Being a true chess player and a master of the mind game’s tricks, the king gladly accepted the sage’s invitation. Asking what the sage wanted in case he wins the game, the king remained bedazzled by the sage’s request: an amount of rice grains for each square of the chess board, each pile having double the number of grains than the previous pile. So the first square would have only one grain of rice, the second would have 2 grains, the third would have 4 grains, the fourth would have 8 rice grains and so on, each pile growing at a geometrical progression from the past pile of rice grains. Hearing this request, the
  • 16. 16 king was shocked that the sage wanted only what he taught were a few piles of grain, when he could have betted for his whole kingdom or the immense riches that he held. Naturally the king lost, (because playing chess against a God is not that easy, mind you) so he started placing grain piles on each square, starting with only one grain. He soon realized that the sage’s demand was not entirely what he thought of, when the number reached one million grains of rice by the 20th square. By the 40th or so square, the entire kingdom’s rice reserve was depleted and when he got to the last square he calculated that he would have to pay the sage 18,447,744 trillions of tons of rice, which he could have never paid off. The sage then revealed his true form, that of Lord Krishna, and said that the debt does not have to be paid immediately, but the king will have to serve Payasam freely in the temple of Ambalappuzha, to pilgrims, homeless or whoever comes there for peace of mind and prayer or for those seeking shelter. This is how the Payasam became famous, integrating in the Hindu culture. The tradition of freely serving Payasam in Ambalappuzha still lives today and pilgrims all over India have an easier ride knowing that a hot bowl of the sweet dessert awaits them at the end of their journey. Western India also does a great job on satisfying the sweet tooth of its inhabitants, with one of the most delicious desserts you will be able to find throughout the history of Indian food: the Shrikhand. The Shrikhand is a creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt, from which all water is drained off, leaving the thick yogurt cream by itself. Adding exotic dry fruits like mangos only enhances the Shrikhand’s delightful taste to newer limits. This great dessert is one of Western India’s most popular traditional dishes, since it has ancient roots in the Indian cuisine. Comparisons of this dessert to the Indian people have stated that Indians are a people who like to extract the best of things from everything, leaving everything else behind, their true and hospitable nature being a result of the fact that they dry out every spiritual detail that has no substance or meaning. Other important traditional Indian sweets and desserts, famous throughout the history of Indian food, include the following: Gulab Jamun (a popular Indian dessert made out of fried milk balls in sweet syrup), Mysore Pak (a delicious dessert made out of ghee, sugar and chick pea flour), Halwa (or Halva in modern English spelling; made out of semolina and sugar, the Halwa is one of the most popular Indian desserts that have spread in every corner of the World), the Kulfi (often referred to as Indian ice cream, the Kulfi is made out of boiled milk and a wide variety of
  • 17. 17 mango, kesar or cardamom flavors), the Jalebi (a common sweet dish from North India, the Jalebi is basically a pretzel-shaped fried batter, which is soaked in syrup) and the Jangiri (the South Indian look-alike of the North Indian Jalebi). 3.4 Conclusion As they can easily conclude, the Indian cuisine is closely related to the Indian history, each historical region developing a unique set of dishes, using diverse ingredients. However, a constant remains for all regions: the affinity for sweet desserts and spicy snacks. Besides being closely related to history, Indian cuisine is also strongly influenced by the Indian religion, Indian culture and traditions and the Indian people themselves. If you can appreciate the facts behind the history of Indian food, the setting in which this great country’s cuisine was formed, the influences it took and the diversity it created, then you will surely appreciate one of their sweet desserts or one of their spicy snacks and appetizers. No other country has a wider selection of exotic dishes and no other country can offer such a large variety of impulses for your taste buds.
  • 18. 18 Part 4: Types of Indian Regional Cuisine
  • 19. 19 4.1Introduction North India- Awadhi – Bihari – Bhojpuri – Kashmiri - Punjabi – Rajasthani – Uttar Pradeshi - Mughlai South India- Andhra – Karnataka – Kerala – Tamil - Hyderabadi – Udupi East India -Bengali – Oriya North-East India -Assamese – Naga – Sikkimese – Tripuri West India Goan – Gujarati – Marathi – Malvani & Konkani – Parsi
  • 20. 20 Part :5 North Indian Cuisine
  • 21. 21 5.1 introduction North Indian cuisine (Hindi: Uttar Bharatiya Vyanjan, Urdu: Shumali Bharti Khana), part of Indian cuisine, is a term used to refer to the cuisines found in Northern India which includes the Indian states: Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand (Kumaon) and West-Central Uttar Pradesh (Awadh and Braj). This is also major cuisine in the Eastern regions like Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Purvanchal) and Bihar (Bhojpuri Cuisine, excluding Cuisine of Mithilanchal.) Region as well as Central regions like Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. North Indian cuisine:  Awadhi cuisine  Bihari cuisine  Bhojpuri cuisine  Kumauni cuisine  Cuisine of Kashmir  Mughlai cuisine  Punjabi cuisine  Rajasthani cuisine  Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh 5.2 Awadhi cuisine Awadhi cuisine is from the city of Lucknow, which is the capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh in Central-South Asia and Northern India, and the cooking patterns of the city are similar to those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and Northern India as well. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Persia, Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad; and the city is known for Nawabi foods.
  • 22. 22 The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today.[1] Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs, kormas, biryani, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis, and warqi parathas. The richness of Awadh cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron. 5.2.1 Awadhi dastarkhwan Dastarkhwan, a Persian term, literally means a meticulously laid-out ceremonial dining spread. It is customary in Awadh to sit around and share the Dastarkhwan. Laden with the finest and the most varied repertoire of the khansamas (chefs), the Dastarkhwan of the raeis (the rich) were called Khasa (special). A variety of dishes cooked under the barbecue method The richness of Awadhi cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also is the ingredients used in creating such a variety. The Chefs of Awadhi transformed the traditional dastarkhwan
  • 23. 23 with elaborate dishes like kababs, kormas, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis, and parathas. Chicken curry with Chapati. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) with Naan bread, Daal, Raita, Shahi paneer, and Salad.
  • 24. 24 The Awadhi/Lucknow dastarkhwan would not be complete unless it had the following dishes.  Qorma (braised meat in thick gravy),  salan (a gravy dish of meat or vegetable),  qeema (minced meat),  kababs (pounded meat fried or roasted over a charcoal fire),  food colouring  lamb  pasinda (fried slivers of very tender meat, usually kid, in gravy)  fresh cake mix  Rice is cooked with meat in the form in the form of a  pulao,  chulao (fried rice) or  served plain.  There would also be a variety of rotis. 5.2.2 Desserts comprise kheer (milk sweetened and boiled with whole rice to a thick consistency), sheer brunj, (a rich, sweet rice dish boiled in milk),  firni The menu changes with the seasons and with the festival that marks the month. The severity of winters is fought with rich food. Paye (trotters) are cooked overnight over a slow fire and the shorba (thick gravy) eaten with naans. Turnips are also cooked overnight with meat koftas and kidneys and had for lunch. This dish is called shab degh and a very popular in Lucknow. The former Taluqdar of Jehangirabad would serve it to his friends on several occasions during winter. Birds like partridge and quail are had from the advent of winter since they are heat giving meats. Fish is relished from the advent of winter till spring. It is avoided in the rainy season. In Awadh river fish are preferred particularly rahu (carp), fish kababs (cooked in mustard oil) are preferred.
  • 25. 25 Peas are the most sought after vegetable in Awadh. One can spot peas in salan, qeema, pulao or just fried plain. Spring (Sawan) is celebrated with pakwan (crisp snacks), phulkis (besan pakoras in salan), puri- kababs and birahis (paratha stuffed with mashed dal) khandoi (steamed balls of dal in a salan), laute paute (gram flour pancakes—rolled, sliced, and served in a salan), and colocasia-leaf cutlets served with salan add variety. In summer, raw mangoes cooked in semolina and jaggery or sugar, make a dessert called curamba. These dishes come from the rural Hindu population of Awadh. Activity in the kitchen increases with the approach of festivals. During Ramzan, the month of fasting, the cooks and women of the house are busy throughout the day preparing the iftari (the meal eaten at the end of the day’s fast), not only for the family but for friends and the poor. Id is celebrated with varieties of siwaiyan (vermicelli). Muzzaffar is a favourite in Lucknow. Shab-e- barat is looked forward to for its halwas, particularly of semolina and gram flour. Khichra or haleem, a mixture of dals, wheat and meat, cooked together, is had during Muharram, since it signifies a sad state of mind. Some dishes appear and disappear from the Lucknow dastarkhwan seasonally, and others are a permanent feature, like qorma, chapatti, and roomali roti. The test of a good chapatti is that you should be able to see the sky through it. The dough should be very loose and is left in a lagan (deep broad vessel) filled with water for half an hour before the chapattis are made. Sheermals were invented by mamdoo bawarchi more than one and a half century ago. They are saffron covered parathas made from a dough of flour mixed with milk and ghee and baked in iron tandoors. No other city produces sheermals like Lucknow does and the festive dastarkhwan is not complete without it. Saffron is used to flavour sweets too. Utensils are made of iron or copper. Meat kababs are cooked in a mahi tawa (large, round shallow pan), using a kafgir—a flat, long handled ladle—to turning kababs and parathas. Bone china plates and dishes have been used in Lucknow since the time of Nawabs. Water was normally sipped from copper or silver kato ras and not glasses. The seating arrangement, while eating was always on the floor where beautifully embroidered dastarkhwans were spread on
  • 26. 26 dares and chandnis (white sheets). Sometimes this arrangement was made on a takht or low, wide wooden table. 5.2.3 Kebab Boti Seekh Kebab Kebab's are the integral part of Awadhi. Lucknow is proud of its Kebabs. There are several varieties of popular kebabs in Awadhi cuisine viz. Kakori Kebabs, Galawat ke Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kebabs, Patili-ke-Kebabs, Ghutwa Kebabs and Seekh Kebabs are among the known varieties. The kebabs of Awadhi cuisine are distinct from the kebabs of Punjab insofar as Awadhi kebabs are grilled on a chula and sometimes in a skillet as opposed to grilled in a tandoor in Punjab.
  • 27. 27 Awadhi kebabs are also called "chula" kebabs whereas the kebabs of Punjab are called "tandoori" kebabs. The Seekh Kebab has long been considered a piece de resistance in the Awadhi dastarkhwan. Introduced by the Mughals it was originally prepared from beef mince on skewers and cooked on charcoal fire. Now lamb mince is preferred for its soft texture. The 100-year old Tunde ke Kabab in Chowk is the most famous outlet for Kababs even today.[2] Tunde kabab is so named because it was the speciality of a one-armed chef. The tunde kabab claims to be unique because of the zealously guarded family secret recipe for the masala (home made spices), prepared by women in the family. It is said to incorporate 160 spices. Kakori kabab is considered blessed since it was originally made in the place by the same name in the dargah of Hazrat Shah Abi Ahder Sahib with divine blessings. The mince for the kabab comes from the raan ki machhli (tendon of the leg of mutton) other ingredients include khoya, white pepperm and a mix of powdered spices that remains secret. Shami Kebab is made from mince meat, with usually with chopped onion, coriander, and green chillies added. The kebabs are round patties filled with spicy mix and tangy raw green mango. The best time to have them is May, when mangoes are young. When mangoes are not in season, kamrakh or karonda may be substituted for kairi, as both having a tart flavour reminiscent of the raw mango. A variant made without any admixture or binding agents and comprising just the minced meat and the spices is the Galawat kabab. An unusual offering is the Pasanda Kebab, piccata of lamb marinated and then sautéed on a griddle. Boti kebab is lamb marinated in yoghurt and skewered, then well cooked. Traditionally, Boti Kebab (Lamb) is cooked in a clay oven called a tandoor. You can achieve an authentic tandoor flavour using your own barbecue grill.
  • 28. 28 Vegetarian kebabs include Dalcha Kebab, Kathal ke Kebab, Arbi ke Kebab, Rajma Galoti Kebab (kidney bean kebab cooked with aromatic herbs), Zamikand ke Kebab (Lucknowi yam kebabs), etc. 5.2.4 Curry preparations Chicken curry Navratan Korma Korma is actually the Indian name for the technique of braising meat. It originated in the lavish Moghul cuisine wherein lamb or chicken was braised in velvety, spiced sauces, enriched with ground nuts, cream and butter. While kormas are rich, they are also mild, containing little or no cayenne or chillies.There are both vegetarian(navratan korma) and non-vegetarian(chicken, lamb, beef & fish korma) varieties of korma. Murgh Awadhi Korma is a classic from Lucknow. Kaliya is a mutton preparation with gravy along with the compulsory inclusion of turmeric or saffron.
  • 29. 29 5.2.5Rice preparations Awadhi mutton biryani Awadhi Chicken Dum Biryani Biryani derives from the Persian word Birian, which means "roasted before cooking." Biryani is a mixture of basmati rice, meat, vegetables, yogurt, and spices. Lucknow biryani or awadh airyani is a form of pukki biryani. Pukki means "cooked." Both meat and rice are cooked separately, then layered and baked. The process also lives up to the name biryani in the Persian meaning "fry before cooking'. It has three steps. First, the meat is seared in ghee and cooked in water with warm aromatic spices till tender. The meat broth is drained. Second, the rice is lightly fried in Ghee, and cooked in the meat broth from the previous step. Third, cooked meat and cooked rice are layered in a handi. Sweet flavours are added. The handi is sealed and cooked over low heat. The result is a perfectly cooked meat, rice, and a homogenous flavour of aromatic meat broth, aromatic spices and sweet flavours. Among various Biryani the Lucknow and Hyderabad style are dominant, with a friendly rivalry. Chitrita Banerji a Bengali writer in her book Eating India: exploring a nation’s cuisine in an inevitable comparison between Awadhi and Hyderabadi biriyani, picked the Awadhi version as the winner. The vegetarian version of biryani might have some Textured vegetable protein based protein balls to present the impression of a meat-based dish for vegetarians.
  • 30. 30 The difference between biryani and pullao is that pullao is made by cooking the meat in ghee with warm aromatic spices until the meat is tender, then adding rice and cooking in the sealed pot over low heat till done—but with biryani, the rice is boiled or parboiled separately in spiced water and then layered with meat curry or marinade (depending on the type of biryani), then sealed and cooked over low heat until done. Tehri is the name given to the vegetarian version of the dish and is very popular in Indian homes. 5.2.6 Bread preparations Naan is one of the staple breads of Awadh Tea with Paratha Sabji with Paratha Puri with accompaniments.
  • 31. 31 As wheat is the staple food of the state, breads are very significant. Breads are generally flat breads; only a few varieties are raised breads. Tawa roti is bread made on crude iron pans. Improvisations of the roti (or bread) are of different types and made in various ways and include the rumaali roti, tandoori roti, naan (baked in a tandoor), kulcha, lachha paratha, sheermaal and baqarkhani. Breads made of other grains have descriptive names only, thus we have Makai ki roti, Jowar ki roti (barley flour roti), Bajre ki roti (bajra is a grain only grown in India), chawal-ki-Roti (roti of rice flour).  Chapati is the most popular roti in India, eaten for breakfast, lunch, or dinner.  Puri are small and deep fried so they puff up.  Paratha is a common roti variant stuffed with fillings of vegetables, pulses, cottage cheese, and even mince meat and fried in ghee or clarified butter. This heavy and scrumptious round bread finds its way to the breakfast tables of millions.  Rumali Roti is an elaborately prepared ultra thin bread made on a large, convex metal pan from finely ground wheat flour. The Urdu word rumaali literally means a kerchief.  Tandoori Roti is a relatively thick bread that ranges from elastic to crispy consistency, baked in a cylindrical earthen oven. The Urdu word tandoor means an oven.  Naan is a thick bread, softer and richer in texture and consistency than the tandoori roti. It is made from finely ground wheat flour kneaded into a very elastic mass. This bread is prepared with a rich mixture of cream, sugar, wheat flour, butter, and essence.  Sheermaal is a sweetened Naan made out of Maida (All-purpose flour), leavened with yeast, baked in a Tandoor or oven. It typically accompanies aromatic quorma (gravied chicken or mutton). Originally, it was made just like Roti. The warm water in the recipe for Roti was replaced with warm milk sweetened with sugar and flavoured with saffron. Today, restaurants make it like a Naan and the final product resembles Danish pastry.  Baqarkhani is an elaborate variation of the sheer-maal that is fried on a griddle rather than baked in a tandoor.
  • 32. 32 5.2.7Desserts Some assorted halva including sooji, chana, and gajar halva Winters are dedicated to halwas of all kinds that came from Arabia and Persia to stay in India. There are several varieties of these, prepared from different cereals, such as gram flour, sooji, wheat, nuts and eggs. The special halwa or halwa sohan, which has four varieties, viz Papadi, Jauzi, Habshi and Dudhiya is prepared especially well in Lucknow. The Jauzi Halwa Sohan is a hot favourite even today, but the art of preparing it is confined to only a few households. Prepared for the most part from germinated wheat, milk, sugar, saffron, nuts etc., it has love and patience as its vital ingredients.
  • 33. 33 5.3 Bihari cuisine Bihari cuisine (Hindi: Urdu: ) is eaten mainly in Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mauritius, Fiji, some cities of Pakistan, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago as these are they places where Bihari people are present. Bihari cuisine is predominantly vegetarian because traditional Bihar society influenced by Buddhist and Hindu values of non-violence did not eat eggs, chicken, fish and other animal products. However there is also a tradition of meat- eating and fish dishes are especially common due to the number of rivers in Bihar such as the Sone, Gandak and the Ganges. There are also numerous Bihari meat dishes with chicken and mutton being the most common. Dairy products are consumed frequently throughout the year, with common foods including yogurt known as dahi and also buttermilk known as mattha, ghee, lassi and butter. The cuisine of Bihar is similar to a great extent to North Indian cuisine but has an influence from other East Indian Cuisine (for example like Bengali cuisine). It is highly seasonal, with watery foods such as watermelon and Sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit being consumed mainly in the summer months and dry foods, preparations made of sesame seeds,poppy seeds in the winter months. Some dishes which Bihar is famous for, include Sattu Paratha, which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour, Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), Fish curry and Bihari Kebab,Postaa-dana kaa halwaa. 5.3.1Bihari thali As the seasons change so does the Bihari thaali, every 3–4 months. The constants are rice, roti, achar, chatni, dals and milk products with some variation. People use both vegetable oil or mustard oil and zeera or panchforan (literally "five seeds", namely saunf, sarson, methi, ajwain and mangraeel(Kalaunji) for "chhounkna"/"Tadka"(tempering) of some vegetables. There is a lot of light frying, called bhoonjnaa, in Bihari food.
  • 34. 34 One of the most remarkable thing about this cuisine is "smoked food". It refers to using smoked red chilli to infuse a strong aroma in food. It is used in preparing "chokhaa", i.e. mashed brinjals/potatoes/tomatoes, either single or combined. Smoked chilli is also used in preparing kadam (a common fruit sweet sour in taste, technical name Anthocephalus morindaefolia) chutney. 5.3.2Traditional cuisine  Kadhi Bari - these fried soft dumplings made of besan (gram flour) are cooked in a spicy gravy of yogurt and besan. It goes well over plain rice.  Khichdi - Mix of Rice, Dal and several Vegetables; steamed together to give a distinctive taste of different ingredients combined in one dish. It is often topped up with ghee.  Ghugni - It is a preparation made of grams soaked (either lightly/overnight)in water and then sauted in mustard oil in a wok.  Pittha - It is something like momos. It could be either salty or sweet.It is either a semi circular/ball shaped preparation made of crust made of soft rice flour and filled with preparations made of Channa Daal lentil paste, or Poppy seeds & Gur (Jaggey). and then steamed in water/ milk (allowed to thicken).  Choora - beaten rice, served with a coat of creamy curd and sugar or jaggery. In winters, this is mildly baked and accompanied with a thick spicy preparation made of peas and onions.  Sattu - powdered baked gram, a high energy giving food usually mixed with water or with milk. Sometimes, sattu mixed with spices is used to prepare stuffed 'chapattis', locally called as 'makuni roti'.  Dhuska - a deep fried item prepared from a mixture of powdered rice and ghee but is salted.  Litti - Powdered baked gram is mixed with chopped onions,green chillies,lemon juice,coriander leaves. This mixture is filled inside atta and either barbecued over coal or deep fried with oil. Best accompanied with Ghee,Curd and Chokha and baigan bharta.
  • 35. 35 5.3.3Vegetarian cuisine  Saag  Kafta  Bharwan karela  Veg-Korma - Subziyon ka Panchranga Korma  Paalak paneer  Shaahi paneer 5.3.4Non-vegetarian cuisine The distinctive Bihari flavor of non-vegetarian cooking finds mention in the memoirs of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad who found it quite tasty. Forms of kebabs, mutton preparations and dishes prepared from various fowl and birds have a distinctive flavor. Biharis are quite famous for their Bihari Kebabs, another typical Bihari non-vegetarian dish. This dish was traditionally made from mutton and is eaten with roti, paratha or boiled rice. The region of Champaran is famous for a mutton grilled dish called Taash. Recently, in fast food restaurants, these Bihari Kebabs are also sold as Bihari Kebab Rolls, which are essentially kebabs wrapped up in a paratha.  Prawns  Mutton Biryani  Shaahi Jhinga Masaledaar  Jhor Waali Machhli  Jhinga Biryaani  Bihari Kebabs  Chicken Tandoori  kela machali
  • 36. 36 5.3.5Breads  Parauntha  Aalu Parauntha  Satuwa Parauntha  Piyaz Parauntha  Parauntha - filling of a paste made of poppy seeds soaked overnight in water and then ground with spices, particularly red chilli.  Dal puri  Makuni  Makai ke roti  Naan  Appetizers  Chaat  Golgappa  Chatni  Jhal Murhi  Dahi vada  Pakora  Raita  Tarua  Kachauri 5.3.6Bihari fast food  Litti -can be prepared with minimum of utensils by people who away on tour. It is a ball shaped dish of the size between a table tennis and a lawn tennis ball, baked in mild fire (though it can be done in any electric oven/ microwave oven, but would miss the distinct flavour infused by fire .The crust is made of a hard dough made of wheat flour and filled with a dry amorphous preparation made of Sattu (gram flour) and spices.It is accompanied
  • 37. 37 with chokhaa (mashed potato and/or brinjals, green chilli and coriander leaf. Dill is an essential ingredient for brinjal chokhaa).  Chokha  Bajka  Bhurta  Bhunjia - Bhunjia of Bihar must not be confused with 'bhajia' of other regions.  Samosa  Kachori Samosa Chaat, it is basically samosa sweet chatni, curd, Namkeen mixtures with chiura, onion and other garnishing ingredients. 5.3.7Sweets Motichoor ka Ladoo There is large variety of sweet delicacies. Unlike Oriya and Bengali sweets, which are soaked in syrups made of sugar and are therefore wet, sweets of Bihar are mostly dry.  Khaja - This may be compared to patties, with a difference that this is generally sweet, sometimes found in a salty form and has no fillings. Famous one is from Silao Nalanda  Tilkut (Til Burfi) - This is made of sesame seed and is available only in winters. A thick hard base of sugar of the size of a tennis ball is rolled in copious amount of sesame seed and
  • 38. 38 then hammered to roll out in round shape. The more the seed, the softer, better and amorphous it is. Though available all over the state, the one from Gaya is famous.  Malpua  Rabri/Basundi  Kheer - A special form of kheer called Rasia is prepared during the Chhath festival.  Thekua  Khajur  Laktho  Churma  Balushahi - Famous one is from Harnaut  Anarasa (Come from particular area Basopatti & the nearest villages)  Motichoor ka Ladoo - Famous one is from Maner  Gulab Jamun  Kala Jamun  Peda - Famous one is from Kesaria  khurma - found only in southwest bihar.  Parwal ki Mithai - It is made of pointed gourd (botanical name-Trichosanthes dioica). The fruit is scrapped to remove the skin,sliced longitudinally, deseeded and boiled to make it tender and then filled with Khoyya- a preparation made of condensed milk and dry fruits. It is then imbibed with warm sugar syrup. Silver foil may be added after it cools off.  Khubi ka Lai - Famous one is from Barh  Belgrami  Padokkia  Murki - Famous one is from Koelwar  Pirikya - Made from flour and khoya etc. It is famous in Basopatti and villages nearby.  Khurchan - This is made of layers of scrapped condensed milk. Available in Patna city (old town).
  • 39. 39  Postaa-dana kaa Halwa -a sweet pudding made of poppy seeds soaked overnight in water and then ground to a paste and sauted in ghee(clarified butter)in a wok. This is generally prepared in winter season.  Kasar - A dry sweet prepared of coarsely ground rice during the Chhath festival. Dangra ka Tilkut - This is made of sesame seed and is available only in winters. A thick hard base of jaggey (gur/mittah) of the size of a tennis ball is rolled in copious amount of sesame seed and then hammered to roll out in round shape.The more the seed, the softer, better and amorphous it is. Though available all over the state, the one from Dangra village in Gaya is famous.  Paan Peda - Famous one is from Mohiuddin Nagar,Madudabad, Kalyanpur Basti area. it is a heart shaped peda with a completely different taste from common peda available in the market. Gaja - It is a sweet which is cubical in form and made out of maida. 5.4 Bhojpuri cuisine Bhojpuri cuisine is a part of North Indian cuisine, is a style of food preparation common amongst the Bhojpuri people living in bhojpuri region of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Bhojpuri food are mostly mild in term of spices used and are less hot but could be more hotter and spicier as par the dish prepared or according to the taste bud of peoples. The food is teller made for Bhojpuri lifestyle in which the rural folk burn up a lot of calories in the fields. Bhojpuri people take pride in celebrating various festivals and practices various religious rites, and as a result, their food resembles the delicacies offered to deities. Generally Bhojpuri peoples enjoy eating both veg and non-veg dishes. Bhojpuri cuisine is heavily influenced by Mughlai and it's neighbouring Awadhi cuisines. Unlike western perception, which is, any Indian gravy dish is called curry, Bhojpuri cuisine traces no history with use of curry powder or leaves and the rich gravy dishes of this region, in fact whole North India, where curry leaf is an alien spice, can be considered stews, rather than curries.
  • 40. 40 5.4.1Staple Diet Wheat and Rice are the staple diet of majority of the peoples. Bhojpuri vegeterian thali includes Roti/Parantha, two or three kind of rich gravy Sabzi, Daal (traditionally Chana daal), Steamed rice (Chawal)/ Pulao, Salad and chutney (generally dhania ki chutney), along with Desserts, mostly Gulabjamun, which is the most famous dessert among Bhojpuri peoples. And in a complete Bhojpuri thali, in addition includes, meat stew (Shikaar/Gosh) or fish stew (Machari). Essentials 5.4.2Spices & Condiments Amount of spices used in cooking are very few and sometimes can be just two or three kind of spices, which imparts a perfect aroma and taste, rather than putting all spices together and making the dish very spicy and hot. Among these spices, a few of them are used in any particular dish.  Cumin seeds (Zeera)  Black Cumin seeds (Shahi Zeera)  Cinnamon (Darchini)  Aniseed (Saunf)  Black pepper (Kala Marcha)  Asafoetida (Hing)  Garam Masala  Red Chilli (Laal Marcha)  Green Chilli (Hara Marcha)  Cardamom (Elaichi)  Black Cardamom (Bara Elaichi)  Nutmeg (Jaayfal)  Mace (Javitri)  Saffron (Kesar/Zaffran)  Dried Pomegranate (Anardana)
  • 41. 41  Carom seed (Ajwain)  Fenugreek seed (Methi)  Dried Fenugreek leaves (Kasuri Methi)  Onion seed (Mangraila)  Mango powder (Amchoor)  Coriander (Dhania)  Rose water (Gulab Jal)  Turmeric (Hardi)  Salt (Noon/Namak)  Black Salt (Kala Namak)  Rock Salt (Sendha Namak)  Poppy seed (Khas Khas)  Clove (Lavang)  Mustard (Sarson)  Bay leaf (Tejpaat)  Dried Mango (Khatai)  Sesame seed (Til)  Olive (Jaitun)  Nigella seed (Kalaunji)  Herbs, Oils & Nuts  Green Corinder leaves (Hara Dhania patta)  Mint leaves (Pudina patta)  Parsley (Jafari)  Holy Basil (Tulsi)  Ginger (Adarakh)  Dried Ginger (Sonth)  Garlic (Lahsun)  Onion (Pyaz)  Fenugreek leaves (Methi ke patta)  Tamarind (Imli)
  • 42. 42  Date (Khajur)  Lime (Limu)  Lemon (Nimbu)  Mustard Oil (Sarson ke tel)  Olive Oil (Jaitun ke tel)  Ghee (Gheev)  Butter (Maakhan)  Hydrolysed Vegetable Oil (Dalda)  Almond (Badam)  Peanut (Zameeni badam/ Chinia badam/ Mungphali)  Walnut (Akharot)  Cashewnut (Kaju)  Dried Fig (Anjeer)  Date (Khajur)  Dried Apricot (Zardalu)  Dried Plum (Baiir)  Pistachios (Pista)  Raisin (Kishmis)  Black Raisin (Sultana) 5.4.3 Tools & Techniques  Handi  Karahi  Tava  Tandoor  Bhagona/Patili  Degchi  Benarsi Dum Technique
  • 43. 43 5.4.4Dishes Some dishes popular in Bhojpuri cuisine include:  Channa (chickpeas)  Rajma (red kidney beans)  Lobiya (black eyed bean)  Dal makhani  Dal maharani  Dum Aloo  Urad ka daal  Chokha (roasted tomatoes, roasted aubergine roasted potatoes, roasted brinjals mixed with garlic chilly and raw mustard oil)  Raita  Kofta  Roti (Paratha stuffed with cooked potatoes or yellow/green peas or sattu)  Aloo matar  Kadhi-Bari  Mutton Biryani  Bihari kebab  Gulab Jamun  Pooa  Petha (locally called Bhatua ka Murabba)  Murabba  Mardua and Thekua  Anarsa  Daal poori  Bati-stffed with sattu  Nimona (made of green peas)  Ghugni (Made with green peas or sprouted black gram)  Dahi chooda (Curd and chooda)
  • 44. 44  Daal pithouri  Gojha (stuffed with Daal and cooked in steam)  Gujhiya  Mal Pua  Padukiya  Laktho  bharwa  Nimki  Kachauri  Sev  Bathua ke saag 5.4.5 Bread  Roti  Parantha  Stuffed Paranthe (Aloo Parantha, Sattu Parantha)  Naan  Stuffed Naan  Litti  Poori  Kachori  Mughalai Parantha  Rumali Roti (used in rolling up Bihari kebab, together with called Paranthe Kebab or Bihari rolls)  Pua (considered a dessert)  Thekua (considered a dessert or a biscuit like snack)  Tandoori roti  Kulcha  Bhatoora
  • 45. 45 5.4.6 Desserts  Khurma  Anarsa  Balushahi  Thekua  Rasmalai  Rabri  Falooda  Basundi  Lawanglata  Chandrakala  Khaja  Meethe Samose  Batasha  Halwa, generally of Soozi (Semolina), Gajar (Carrot), Besan (Chickpea flour), Atta (Whole wheat flour), Singhara (Chestnut), Doodhi (Bottle gourd), Badam (Almond), Khas khas (Poppy seeds)  Sohan halwa  Laddoo (made up of besan, motichur, bundi, gond, mewe and etc)  Barfi  Gulab Jamun  Murabba  Petha  Kheer  Sheer Korma  Sevaiyan  Kalakand  Pera  Son Papdi  Methi Ke Laddoo (esp. during winters)  Tilwa (esp. during winters)  Til ki Laai
  • 46. 46  Tilkut  Parwal ki Mithai  Jalebi  Belgrami (A dry sweet made up of Maida, Sugar and Ghee)  Pedukia/Murki (A dry sweet made up of Maida and stuffed with mixture of Khowa/fried Soozi (Semolina, sauted in little Ghee) and Sugar and then fried.  Ghujhia (Pedukia dipped in sugar syrup) Pedukia  Laktho (A dry and hard sweet, made up of Maida and Jaggery and seasoned with aniseed)  Malai Kofta  Pua  Malpua  Sev-Bunia (Bundia)  Kulfi
  • 47. 47 Matka Kulfi is most famous among Bhojpuri peoples 5.4.7Drinks  Chai  Coffee (commonly in Urban population)  Falooda (esp. in summer) Falooda
  • 48. 48  Chhachh  Sherbet  Rooh Afza Rooh Afza is a popular summer drink in this region  Khas Sharbat  Lassi  Nimbu Paani  Sattu Paani  Ganne/Ookh ka Ras (Sugarcane juice
  • 49. 49 5.4.8Snacks  Pakoda  Kachori  Chaat  Aloo Tikki  Golgappa  Samosa  Nimki  Ghugni  Bhoonja  Thekua  Samosa-Chaat  Mathri 5.4.9Pickle In Bhojpuri region, pickling is quite common and traditional. There are varieties of pickles (Aachar & Murabba) prepared in each and every home. Aachar includes, Aam (Mango), Aãwla (Amla), Imli (Tamarind), Mooli (Radish), Lehsun (Garlick), Nimbu (Lemon), Lemu (Lime), Gajar (Carrot), Gobhi (Cauli flower), Sonth (Dried Ginger), Laal aur Hara Marcha (Red and Green Chilli) and Murabbas are generally prepared from Aãwla (Amla), Cheri (Cherries), Aam (Mango), also called Amawat and etc.
  • 50. 50 5.5 Kumauni cuisine Kumauni cuisine is the food of the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India. Kumaoni food is very simple but very nutritious completely suits the hard environment of the Himalayas. Pulses like gehet are fashioned into different preparations like ras-bhaat, chains, faanda and thatwaani all are unique preparations from the same pulse. Jholi or curry seasoned with curd. Chudkani and jola made from bhatt pulses. Cereals like mandua with rice and wheat are popular. Meat is also prepared but the recipe is quite similar to the way it is prepared in most of North India. 5.6 Cuisine of Kashmir Kashmiri cuisine is based on the ancient tradition of this area. The Rigveda mentions the meat eating traditions of this area.The ancient epic of Kashmir, namely the Nilmatapurana informs us that Kashmiris were heavy meat eaters. This habit persists in today's Kashmir. The most notable ingredient in today's Kashmir cuisine is mutton, of which there are over 30 varieties. 5.6.1Kashmiri Pandit Cuisine Kashmiri Pandit cuisine has had the earliest influence on Kashmiri cuisine. Beef is strictly forbidden in Kashmiri Pandit cuisine and Kashmiri Muslim cuisine, in keeping with the age old Kashmiri tradition known as Kashmiriyat. The Nilamat Purana records that the Brahmins of Kashmir have always been heavy meat eaters (lamb, mutton). The two most important saints of Kashmir, Lalleshwari and Sheikh Noor-ud-din Wali were vegetarians for spiritual reasons. Meat is cooked in Kashmiri Pandit festivals and forms a very important part of Kashmiri Pandit identity. Some noted Kashmiri pandit dishes include:
  • 51. 51  Rogan Josh  Yakhni  Matschgand  Qeleeya  Mujh Gaad  Goshtaba  Monji Haak/Gogji Haak  Nadir Yakhin  Syun Pulaav  Dum Olav  Gogji Raazma  Modur Pulaav  Tschok Wangan  Lyodur Tschaman Tea drinking forms a very important of Kashmrii Pandit cuisine and is often used in place of dessert. Two very important types of tea are Kehwa (Sweet Green tea with Cardammom and almonds) and Sheer Chai (salty pink tea with almonds). Such teas are usually taken with Baked Breads like Kulcha and Katlam. Kashmiri Pandit cuisine has very few dessert dishes or sweets. More importance is therefore given to the main course and tea and not much to the dessert. 5.6.2 Wazwan Wazwan, a multi-course meal in the Kashmiri Muslim tradition, is treated with great respect. Its preparation is considered an art. Almost all the dishes are meat-based (lamb, chicken, fish).Beef is generally not prepared in the Srinagar region, but is popular among the other districts. It is considered a sacrilege to serve any dishes based around pulses or lentils during this feast. The traditional number of courses for the wazwan is thirty-six, though there can be fewer. The
  • 52. 52 preparation is traditionally done by a vasta waza, or head chef, with the assistance of a court of wazas, or chefs. Wazwan is regarded by the Kashmiri Muslims as a core element of their culture and identity. Guests are grouped into fours for the serving of the wazwan. The meal begins with a ritual washing of hands, as a jug and basin called the tash-t-nari are passed among the guests. A large serving dish piled high with heaps of rice, decorated and quartered by four seekh kabab, four pieces of meth maaz, two tabak maaz, sides of barbecued ribs, and one safed kokur, one zafrani kokur, along with other dishes. The meal is accompanied by yoghurt garnished with Kashmiri saffron, salads, Kashmiri pickles and dips. Kashmiri Wazwan is generally prepared in marriages and other special functions. The culinary art is learnt through heredity and is rarely passed to outside blood relations. That has made certain waza/cook families very prominent. The wazas remain in great demand during the marriage season (May - October). Bearing in mind that the Wazwan consists of meat, mostly all lamb dishes, as lamb is considered the occasional delicacy, some of the essential Wazwan dishes include but are not limited to:  Rogan Josh (lamb cooked in spicy red gravy)  Yakhni (lamb, usually shanks cooked in curd based gravy)  Rista (Pounded lamb meatballs in spicy red gravy)  Tabakh Maaz (Fried Rack of Lamb also known as Qabargah. Hindu and Muslim differences make way for specific names for food authentic to the prevalent religion in the area.)  Kaanti (lamb pieces in red hot gravy, usually eaten as a snack and not part of the main course)  Syoon Olav (Meat with Potatoes cooked in spicy gravy)  Syoon Pulaav (Meat Pulao)  Modur Pulaav (Sweet Pulao, usually as a dessert)  Lyodoor Tschaman (Cottage Cheese cooked in creamy turmeric based gravy)  Dum Oluv (Whole Potatoes cooked in spicy red gravy)  Muj Gaad (Fish with Radish)  Nadir-Waangan (lotus stems with Brinjal)  Nadir-Haaq/Gogji/Monji (lotus stems cooked with Haaq, a Collard-Green only found in Kashmir and Portugal, or Radish)
  • 53. 53  Raazma-Gogji (Kidney Beans with Cabbage)  Raazma- Shalgam (Kidney Beans with Turnip) Tea drinking is a very important part of Kashmiri Pandit culture. Two of the most important types of tea that the Pandits drink are "Sheer Chai"(salted pink tea with almonds) and Kehwah(sweet green tea with almonds and cardamom). With tea, they often eat certain types of bread/bakery such as "Katlam" and "Kulcha" topped with Kashmiri Butter made from fresh milk.  Marcha-wangan korma- (Chilli Eggplant Korma)  Sheekh kabab: spicy ground lamb on skewers  Gushtaaba: Pounded lamb meatballs with spices cooked in oil, milk and curds  kebab- Roasted Chicken, Beef or Lamb Kebabs  maach kebab 5.6.3 Kashmiri beverages Noon Chai or Sheer Chai Kashmiris are heavy tea drinkers. The word "noon" in Kashmiri language means Salt. The most popular drink is a pinkish colored salted tea called "noon chai." [2] It is made with green tea, milk, salt and bicarbonate of soda. The particular color of the tea is a result of its unique method of preparation and the addition of soda. The Kashmiri Pandits more commonly refer to this chai as "Sheer Chai." Noon Chai or Sheer Chai is a common breakfast tea in Kashmiri households and is taken with breads like baqerkhani brought fresh from the Sufi, or bakers. Often, this tea is served in a large Samovars.
  • 54. 54 5.6.4 Kahwah At marriage feasts, festivals, and religious places, it is customary to serve Kahwah, or Qahwah (originates from a 14th-century Arab coffee, which, in turn, was named after an ancient beverage of the Sufis) - a green tea made with saffron, spices, and almonds or walnuts. Over 20 varieties of Kahwah are prepared in different households. Some people also put milk in kahwah (half milk + half kahwah). This chai is also known as "Maugal Chai" by some Kashmiri Pandits from the smaller villages of Kashmir. 5.7 Mughlai cuisine Mughlai cuisine is a style of cooking developed in the Indian subcontinent by the imperial kitchens of the Mughal Empire. It represents the cooking styles used in North India (especially Uttar Pradesh and Delhi), Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Indian city of Hyderabad. The cuisine is strongly influenced by the Persian cuisine of Iran, and has in turn strongly influenced the regional cuisines of Kashmir and the Punjab region. The tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices.A Mughlai course is an elaborate buffet of main course dishes with a variety of accompaniments. 5.7.1 Dishes The names of the dishes are quite often Persian, the official language of the Mughal court. Dishes include various kebabs, kofta (meatballs), nihari, pulao (a.k.a. pilaf in Central Asia), and biryani. Paneer is used for preparing vegetarian dishes to suit vegetarian dietary requirements.
  • 55. 55  Other dishes include:  Mughlai Chicken  Mughai paratha  Biryani Badshahi  Keema Matar  Meat Durbari  Mughlai Chicken Pulao  Murg Kababs Mughlai  Murg Noorjehani  Murg Kali Mirch  Murg Musallam  Murg Tandoor  Murg Chaap  Murg Masala  Malai Kofta  Navratan korma  Reshmi Kabab  Shami Kabab  Seekh kabab  Boti kabab  Shahjehani Murg Masala  Shahi Chicken Korma  Shahi Kaju Aloo  Shahi Rogan Josh  Pasanda  Rezala
  • 56. 56 5.7.2 Desserts  Shahi Tukra is a rich bread pudding with dry fruits, flavored with cardamom.  Barfi  Gulabjamun  Kalakand  Kulfi  Sheer korma  Falooda  Anjeer Halwa  Kesari Firni is a rice based sweet dish streaked with Saffron 5.8 Punjabi cuisine Punjabi cuisine is food from the Punjab regions of Pakistan and India. It can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian 5.8.1 Background and overview One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of ghee (clarified butter) with liberal amounts of butter and cream, with home cooking concentrating on mainly upon preparations with whole wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masala.
  • 57. 57 Within the Punjab region, there are different preferences. People in the area of Lahore and Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and dairy products. In fact, the area is well known for quality of its milk products. There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab, such as sarson da saag and makki di roti. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Tandoori food is a Punjabi specialty especially for non-vegetarian dishes. Indeed, before the 1947 partition, tandoori cooking in India was traditionally associated with the former undivided Punjab. Many of the most popular elements of Indian cuisine as it is marketed to non-Indian customers (such as tandoor, naan, pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer) is derived from the Punjab. Chicken tikka, a popular dish in Punjabi cuisine. Aloo Gobi, Seekh Kehbab, and Beef Karahi Mint Parantha from Punjab, IndiaMint salted lassi from Punjab,
  • 58. 58  Typical dishes  Breakfast  Paratha  Halwa poori  Falooda  Lassi 5.8.2Non-Vegetarian  Chicken: Tandoori Chicken, Butter Chicken, Chicken Tikka  Lamb: Rogan Josh, Bhuna Gosht, Kadhai Gosht, Raan Gosht, Dal Gosht, Saag Gosht, Nihari Gosht, Rara Gosht, Paye da Shorba  Freshwater fish dishes like Amritsari Fish, Tandoori Fish, Fish Tikka, Fish Pakora  Kebabs: lamb, chicken and beef chunks  Biryanis: lamb, chicken, and beef variations  Kheema: braised minced lamb or beef meat, commonly served with naan  Kunna Gosht: meat prepared in Kunna (matti ka bartan)  Paye: Siri Paye
  • 59. 59 5.8.3Vegetarian  Pulse, bean and/or lentil preparations:  sarson da saag (a dish prepared from green mustard leaves) and with makki di roti, a bread made by corn flour  Mushroom and bean sabzi  Dal makhani (lentils with cream and butter)  rajma (red kidney bean) and rice  rongi (Black-eyed peas)  choley (eaten with naan or kulcha)  aloo (eaten with puri)  Kadhi Pakora (traditional curry with pakoras) and rice  Kadhi is a type of curry made by cooking garamflour with curd or buttermilk. Fried lumps (pakoras) of gramflour with salt and chillies are also added.  Paneer dishes like Shahi Paneer, Khoya Paneer  Sweet dishes like Phirni, Jalebi, Malpua, Sheer korma  Snacks like pakoras which is eaten with green chutney also called as pudine ki chutney, samosas 5.8.4Bread preparations  Punjabi breads are both flat (unleavened) breads as well as raised breads. The breads may be made of different types of flour and can be made in various ways:  Baked in the tandoor like naan, Tandoori roti, Kulcha, or Lachha Paratha  Dry baked on the Tava (Indian griddle) like Phulka or Chapati, jowar ki roti, baajre ki roti and Makki ki roti (these are also smeared with white butter)  Shallow fried like Paratha, Keema Paratha, Potato or Radish Paratha  Deep fried like Puri and Bhatoora (a fermented dough)  Naan is also very popular. It is served with most of the dishes made at an Indian restaurant.
  • 60. 60 5.9 Rajasthani cuisine Rajasthani cooking was influenced by both the war-like lifestyles of its inhabitants and the availability of ingredients in this arid region.[1] Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred. Scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. It is also known for its snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia, Mirchi Bada and Pyaaj Kachori. Other famous dishes include Bajre ki roti (millet bread) and Lashun ki chutney (hot garlic paste), Mawa Kachori from jodhpur, Alwar ka mawa, Malpauas from pushkar and Rassgollas from Bikaner. Originating for the Marwar region of the state is the concept Marwari Bhojnalaya, or vegetarian restaurants, today found in many part of India, which offer vegetarian food of the Marwari people. Rajasthani thali.
  • 61. 61 5.9.1Sweet dishes Sweet dishes are never referred to as 'dessert' in Rajasthan, because unlike desserts which are had after the meal, Rajasthani sweets are had before, during and after the meal.  Churma  Gujia  Seero (Hindi: Halwa)  Imarti  Ghevar  Feeni  Besan Chakki  Balusahi  DilKhushaal  Jhajariya  Palang Torh  Makkhan-bada  Milk-Cake (Alwar ka Mawa)  Kadka  Typical Rajasthani curries  Kicha ki sabji  Moranga ki sabji  Guwar fali ki saag  Beans ki sabji  Gajar ki sabji  Karela ki sabji  Raabdi  Badi  Ker-saangri ki sabji  Kadhi  Makki ki raab
  • 62. 62  Makki ki saag  Kikoda ki sabji  Papad ki sabji  Matar ki sabji  Aloo matar ki sabji  Besan Gatte ki sabji  Govind Gatte or Shahi Gatte  Pyaaz Paneer  Sev Tamatar  Makki ki ghaat  Dal Chawal Kutt  Lauki key Koftey  dahi mein aloo  rabori ki sabji  ker sangari ki sabji  Jaipuri  Masala Gatta  Typical Rajasthani meat dishes  Mohan maans (meat cooked in milk)  Laal maans (meat in red chillies curry)  Safed maans (meat cooked in curd)  Saanth ro achaar (pickled wild boar meat)  Khad khargosh (wild hare cooked and roasted underground)  Bajri ki raab
  • 63. 63 5.10 Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh is from the state of Uttar Pradesh located in Northern India, Awadhi and Mughlai are the two chief genre of Uttar Pradeshi cuisine, and the cooking patterns of the state are similar to those of the rest of Northern India. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Uttar Pradesh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques. The Awadhi cuisine of Uttar Pradesh bears similarities to those of Kashmir and Punjab, and the state is famous for its Nawabi foods(of Lucknow and environs) and use of mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron. Its most famous dishes include kebabs, Dum Biryani, and various Mutton recipes. The Chaat, samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in all of India, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine found in the state's Awadh Region.  Dum Bhindi (Fried whole okra stuffed with spiced potato filling)  Gobhi Mussallam  Kadi Chawal  Kahi Pakoda Kadhi  Sultani Dal  Rizala  Shami Kabab (includes tangy green mango)  Palak Paneer  Kakori Kabab (similar to Seekh Kabab)  Pasanda Kabab (skewered boneless mutton)  Pasanda Paneer (similar to Paneer Makhani or butter paneer(Indian cheese))  Samosa  Chaat has its root from Uttar Pradesh  Shab Deg (a winter dish, turnips and mutton balls with saffron)
  • 64. 64  Paneer Pakora & of various vegetables  Kofta  Tehri (vegetarian rice dish with spices and mixed vegetables that popular amongst Hindus)  Korma  Kachori  Pakora  Raita  Nihari  Baati chokha  Aaloo Paratha  Methi Paratha  Daal bhari Puri  Chole Bhature  Daal Makhani  Meethi Roti  Puri  Saada Paratha  Shaami Kabab  Fara  lotpot  lapsi  Bariya  Rajma, Chole,  Boondi  Sedha  long latta
  • 65. 65 5.10.1 Traditional Desserts  Gujia (like a samosa though filled with sweetened thickened milk (khoya))  Gulab Jamun  Kheer  Qulfi  Halwa (sweet pudding)  Sheer Qorma  Ghewar  Imarti  Petha  Jalebi  Chhena  Ras Malai  Taasmai  Gaajar ka Halwa  Gond ke Laddu  Kaaju Katli  Besan ke Laddu  Motichoor ke Laddu  Baarfi  Peda  Kaalakand  Raj Bhog  Laung Latta  Baalu Sahi
  • 66. 66 5.10.2 Popular drinks from Uttar Pradesh  Sharbats is a popular juice in Uttar Pradesh. There are many types of sharbats, including:  Gurahl Sharbat (hibiscus)  Lemon Sharbat  Rose Sharbat  Khas ka Sharbat Other drinks include:  Chaas  Lassi  Rayta  Bread As wheat is the staple food of the state, breads are very significant. Breads are generally flat breads; only a few varieties are raised breads. The breads may be made of different types of flour and can be made in various ways. Popular breads include the Tandoori Naan, or naan baked in a tandoor, tandoori roti, kulcha, taftan, sheermal, millet (millet flour flatbread), and lachha paratha.
  • 67. 67 Part :6 South India cuisine
  • 68. 68 6.1Introduction South India has a distinct cuisine of its own which is strikingly different from the north, east or west Indian cuisine. The southern Indian state of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh eat both vegetarian and non vegetarian food. Offlate many of the recipes of the south India have become quite popular with not only the rest of Indians but also with the foreigners. Some of these recipes include idli, dosa, uppuma, pongal and sambhar. These dishes will delight you with their taste and flavour. Similarities and differences between the four states' cuisines The similarities are the presence of rice as a staple food, the use of lentils and spices, the use of dried red chilies and fresh green chilies, coconut and native fruits and vegetables like tamarind, plantain, snake gourd, garlic, ginger, etc. Overall all the four cuisines have much in common and differ mostly in the spiciness of the food. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, South and coastal Karnataka and most parts of Andhra Pradesh use more rice. North Karnataka on the other hand consumes more ragi and jowar, while Telangana region uses Jowar and Bajra more. Consumption of rice is more common among certain Brahmin communities.
  • 69. 69 6.2 Andhra food Pesarattu served with Ginger Pachadi The cuisines of Andhra are the spiciest in all of India. Generous use of chili powder and tamarind make the dishes tangy and hot. The majority of a diverse variety of dishes are vegetable or lentil based. 6.3 Regional variations The three regions of Andhra Pradesh have their own variations, with Telangana region sharing some of the Central Indian and (Vidharba region of Maharashtra, the region has more Jowar and Bajra based rotis in their main staple menu. The Rayalaseema districts sharing borders with eastern Karnataka and Tamil Nadu has similarities to those regions. The more fertile Andhra Coastal region also having a long coastline of Bay of Bengal has a distinctive taste with various cuisines seafood .Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh, has its own characteristic cuisine considerably different from other Andhra cuisines. The Nizams patronised the Hyderabadi cuisine, which is very much like the Nawabs of the Avadh with Lucknowi cuisine. The only difference is that the Nizams of Hyderabad liked their food to be spicier, resulting in the Hyderabadi cuisine which included the Kacche Gosht ki Biryani and the Dum ka Murgh, Baghare Baingan and Achaari Subzi during the reign of the Nizams.
  • 70. 70 6.4 Popular Andhra dishes Vegetarian  Tiffins - Pesarattu (mung bean pancake), Attu, Bobbatlu, pulihora or pulihaara (tamarind & lemon rice), Upma  Pickles (Pachhallu) (cut raw mango) pickle, Maaghaya, Gongura pacchadi, Pandumirapakayala pacchhadi, tomato pacchadi, Allam (ginger) pachhadi, Dosakaya pachhadi, Dosavakaya, Chintakaya (tamarind)  Curries (Kooralu) - Gutti Vankaya, Bendakaya fry, Dondakaya Fry, cabbage pesara pappu, carrot fry  Pappu (lentils) varieties - Thotakura(amaranth - pigeon pea stew) pappu, Chukkakoora pappu, Menthikura pappu, palakura pappu (spinach - pigeon pea dal), Dosakaya (yellow cucumber - pigeon pea stew), Tomato, Beerakaya, Sorakaya  Pulusu - palakoora pulusu, sorakaya pulusu, thotakoora pulusu, anapakaya pulusu, Gongura pulusu koora.  Chaaru - tomato charu, miriyala charu (pepper), Ulava charu,  Chaaru + Curd Variations - perugupachadi/majjiga charu - with potlakaya (snakegourd), sorakaya (bottlegourd)  Snacks - chekkalu, murukulu, jantikalu, Chakkilalu,  Sweets - pootarekulu, kaaja, Ravva laddu, Boondi laddu, Pesara laddu, Sunnundalu, Thokkudu laddu, Ariselu, Nuvvula laddu Chutney and pickles Raw pachadi-vankaya pachadi, dosakaya vanakaya pachadi, tomato pachadi, cabbage pachadi. Pickles of Avakaya(Mango), Usirikaya (Indian Gooseberry), Ginger, Citroen, Gongura, Tomato and Garlic. 6.5 Non-vegetarian Hyderabadi biriyani and various Hyderabadi meat dishes makes the part of Hyderabadi cuisine .While rest of Andhra cuisine has a varied versions of Lamb and Chicken meat and the Coastal
  • 71. 71 region has extensive varieties of sea food.Kodi iguru (chicken stew), Kodi pulusu (chicken gravy), Chepa pulusu (fish stew) etc.,Fish fry,Prawns curry. 6.6 Karnataka food Lunch from Karnataka served on a plantain leaf. North Karnataka meal Karnataka cuisine is very diverse. Described as the mildest in terms of spice content of these four states' cuisines, there is a generous use of Jaggery, palm sugar and little use of chilli powder. Since the percentage of vegetarians in Karnataka is higher than other southern states, vegetarian food enjoys widespread popularity. Udupi cuisine forms an integral part of Karnataka cuisine. 6.7 Regional Karnataka cuisine 6.7.1 North Karnataka cuisine In north Karnataka the staple grains are jowar and bajra. Rottis made out of these two grains along with side dishes made of eggplant, fresh lentil salads, spiced and stewed lentils are popularly consumed. They also consume a variety of spicy condiments like chutney powders and pickles. Of all the other regional cuisines in Karnataka, this is known for its fiery spice level and heat. Eateries called Khanavallioften run by families serve inexpensive but tasty home style food. Most of them are run by Veerashaivaa are therefore vegetarian but Khanavallis serving non-vegetarian food are not uncommon.
  • 72. 72 6.7.2 Coastal Karnataka cuisine The cuisine of coastal Karnataka is marked by widespread use of seafood, coconut and coconut oil. Rice is the staple grain and is the centerpiece of every meal. Gravies called 'Gassi' made from chicken, fish, meats are served with rice. Lentils and vegetables cooked with coconut, spices and tempered with mustard, curry leaves, generous asafoetida, called Huli, is also served with rice. A Rasam-like preparation is called Saaru, which again is served with rice. The meal will also contain vegetable side dishes called Palya. Other accompaniments include curd-based Tambli, sweet-tangy Gojju, pickles and Happala, Sandige(Fryums) or Papads. Some of the distinct breakfast foods served here include Bun, Biscuit rotti, Goli Bajji, and Patrode. Chutney and pickles: Pickles popularly are Appemidi(found in Dandeli forest), Bettada nelli, lemon, Amateykai, and Mixed vegetables. Chutneys: Ground nut Chutnety, Cocnut Chutney, Onion Chutney, 6.7.3Coorgi cuisine Coorgi cuisine is very distinct from the other regional cuisines of Karnataka, much like their culture. The hallmark of Coorgi cuisine is the widespread use of pork, game, and meats. They also use kokum generously in their cooking. While the staple food remains rice and rice-based preparations like kadambattu, steamed rice dumplings and rice rottis, their expertise in cooking non-vegetarian foods is unmatched. 6.7.4 South Karnataka cuisine The south Karnataka or the old Mysore cuisine is dominated by Ragi or finger millet and rice. Ragi in the form of Ragi Mudde of dumplings or steamed rice is the centerpiece of a meal. Often served with these two dishes are vegetable sides or Palya, Gojju, pickles, Tovve - mildly spiced lentils laced with Ghee, Huli - the lentil curry and Tili Saaru, a peppery thin watery curry almost like Rasam. Certain preparations like Bas saaru, which is a spiced lentil with vegetable or greens' stock along with seasoned vegetables or greens, Upp Saaru which is another lentil stock based accompaniment to rice or mudde, Mosoppu, which is mashed spiced greens, Maskai, which is mashed spiced vegetables, are typical home style food from this region. Avare Kal (or Indian beans) is a popular vegetable consumed during winter. They are used in a variety of dishes like
  • 73. 73 Usali, Upma, Huli, Hitakida Bele Saaru, etc.Rice preparations usually served as the second course of a traditional meals include Bisi bele baath, Chitranna, Hulianna, etc. Yogurt is a typical part of every meal in all the regions of Karnataka and is probably the most popular dairy product. Generally yogurt with rice constitute the final course of a meal. Buttermilk laced with spices and curry leaves is also popularly served with meals especially during summer. Ghee and butter are also popular cooking mediums for those who can afford them, and are mostly reserved for festivals and special occasions. 6.8 Udipi hotels The credit for popularizing these foods elsewhere in India goes to Udupi hotels. In fact, in north India, Udupi hotels are often synonymous with south Indian food, even though the range of foods they serve is mostly restricted to the Karnataka cuisine. These small establishments serve inexpensive vegetarian breakfast dishes throughout the day, all over India. These were mostly run by people native to the Canara region. The famous Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine and was subsequently popularized by Udupi restaurants. 6.9 Most famous food items People from Karnataka are notorious for their sweet tooth. Mysore Pak, Obbattu/Holige, Dharwad pedha, Pheni, Chiroti are popular sweets. Apart from these sweets there are other lesser known sweets like 'Hungu', Kajjaya, Coconut Mithai, karjikai, Rave Unde, sajapa, Pakada Pappu, Chigali, a variety of Kadubus, Tambittu, Paramanna, and Hayagreeva. Most of these sweets are not milk-based, unlike the popular sweetmaking tradition elsewhere in India. Most of these sweets are made using Jaggery and not refined sugar. Some typical Breakfast dishes include Masala Dosa, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Vangi Baath, Menthya Baath, Tamato Baath, Khara Baath, Kesari Baath,Shavige Baath, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Uppittu, Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa, Kadubu, Poori, Avalakki etc. Lunch items include (sambar)Huli, (rasam)thili, Kootu, Gojju and a delicacy called Bisi bele baath, Chitranna, Kosambri(Salad), Pachadi or Mosaru bajji Snack Items: Kodabale, Chakkali, Nippatu, Maddur Vade, Aamb Vade, Golli Bajji, Mangalore Bun,
  • 74. 74 6.10 Kerala food a typical Kerala lunch on plaintain leaf. Spicy fish from Kerala. Kerala cuisine is quite diverse. The diversity is best classified on the basis of the various communities. Most of the food is vegetarian but with the higher Christian and Muslim population than other states, non-vegetarian dishes are also common. The Hindus, especially the Namboodris and Nairs have a predominantly vegetarian cuisine, whilst the Christian and the Muslim communities have a largely non-vegetarian cuisine. The Syrian Christian dishes and Malabari Muslim dishes are famous. Since Kerala's main export is coconuts, almost all of the dishes, irrespective of the variety in the cuisines of the different communities, have coconuts associated with them, either in the form of shavings or oil extracted from the nut. Seafood is also very popular in the coastal regions and eaten almost every day. Most famous food items Vegetarian: olan, paalpradaman, nendarangai chips, aviyal, pulissery, erucherri, sambar, rasam, kalan, upperis, pachady, kichadi. Non-vegetarian: shrimp coconut curry, fish curry (various versions depending on the region), fish fry, chicken fry with shredded coconuts, fish pickle, podimeen fry, meen thoran (fish with coconut), Karimeen (pearl spot fish) pollichathu, shrimp masala, chicken stew, mutton stew,
  • 75. 75 duck curry, malabari fish curry, kakka (shells) thoran, kalllumekka, crabs, malabar biriyani, thalassery biriyani, pearl spot fish, jewel fish, mussels, squid, kappa boiled, kappa (tapioca) vevichathu with non- vegetarian curries. Malabar biriyani is a rice cuisine the difference is it uses Khyma rice instead of basmati rice. The main variants are Thalassery biriyani and Kozhikode biryani. Snacks: upperi, payasam, banan fry (ethaykkappam or pazham pori), ullivada, kozhukkatta, avalosunda, unniyappam, neeyyappam, unnaykka, thira, churuttu, boli, modhakam, paal vazhaykka, cutlets, halwas, cakes, vattayappam, kinnathappam, irattymadhuram. Breakfast: Puttu (with banana or kadala curry, egg curry, or beef fry). Appam (velayappam, palappam) with curry, vegetable stew, fish molee, chicken or mutton stew, beef curry, duck roast, pork masala. Idiyappam also with same curries.  Pidi with mutton curry or chicken curry.  Porotta with chicken curry or mutton curry.  Idli, dosai with chutney.  Kanji with dry beans, pickle, pappad and made with coconut. Typical Indian masala dosa (Kerala style): It is a combination of shredded, cooked, and fried vegetables with Indian sauce and a lot of spices as the basic stuffing, enveloped by a thick brown dosa made out of a dal and rice batter. To embellish this unique preparation, it is served with hot sambhar and coconut chutney.
  • 76. 76 6.11 Tamil food Idli-Sambar,a typical Tamil breakfast dish. Murukku, a crunchy savory. A typical Tamil meal consists of many spicy and non-spicy dishes.Except Brahmins and a couple of non-Brahmin castes, tamils eat more non-vegetarian. Many of these dishes are typically mixed and eaten with steamed rice, which is the staple food of the region. Tamil cuisine groups dishes under five slightly overlapping categories. First are the dishes that necessarily are mixed with rice; various Kuzhambu, Sambhar, Paruppu, Rasam, Thayir, Kadaiyals and the likes belong to this category. The second are the side dishes that accompany such mixtures; Kootu, Kari, Poriyal, Pickles, Papads fall into this category. Third are the short snacks and their accompaniments; vadai, bonda, bajji, soups, various chutneys, thayir pachadi and the likes belong to this category. The fourth category is usually the rich, sweet dishes that serve as desserts; Payasam, Kheer, Kesari and a plethora of Indian sweets belong to this category. The fifth category includes "tiffin", or light meals. This include various types of idlis, various types of dosai, poori, types of pongal, types of uppma, idiyappam, aappam, adai, parotta, paniyaram etc.. Preparations from the fifth category are served for breakfast and dinner, usually not as midday meal. Tamil cuisine mainly offers light breakfast, lighter dinner, a heavy midday meal and evening snacks, often served with tea or coffee. Third to follow will be the Rasam again, mixed with rice, one usually eats this accompanied by crisps. The last of the courses will invariably be rice with curd or yoghurt; this is usually taken along with pickles. Throughout the meal, the side dishes are served and eaten with the courses, depending upon one's taste or choice; side dishes are constantly replenished during any meal. As a last course, the desserts are served.
  • 77. 77 Finally guests retire to the living room and conclude the meal with banana and freshly made paan consisting of betel leaves, betel nuts and lime. paan is considered a digestive aid. The situation is similar with Tamil non-vegetarian meals, except that the first and second courses are usually replaced by various Biryanis and non-vegetarian gravies. In either case, a typical meal (Lunch or Dinner) will be served on a banana leaf. Meals are often accompanied by various pickles and appalams. Food is generally classified into six tastes - sweet, sour, salt, bitter, pungent and astringent and traditional Tamil cuisine recommends that you include all of these six tastes in each main meal you eat. Each taste has a balancing ability and including some of each provides complete nutrition, minimizes cravings and balances the appetite and digestion.  Sweet (Milk, butter, sweet cream, wheat, ghee (clarified butter), rice, honey)  Sour (Limes and lemons, citrus fruits, yogurt, mango, tamarind)  Salty (Salt or pickles)  Bitter (Bitter gourd, greens of many kinds, turmeric, fenugreek)  Pungent (Chili peppers, ginger, black pepper, clove, mustard)  Astringent (Beans, lentils, turmeric, vegetables like cauliflower and cabbage, cilantro) 6.12 Chettinad cuisine Chettinad cuisine is famous for its use of a variety of spices used in preparing mainly non- vegetarian food. The dishes are hot and pungent with fresh ground masalas, and topped with a boiled egg that is usually considered an essential part of a meal. They also use a variety of sun- dried meats and salted vegetables, reflecting the dry environment of the region. The meat is restricted to fish, prawn, lobster, crab, chicken and mutton. Chettiars do not eat beef and pork. Most of the dishes are eaten with rice and rice based accompaniments such as dosais, appams, idiyappams, adais and idlis. The Chettinad people through their mercantile contacts with Burma, learnt to prepare a type of rice pudding made with sticky red rice. Chettinad cuisine offers a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Some of the popular vegetarian dishes include idiyappam, paniyaram, vellai paniyaram, karuppatti paniyaram, paal
  • 78. 78 paniyaram, kuzhi paniyaram, kozhakattai, masala paniyaram, adikoozh, kandharappam, seeyam, masala seeyam, kavuni arisi and athirasam. Most famous food items Vegetarian: kevar kalli, idli, sambar, vadai, rasam, dosa, thayir sadam (yogurt rice), thayir vadai (yogurt-soaked fritters), kootu (vegetables in wet style), poriyal/kari (vegetables in dry style), murukku, uthappam, idiappam, appalam (deep fried lentil-flour crisps) and papadum (baked lentil-flour crips), freshly made thayir pachidi (yogurt mixed with fresh vegetables). Non-vegetarian: karuvattu kuzhambu (salted, dried fish in sauce), chettinad pepper chicken, fish fry, and Kanji with "old fish" gravy.
  • 79. 79 Part: 7 East India cuisine
  • 80. 80 7.1 Introduction East India includes the state of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa and seven north eastern states. The cuisine of the first three states is generally one, however, differences crop up in the preference of dishes. For example the Bengalis are more fond of Macher Jhol as compared to the people of other two states. Bengal is also famous for its sweets like sandesh, rasgulla, pantua and chamcham. As far as north east states are concerned, non vegetarian food forms a major part. In this part people eat every available animal. Agra Heights
  • 81. 81 Part :8 North-East India cuisine
  • 82. 82 Assamese – Naga – Sikkimese – Tripuri  Assamese cuisine  Manipuri cuisine  Tripuri cuisine  Bodo cuisine  Naga cuisine  Mizo cuisine  Garo cuisine  Khasi cuisine 8.1 Assamese cuisine Assamese cuisine is the cuisine of Assam, a state in North-East India. It is a style of cooking that is a confluence of cooking habits of the hills that favor fermentation and drying as forms of food preservation, and those from the plains that provide fresh vegetables and abundance of fish from its many rivers and ponds; both of which are centered around the main ingredient—rice. It is a mixture of different indigenous styles with considerable regional variations and some external influences. The cuisine is characterized by very little use of spices, little cooking over fire and strong flavors due mainly to the use of endemic exotic fruits and vegetables that are either fresh, dried or fermented. Fish is widely used, and birds like duck, squab etc. are very popular, which are often paired with a main vegetable or ingredient. Preparations are rarely elaborate—the practice of Bhuna, the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients so common in Indian cooking, is absent in the cuisine of Assam.
  • 83. 83 Assamese Thali Kosu Xaak aru Madhuxuleng A traditional meal in Assam begins with a khar, a class of dishes named after the main ingredient, and ends with a tenga, a sour dish. These two dishes characterize a traditional meal in Assam. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils made by an indigenous community called Mariya. Tamul (betel nut, generally raw) and paan generally concludes the meal. Though still obscure, this cuisine has seen wider notice in recent times.The discovery of this cuisine in the popular media continues, with the presenters yet to settle on the language and the specific distinctiveness to describe it.
  • 84. 84 Assamese thali Ingredients The cuisine of Assam is strongly influenced by the local ingredients, especially because this cuisine tries to preserve the natural flavors or augment them by processes like drying, fermentation, etc. Rice Rice is the most important ingredient in this cuisine. The large varieties of rice found in the region has led to speculation that the grain was first domesticated in the Assam- Yunnan region. Both the indica as well as the japonica varieties are grown in Assam. The most popular class of rice is the joha or scented rice. As a staple diet rice is eaten either steam boiled (ukhua) or sundried (aaroi). Some very fine quality of rice namely, Karaballam or kauribadam etc. are available in Assam only. Rice is eaten as snack in many different forms: roasted and ground (xandoh), boiled in its husk and flattened (chira), puffed (akhoi). There also grows a variety of rice that can be just soaked and eaten (kumol saul).
  • 85. 85 Rice is a part of all meals in Assam. A traditional breakfast consists of chira with yogurt and jaggery. Farmers eat cooked rice soaked overnight (poita) garnished with mustard oil, onions, etc. Snacks would be xandoh, kumol saul or bora saul, a sticky variety with milk. For other major meals, rice could be boiled, steamed or wrapped in leaves and roasted. A special class of rice preparations, called pithas are generally made only on special occasions like the Bihu. Made usually with soaked and ground glutinous rice (bora saul), they could be fried in oil with a sesame filling (xutuli pitha), roasted in young green bamboo over a slow fire (sunga pitha) or baked and rolled over a hot plate with a filling (kholasapori pitha). Fish Masor Tenga The next most important ingredient is the fish, harvested from the many rivers, ponds and lakes in the region. There is no traditional ethnic community in Assam that does not eat fish. Most traditional rural households have their own ponds for pisciculture. Some of the most popular big fishes are the rou, ilish and cital (big), khoria (medium) (Chitala chitala), maagur, Xingi, borali, bhokua, Xaal, Xol, etc. The small varieties of fish available and eaten in Assam like puthi, borolia, mua, ceniputhi, tengera, lachin, bhagun, pabho, etc. The discerning gourmet would be able to tell which region of Assam is known for which variety of fish. The most popular dish from Assam, the tenga (fish sour), is an indispensable part of a proper meal in Assam. The most popular tenga is made with tomatoes, though ones made with kajinemu (thick skinned elongated lemon) and thekera (dried Mangosteen,) are also popular. Another
  • 86. 86 favorite is small fish roasted in banana leaves (paatotdia). Hukuti is a special fish dish prepared from dried small fish (puthi maas) pounded with arum stem and dried and stored in bamboo tubes. Variations of this exist among the ethnic communities of Northeast India in general and Assam in particular, are dried and fermented small fish puthy mas (Ticto barb), three to four in numbers are roasted along with lavish amounts of green chillies, tomatoes, ginger and garlic (all roasted). The ingredients are then pounded in a mortar to make a coarse paste and served with rice. Meat The Assamese meat and fish dish is characterized by low amount of spices and oil, higher quantity of ginger, norosingho paat (Curry leaves) and lemon juice. This is quite different from Bengali dishes in taste. Pork and to some extent, beef dishes are particularly favorites in the tribal areas in Assam. Beef is not taken by the majority of Assamese as they practice Hinduism; however, beef is popular among Assamese Muslims, although general people also have pork, but that is not taken by the Assamese Muslims. The basic cooking method is boiling. Onla, of the Bodos, is made with ground rice and special herbs, and constitutes a complete meal in itself. Other meats include squab, duck, chicken, mutton, venison, and turtle although venison and turtle meat are legally prohibited. The combination of duck – white gourd and squab – papaya or banana flower is very popular. Meat is curried in spicy gravy. Greens and vegetables The environs of Assam are rich in vegetation, and green leafy vegetables, called xaak, are an important part of the cuisine. Some of them are grown while others like the dhekia (fern) grows wild. There is a bewildering variety that is eaten and according to custom, one has to have a hundred different xaaks (greens) during Rongali Bihu. Spices Among spices there are ginger, garlic, onion, cumin seed, black cumin, black pepper, chilli, turmeric, coriander seed, cinnamon, cardamom, clove, fenugreek seed, white mustard seed, aniseed, Malabar leaf, etc.
  • 87. 87 Snacks and cakes  Jolpan Jolpan (snacks) in Assamese is what is breakfast although it is not always served as breakfast in Assamese cuisine. The items served in Bihu, marriage or any special occasions are called Jolpan. Some Jolpan are Bora saul, Komal Saul, Xandoh, Chira, Muri, Akhoi, Sunga saul, etc. along with curd, jaggery, and yogurt. These are probably some of the earliest form of what we called "Cereals". Assamese people have been eating them mainly as breakfast for many centuries.  Pitha Pitha (rice cake) is a special class of rice preparation generally made only on special occasions like Bihu in Assam. Made usually with soaked and ground rice, they could be fried in oil, roasted over a slow fire or baked and rolled over a hot plate. Some pithas are Til Pitha, Ghila Pitha, Xutuli Pitha, Sunga Pitha, Bhapotdiya Pitha, Lakhimi Pitha, Tora Pitha, Tekeli Pitha, Deksi Pitha, Muthiya Pitha, Kholasapori Pitha, etc.  Laru Larus are sweet balls that are associated with traditional Assamese food: Laskara, narikolor laru, tilor laru are often seen in Assamese cuisine.  Tea Tea (Saah in Assamese) is an indispensable part of Assamese cuisine. It is served in form of Black tea, Milk tea, Spiced tea, Lemon tea (adding lemon juice to black tea) etc. Some other snacks Some other snacks include roti, luchi, and ghugni.  Tamol An Assamese meal is generally concluded with Tamol It is a routine item after every meal.
  • 88. 88 8.2 Manipuri cuisine Manipuri cuisine is simple, organic and healthy. Dishes are typically spicy foods that use chili pepper. Basic Diet The staple diet of Manipur consists of rice, leafy vegetables, and fish.Manipuris typically raise vegetables in a kitchen garden and rear fish in small ponds around their house. Since the vegetables are either grown at home or obtained from local markets, the cuisine is very seasonal, each season having its own special vegetables and preparations. The taste is very different from mainland Indian cuisines because of the use of various aromatic herbs and roots that are peculiar to the region e.g. maroi napakpi, maroi nakuppi, awa phadigom, mayang-ton, toning-khok etc. Further, many of the vegetable that are used in daily meals are found only in and around the region and not seen elsewhere. Some of these include yendem (a kind of taro), chawai, hawai mana, Koukha (a herb root), loklei, pulei, komprek, etc. Various mushrooms also form an important part of the cuisine. These include uyen (similar to shittake mushroom), uchi-na (black slimy mushroom), chengum, kanglayen (lichen). There are also ingredients in the cuisine that require an acquired taste, such as hawaijar (fermented soya bean, somewhat similar to the Japanese Natto), soibum (fermented bamboo shoot) and nga-ri (fermented fish). Sample Dishes Eromba- Vegetables and potatoes boiled with a lot of red chillies or umorok (king chilli) with ngari (fermented fish), dry fish and mashed together. "Umorok" – literally ‘tree chilli’ u=tree; morok = chilli. It is garnished with maroi ( maroi nakuppi, phakpai, mayang-ton, toning- khok,kaanghumaan, lomba, tilhou, chaantruk, coriander leaves and many more). Singju is a salad which may be prepared with finely chopped banana stem, laphu tharo (banana flower), cabbage, lotus stem, komprek (a kind of scented herb), kollamni (another herb), tree beans, coriander leaves, sinju pan, ginger, heibi mana and lots of seasonal vegetables mixed with ngari. Boiled kidney beans are optional and the dish is seasoned with red chilli flakes, salt to taste, with roasted sesame powder and roasted chick pea powder.
  • 89. 89 Chamthong or kangshoi is a stew of any seasonal vegetables with coarsely chopped onions or spring onion, maroi - both yennam nakuppi and napakpi, ginger, ngari and salt, topped with ngari, dried fish, or fried fish pieces and water. It is soupy in consistency and is eaten with rice. Morok metpa is a coarse paste prepared with green or dry red chilies mixed with chopped onions, coriander leaves and other local herbs for garnishing. The chillies are boiled with ngari or simply crushed and then mashed with salt and ngari; fried fish pieces can also be added to it. This is something which accompanies both the meals as a routine side dish. Other dishes include kang-ngou or kaang-hou (various vegetables fried dry in oil with traditional spices), nganam (prepared with fish and maroi on a pan) or paaknam (sort of a pancake prepared with a mixture of pea flour, maroi napaakpi, laphu tharo, awa phadigom, and ngari wrapped in turmeric leaves and baked in a pan), nga-thongba (fish curry), ooti (a typical Manipuri vegetarian dish), pakora thongba, chagem pomba (made with fermented soya, mustard leaves, dry fish and other herbs), keli chana, alu kangmet (boiled potato mashed with fried red chilli and nakuppi with salt and/or dressed with mustard oil), sana thongba which is prepared with paneer in Manipuri style, a-nganba (steamed vegetables, such as pumpkin, peas, carrots, French beans, etc.). 8.3 Tripuri cuisine Tripuri cuisine is the type of food predominantly served in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. The Tripuris are essentially nonvegetarians and hence the main courses are mainly prepared using meat, but with the addition of vegetables. Traditional Tripuri cuisine is known as Mui Borok. Tripuri food has a key ingredient called Berma, which is dried and fermented fish. The food is considered to be healthy as it is prepared without oil. Flavor wise, Berma is more on the sour side. Tripuri food such as bangui rice and fish stews, bamboo shoots, fermented fish, local herbs, and meat roasts are extremely popular within and outside the state.
  • 90. 90 Tripuri rice Rice is called Mai in Kokborok. The different varieties of rice used are  Maisa  Mami  Guriya  Mui Borok  The Tripuri people call their traditional cuisine Mui Borok.  Chakhwi  Chakhwi  Chakhwtwi kwthwng  Chakhwtwi kumun  Chatang  Champrai  Muitru  Auandru  Bwtwi  Hontali  Gudok  Khalok  Uhmai  Pehng  Napehng  Ik  Yokhpra  Sokrang  Maipolok  Yohk  Mur  Sok
  • 91. 91  Hang  Ser  Irimbak  Mosodeng  Kelua  Mohsotok  Akhata  Aloni  Ruk  Neransi Mwkhwi  Thentrwi mwkhwi  Thaiplo mwkhwi  Belphui mwkhwi  Dorompai mwkhwi  Thaihchumu mwkhwi  Thaihtwi mwkhwi  Jambi mwkhwi  Thaihchuk mwkhwtwi  Thaihstem mwkhwtwi  Daskuiya mwkhwtwi  Yasrem mwkhwi Food items The major food items of Tripuris include pork, chicken, mutton, beef, turtle, fish, prawns, crabs and frogs. Tripuri vegetables
  • 92. 92 Vegetables grown in the Tripuri households are - Thaihchumu, Dorompai,Momphol, Khaklu, Chakumura, pumpkin, Siping, Moso peppers, Phantok, Belso, Lubiya, Sobai, Orai, Khokleng, Khama, Thah, Mogwdam, corn, Maising, Banta, Khundrupui, Milokbanta, Muiching, Haiching, Swtwih, Wswndwi, Gunthu, Khumchak, Khumjar, Khumdaga, Khumpui, Khumtwisa among many others. Drinks  Chuak 8.4 Bodo cuisine The culture of the Bodo people of Assam in India is influenced by the land where ... Napham: Napham is a unique dish in Bodo cuisine. . CUISINE & DRINKS: The Bodo cuisine is assorted; mostly being herbal and has its own taste and aroma. They prepare different snacks, starters, curries and tandoories in their own style and have a very good appetite with rice being the staple food. Most of the snacks are prepared out of powdered rice and lentils. Snacks prepared out of rice powder are: Pitha Laodum (Rice cake), Thaoni Sithao, Mwider Khwma etc. They also prepared coconut Ladoos, Suji Ladoos and Kharai- Bhaja (Mixture of different grams, rice and dry fruits) especially prepared in Domasi festival. Oma Bedor: Oma (Pork) and Bedor (Meat). It is the favourite delicacy of the Bodos. The meat is either dry fried or smoked to serve as starter and can also be prepared as curry with many herbal leaves as main course. The traditional way of preserving the meat is to dry it in the sun, which ultimately gives a unique taste and is prepared with different recipe.
  • 93. 93 Napham: Napham is a unique dish in Bodo cuisine. It is made by grinding smoked fish, specific leafy vegetables, masala powder and the mixture is allowed to age in a sealed bamboo cylinder. Thereafter, aged napham could be fried with spring onion along with spicy masala or can also be boiled to serve as soup, it tastes like pâté. Onla- Kharwi: Onla is a gravy curry prepared from rice powder and slices of bamboo shoots cooked lightly with khardwi (soda prepared by drying the papaya pulp and then burning it to ashes. Later the ash is filtered to give a liquid soda) and spices. Chicken or pork can be added to taste. Sobai- Khari: This dish is prepared out of Urad dal or black gram with an addition of Kharwi (homemade liquid soda) and chicken to taste. Emphou:Emphou (Castor worm) is either dry fried with masala as a starter or prepared as Onlakharwi. Narzi: A bitter gravy that is made from dried jute leaves. Pork or fresh water fish can be cooked together to generate a distinct taste. Narzi gravy tastes like Japanese sea weed soup. It is a unique dish which is very favourite among the Bodos. Dao Fudungnai: It is a chicken soup prepared out of different herbal vegetables and put to boil. Ju Mai: Ju Mai is a homemade rice wine prepared by the woman folk for all occasions and is of two types: Gishi (wet) and Gwran (dry). Gishi is brewed by fermenting rice with an addition of different herbs. Gwran is produced by distillation - it tastes like Japanese sake. The Bodos examine the strength of the wine by throwing a cup into the fire. A flash of fire indicates strong wine. Maibra Jou:It is a rice beer prepared mainly during festivals like Bwisagu and Domasi. This liquor is prepared out of sticky rice which is cooked and amou (agent for fermentation) is mixed. It is than put in a container with a long bamboo strainer being placed in the middle. As the mixed rice ages, the beer is collected in the strainer which is than preserved in a bottle. This beer taste sweet and is very strong.
  • 94. 94 8.5 Naga cuisine Naga cuisine, of the Naga people, features meats and fish, which are often smoked, dried or fermented . The various Naga tribes have their own cooking varieties, but they often interchange recipes. A typical Naga table consists of a meat dish, a boiled vegetable dish or two, rice and a chutney (Tathu). Nagas tend to prefer boiled edible organic leaves. Some common dishes are "fermented bamboo shoot" (made from the tender shoot of the Bamboo tree) with fish and pork. axone(soyabean boiled, fermented and either smoked or sun dried) with smoked pork and beef. Smoked meat is produced by keeping the meat above the fire or hanging on the wall of the kitchen for 2 weeks or longer, which could last for the whole year ahead. Anishiis fermented yam leaves made into patties and smoked over the fire or sun dried . Naga food tends to be spicy(chillies). There are different varieties of chillies in Nagaland. The ginger used in the Naga cuisine is spicy, aromatic and is different from the common ginger. The garlic and ginger leaves are also used in cooking with meat. Another popular dish is a soupy dish which is had with cold rice made mostly when one feels under the weather or a migraine, called by different name by the different naga tribes. Pork- Naga Estyle
  • 95. 95 8.6 Mizo cuisine Food in Mizoram is one of the main attractions for the tourists who plan to visit this Indian state on a vacation. The Mizoram cuisine offers mainly non-vegetarian delicacies. The people who belong to this place do eat vegetables, but they prefer to add some non-vegetarian ingredients to each and every dish they prepare. Azara alte's
  • 96. 96 8.7 Garo cuisine 8.8 Khasi cuisine
  • 97. 97 Part :9 West India cuisine
  • 98. 98 9.1 introduction West India again exhibit a sharply different cuisine than the rest of India. Consisting of Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra, west India gourmet tour will offer you variety of dishes because there is a considerable difference between the people of the three states. Dhoklas from Gujarat, bhel puri and paav bhaji from Maharashtra and the non vegetarian items from Goa will delight you with their distinct but delicious taste. Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided between West Bengal and Bangladesh. Other regions, such as Tripura, and the Barak Valley region of Assam (in India) also have large native Bengali populations and share this cuisine. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle (yet sometimes fiery) flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. It also has the only traditionally developed multi- course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once. Historical influences Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and pan-Indian, arising from a historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world. Bengal fell under the sway of various Turkic rulers from the early thirteenth century onwards, and was then governed by the British for two centuries (1757–1947). Bengali cuisine perhaps the only cuisine in the Indian region which still holds its authenticity over 1000 years, though these region was once ruled by the Mughals emperor and once was even the capital of British-colonized India. From the culinary point of view, some major historical trends influenced Bengali food. The Rule of the Nawabs Bengal has been ruled by Muslim governors since the days of the Delhi Sultanate, five short- lived, Delhi-based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. However, for more than 500 years, Muslim rule in Bengal was centred in Dhaka. Trade routes going from
  • 99. 99 Delhi to Dhaka traversed almost the entire width of today’s Bengal, crossing most major rivers. Present-day West Bengal first came into prominence when Murshid Quli Jafar Khan became the first Nawab of Bengal under the Mughals in 1717, and moved the capital from Dhaka to the newly founded city of Murshidabad much further to the west and closer to Delhi, the seat of the Mughal Empire. From the culinary point of view, Dhaka evolved a vibrant cuisine based heavily on the influence of the Mughal courts, popularly called Mughlai (or Moglai) cuisine and characterised by rich sauces and a generous use of meat (especially beef). These food traditions continued in the courts of the Nawabs of Bengal. Though defeated by the British in 1757, they continued as puppet rulers of Bengal till 1880; their courts, manners and cuisine maintained by doles from the English. Another key influence to the food came much later, when Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was exiled by the British 1856 to Metiabruz, on the outskirts of Kolkata. Rich and decadent, Awadhi cuisine was a giant in the world of food, and the Nawab is said to have brought with him hundreds of bawarchis (“cooks”), khansamas (“stewards”) and masalchis (“spice mixers”). On his death, these specialist workers dissipated into the population, starting restaurants and food carts all over Bengal and propagating a distinctly Avadhi legacy into the western parts of Bengal, especially the burgeoning megacity of Kolkata. While deriving from Mughlai cuisine, Awadh preferred mutton to beef and was liberal in the use of ittar (“essence”) of aromatics such rose or kewra. The influence of the widows The treatment of Hindu widows has always been very repressive. Tradition ties a woman’s identity to her husband; a widow is therefore left without an identity or social standing. Bengal was particularly repressive in this regard; widows were either banished or led very monastic lives within the household, living under rigid dietary restrictions and not allowed any interests but religion and housework. The nineteenth century saw active widow reform movements in Bengal—the ban on Sati in 1829 and the Hindu Widow Re-marriage Act of 1856 were key milestones—but the related social practices took a long while to die out and indeed, still remain
  • 100. 100 in part. Rampant child marriage and low life expectancies left many women widowed – it is estimated that some 25% of households have a widow living in them. Widows were not allowed to leave the house, so their contribution to the household was usually restricted to the kitchen— creating a unique class of chefs in the dominant Hindu community. While most Bengali castes ate meat and fish, this was of course barred for widows. Widows also did not use “heating” foods such as onions and garlic, but ginger was allowed—this found a core place in Bengali curries, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Expensive spices such as saffron, cinnamon or cloves were used very sparingly if at all; nuts, dry fruits, milk and milk products (such as cream, ghee or curd) were similarly scarce. In spite of all these restrictions, however, the food evolved to be anything but crude and limited—its deceptively simple preparations drew upon Bengal’s vast larder of vegetable options and were often elaborate to the point of fussiness. Cooked with elaborate precision and served with equal refinement—multiple courses and an intricate formality about what goes with what and in which sequence—it formed an enduring base for a rich and varied cuisine. Leftover cuts in particular, such as spinach ends or vegetable peel, are transformed lovingly into magical preparations. Chitrita Banerji in her book quotes a nineteenth-century Bengali writer mentioning that “it was impossible to taste the full glory of vegetarian cooking unless your own wife became a widow”. 9.2 Characteristics of Bengali cuisine A Bengali meal traditionally set up.
  • 101. 101 The traditional society of Bengal has always been heavily agrarian; hunting, except by some local clansmen, was uncommon. Rice is the staple, with many regions growing speciality rice varieties. Domestic cattle (especially the water buffalo) are common, more for agriculture than large scale dairy farming. Milk is an important source of nutrition, and also a key ingredient in Bengal’s plethora of desserts. Also, as one would expect, ordinary food served at home is different from that served during social functions and festivals, and again very different from what might be served at a larger gathering (e.g., a marriage feast). Bengalis are somewhat unique in their food habits in that nearly every community will eat meat or fish. In most parts of the Indian subcontinent, individual castes and communities have their own food habits; this is not true of Bengal. There is remarkable similarity in eating styles across social strata, with the Hindu upper caste Brahmins sharing a diet very similar to the trading or princely castes. Fish, goat, mutton and chicken are commonly eaten across social strata; the only exception is beef, which if ever, is restricted to Muslim communities. An abundant land provides for an abundant table. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India. Fresh sweet water fish is one of its most distinctive features; Bengal’s countless rivers, ponds and lakes teem with innumerable varieties of fish such as rohu, hilsa, koi or pabda. Prawns, shrimp and crabs also abound. Almost every village and Bengal has ponds used for pisciculture, and at least one meal a day is certain to have a fish course. Bengalis also excel in the cooking of regional vegetables. They prepare a variety of the imaginative dishes using the many types of vegetables that grow here year round. They can make ambrosial dishes out of the oftentimes rejected peels, stalks and leaves of vegetables. They use fuel-efficient methods, such as steaming fish or vegetables in a small covered bowl nestled at the top of the rice pot. The use of spices for both fish and vegetable dishes is quite extensive and includes many combinations not found in other parts of India. Examples are the onion-flavoured kalonji (nigella or black onion seeds), radhuni (wild celery seeds), and five-spice or paanch phoron (a mixture of cumin, fennel, fenugreek, kalonji, and black mustard seeds). The trump card of Bengali cooking probably is the addition of this phoron, a combination of whole spices, fried and added at the
  • 102. 102 start or finish of cooking as a flavouring special to each dish. Bengalis share their love of whole black mustard seeds with South Indians, but unique to Bengal is the extensive use of freshly ground mustard paste. A pungent mustard sauce called Kasundi is a dipping sauce popular in Bengal. Fish Fish is the dominant kind of protein, and is cultivated in ponds and fished with nets in the freshwater rivers of the Ganges delta. Almost every part of the fish (except scales, fins and innards) is eaten; unlike other regions, the head is particularly preferred. Other spare bits of the fish are usually used to flavour curries and dals. More than forty types of mostly freshwater fish are common, including carp varieties like rui (rohu), koi (climbing perch), the wriggling catfish family—tangra, magur, shingi—pabda (the pink-bellied Indian butter fish), katla, ilish (ilish), as well as shuţki (small dried sea fish). Chingri(prawn) is a particular favourite and comes in many varieties—kucho (tiny shrimp), bagda (tiger prawns) or galda (Scampi). Fried rui served in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • 103. 103 Salt water fish (not sea fish though) Ilish (hilsa ilisha) is very popular among Bengalis, can be called an icon of Bengali cuisine. Ilish machh (ilish fish), which migrates upstream to breed is a delicacy; the varied salt content at different stages of the journey is of particular interest to the connoisseur, as is the river from which the fish comes—fish from the river Pôdda (Padma or Lower Ganges) in Bangladesh, for example, is traditionally considered the best. To some part of the community, particularly from West Bengal, Gangatic Ilish is considered as the best variety. Shorshe Ilish, a dish of smoked ilish with mustard-seed paste, has been an important part of both Bangladeshi and Bengali cuisine. There are numerous ways of cooking fish, depending on the texture, size, fat content and the bones. It could be fried, cooked in roasted, a simple spicy tomato or ginger based gravy (jhol), or mustard based with green chillies (shorshe batar jhaal), with posto, with seasonal vegetables, steamed, steamed inside of plantain or butternut squash leaves, cooked with doi (curd/yogurt), with sour sauce, with sweet sauce or even the fish made to taste sweet on one side, and savoury on the other. Ilish is said be cooked in 108 distinct ways.
  • 104. 104 Meat Bengali pulao Deep Fried Capsicum & Chicken
  • 105. 105 MUTTON The most preferred form of meat in Bengal is mutton or goat meat. Khashi (castrated goat) or kochi pantha (kid goat), is also common. Some delicate dishes are cooked with rewaji khashi, a goat that has been specifically raised on a singular kind of diet, to encourage the growth of intramuscular fat, commonly known as pardah. Pork is commonly eaten among the Santal tribes, and is quite common on the menus of Chinese restaurants everywhere in Bengal. Chicken is less preferred, though it has grown steadily in popularity over the last few decades. Beef, while extremely popular over in East Bengal, is much less common in West Bengal, where it is consumed in pockets, and only in certain Muslim homes and some restaurants serving Mughlai food. Eggs—both chicken and duck—are quite popular. Surprisingly, duck meat is rarely found on menus in West Bengal even though the birds are common in the many ponds and lakes. 9.3 Special Dishes of Dhaka: The Nawabs of Dhaka were not the original Nawabs of Bengal.Their ancestors came from Kashmir as merchants who made their fortunes in Eastern Bengal in the 17th century. They finally settled in Dhaka, and, having bought large landed estates, they became the largest landowners in these parts. They were given the title of Nawab by the British.
  • 106. 106 The Nawabs brought many famous baburchis (“cooks”) from many parts of India who introduced many new dishes, especially meat dishes, to the local cuisine. Admittedly, these expensive dishes were hardly enjoyed by the common people. They remained the favorite of the wealthy and the well-to-do aristocrats. However, with the general economic growth of Dhaka since 1971, some of them have become favorite of the rich classes especially on such festive occasions as Eid and marriages. They are: Kebabs: Many kinds of Kebabs, mostly cooked over open grill. Some of the Dhaka’s specialty of this genre are: Sutli Kebab, Bihari Kebab, Boti Kebab, etc., made from marinaded (by secret spice mix by each chef) mutton and beef. Kebabs are eaten as snacks or as starters for a big feast. Special kinds of breads: There are many kinds of breads made with cheese mix, with minced meat, with special spices, etc., all are delicacies enjoyed by the affluent classes as side dishes. The Kachchi Biriani: This famous dish is now the main dish in almost all marriage feasts of the wealthy people. It is cooked with parboiled rice cooked with layers of raw mutton pieces. When on 'dam', i.e., steamed in a sealed pot over slow wood fire [gas fire, or electric cooker will not do] both rice and mutton will cook perfectly. Special spices including very expensive saffron is used by the famous chefs of this special dish. Many culinary specialists declare that Dhaka Kachchi is better than any that the Delhi or Lucknow varieties cooked by Indian chefs. But Hyderabadi biryani is considered to be the best biryani. Whole lamb roasted: Marinated whole lamb is roasted over charcoal fire. This dish is usually made on special occasion such as marriage feast when usually it is served on the high table reserved for the bridegroom and his party. Whole roasted chicken/duck: Highly spiced, cooked in a pot with lots of ghee.
  • 107. 107 Cereals Luchi Bengali people are primarily rice eaters, and the rainfall and soil in Bengal lends itself to rice production as well. Many varieties of rice are produced from the long grain fragrant varieties to small grain thick ones. Rice is semi-prepared in some cases when it is sold as parboiled, or in some cases as unpolished as well, still retaining the colour of the husk. Rice is eaten in various forms as well—puffed, beaten, boiled and fried depending on the meal. The first two are used usually as snacks and the other as the main constituent in a meal. Lightly fermented rice is also used as breakfast in rural and agrarian communities (panta bhat). Luchi (circular, deep-fried unleavened bread) or Porothha (usually triangular, multi-layered, pan fried, unleavened bread) are also used as the primary food item on the table. It is considered that wheat-based food came in from the north and is relatively new in advent. Both Luchi and Parothha could have stuffed versions as well, and the stuffing could vary from dal, peas, etc.
  • 108. 108 Pulses (or lentils) form another important ingredient of a meal. These dals vary from mushur đal (red lentils), mug đal (mung beans), kadhaier dal, arhar dal, etc., and are used as an accompaniment to rice. 9.4 Instruments and utensils Another characteristic of Bengali food is the use of a unique cutting instrument, the boti (also called the dao in some regional dialects). It is a long curved blade on a platform held down by foot; both hands are used to hold whatever is being cut and move it against the blade. The method gives excellent control over the cutting process, and can be used to cut anything from tiny shrimp to large pumpkins. Knives are rare in a traditional Bengali kitchen. Different utensils used in a Bengali household. Clockwise from left, kadai, tawa, haandi, tea pan and a dekchi. A korai (wok) is a universal cooking vessel for most Bengali food, for making sauces, frying/stir-frying, etc. Dekchi (a flat bottomed pan) is used generally for larger amounts of cooking or for making rice. The dekchi comes with a thin flat lid which is used also to strain out the starch while finishing up cooking rice. The other prominent cooking utensil is a hari, which is a round bottomed pot like vessel. All the three mentioned vessels come in various sizes and in various metals and alloys. the tawa is used to make roti and porota.
  • 109. 109 Silverware, as expected, is not part of traditional Bengali cookery. A flat metal spatula, khunti, is used often, along with hata (scoop with a long handle), jhanjri (round shaped sieve like spatula to deep fry food), the sharashi (pincers to remove vessels from the fire), the ghuntni (wooden hand blender) for puréeing dal and the old wooden belun chaki (round pastry board and rolling pin), and the shil nora, which is a rough form of a mortar and pestle, or grinding stone is also used. The kuruni is a unitasker, there to grate coconuts. Preparation and cutting On the left, a coconut grater known as kuruni and on the right a boti, a type of chopper or cutting tool used to cut the vegetables, fish, meat, etc. Bengali cuisine is rather particular in the way vegetables and meat (or fish) are prepared before cooking. Some vegetables are used unpeeled, in some preparations fish is used un-skinned in contrast as well. However, in most dishes vegetables are peeled, and fish scaled and skinned. In many cases, the main ingredients are lightly marinated with salt and turmeric (also an anti- bacterial and antiseptic). Vegetables are to be cut in different ways for different preparations. Dicing, julienne, strips, scoops, slices, shreds are common and one type of cut vegetables cannot
  • 110. 110 replace another style of cutting for a particular preparation. Any aberration is frowned upon. For example, in alu-kumror chhakka, the potatoes and gourds must be diced, not shredded; if they are shredded it will be ghonto and not chhakka. 9.5 Cooking styles In Bangladesh, the culinary style developed rather independently; it was not greatly influenced by the rest of India and Southeast Asia because of the difficult geography of the Ganges delta. Some characteristics stand out: freshwater fish, beef (only for Muslims, but still not very popular), the extensive use of parboiled rice, and much spicier food (some of the hottest dishes in the world). Floods are common in the region, so there is an extensive use of root vegetables and dried fish (shuţki). Milk and dairy products, so widely used in the neighbouring India, are not as common here; the geography prevents large-scale dairy farming, thus making dairy products an expensive indulgence. Although, some food calls for curd, yogurt or ghee. However, sweets do contain milk and dairy products as well as jaggery and rice paste. As you move eastwards, anthropologically the people become more and more different, and the language takes a different tone and flavour all together. The far eastern parts are closer culturally to Burma than to India. In western parts of Bengal, more connected with the rest of India and dominated by the megacity of Kolkata since the late eighteenth century, the culinary style evolved to become different. The delta is thinner there, with fewer rivers and more open plains. There is significant commerce with the rest of India, leading to a flow of spices, ingredients and techniques and more importantly culture. The presentations are more elaborate and a significant feature of the cuisine is a vast array of sweets based on milk and sugar as part of tradition. While freshwater fish is still common, mutton is more common among the Muslim population than beef and dried fish. Wheat makes its appearance alongside rice, in different types of breads, such as luchi, kochuri and pôroţa. There is a greater use of coconut, both in cooking and in desserts. Prosperity and urbanisation also led to the widespread use of professional cooks who introduced complex spice mixtures and more elaborate sauces, along with techniques, such as roasting or braising. Also introduced around this time, probably as a consequence of increased urbanisation, was a whole new class of snack foods. These snack foods are most often consumed with evening tea. The tea-time ritual was probably inspired by the British, but the snacks most popular are
  • 111. 111 Kolkata-chaţ, kachori, beguni, mochaar chop, samosa, phuluri and the ever-popular jhal-muri also referred to as bhelpuri. Puchka is the ever-popular street food. 9.5.1 Common Bengali recipe styles The following are a list of characteristic Bengali recipe styles. You can note the Chinese, Southeast Asian, and Burmese influences in the food of Bengal, not to mention some British influence, because of the formation of Kolkata during the 1700s. Each entry here is actually a class of recipes, producing different dishes depending on the choice of ingredients. There are six different tastes to which the Bengali palate caters to, sweet, sour, salty, bitter, hot and koshay. Ombol or Aum-bol (also known as Tok) : A sour dish made either with several vegetables or fish, especially fish bones. The souring agent is usually tamarind pulp, unripe mango and sometimes amla or amloki is used. Curd, though a souring agent occasionally used with non- vegetarian dishes, will not be called ombol. It is served at the end of the meal as a kind of digestive, and to cleanse the palate.  Achar: Pickles. Generally flavoured with mustard oil, mustard seeds, aniseed, caraway seed and asafoetida, or hing.  Bawra: Anything that has been mashed and then formed into rough roundish shape and fried, generally in mustard oil. Generally served with rice as a starter, or served with puffed rice crisps as a snack. The baora actually has quite a few different kinds. When potatoes are fried in a light chickpea flour batter, they are called fuluri (giving rise to the Trinidadian pholourie)  Bhaja: Anything fried, either just after it has been salted or dipped in any kind of water- based batter. Does not include croquettes, or crumb-coated items.  Bhapa: Fish or vegetables steamed with spices.
  • 112. 112  Bhate: A vegetable, that has been put inside the pot in which rice is cooking, and it has been cooked along with the rice. Generally, you get potatoes, butternut squash, raw papayas, bitter gourd, snake gourd and okra in the rice. Bengalis often eat it with a tinge of mustard oil and salt. However, a very popular one-dish Bengali meal is alu bhate bhat, which is potatoes boiled along with rice, and then served along with the rice. For this, generally gobindobhog atop rice, which is a short-grained, glutinous rice that cooks quickly, is used, and is preferred to the long-grained rice, because of its creamy quality, and ability to become ever so sticky, which aids the dish when it comes to mashing. During the serve, some fresh ghee or butter, and salt to taste, to be mixed and mashed by hand into the right consistency, and then eaten. A raw green chili, and a boiled and shelled egg sometimes accompanies this dish.  Bhorta: Any vegetable, such as potatoes, beans, sour mangoes, papaya, pumpkins or even dal, first boiled whole and then mashed and seasoned with red shallot, fresh chile, mustard oil/ghee and spices.  Chorchori: Usually a vegetable dish with one or more varieties of vegetables cut into longish strips, sometimes with the stalks of leafy greens added, all lightly seasoned with spices like mustard or poppy seeds and flavoured with a pouron. Sometimes a chochchori may have small shrimp. The skin and bones of large fish like bhetki or chitol can be made into a chochchori called kata-chochchori (kata meaning fish-bone). The stir frying process and the lightness of a chochhori is not unlike that of chop suey, which is a term for assorted pieces, and this shows the influence of the Chinese in Bengali household cooking. The chochhori would be generally an assortment of vegetable and fish bones and other things that would have been rather thrown away, fried in a korai,(a slightly rounded wok), over high heat at first, and then simmered to let the vegetables cook down to being just done, and then taken off the flame immediately to stop cooking. The cooking procedure adds to the confirmation of the entrance of Chinese style of cooking into Kolkata during the mid-1800s, prior to which this particular dish was not very popular in Bengali cuisine.  Chop: Croquettes, usually coated with crushed biscuit or breadcrumbs.
  • 113. 113  Cutlet: Very different from the cutlets of the Brits, this is referred typically to a crumb- coated, thinly spread out dough, made generally of chicken/mutton minced, mixed together with onion, bread crumbs and chillies. Generally it is then dipped in egg and coated in breadcrumb, fried and served with thin julienne of cucumber, carrots, radish and onions. Often an egg mixed with a teaspoon or two water and a pinch of salt is dropped on top of the frying cutlet, to make it into a kabiraji, the Bengali pronunciation of a "Coverage or Cover:Egg" Cutlet, influenced by the British.  Chhyanchra: A combination dish made with different vegetables, portions of fish head and fish oil (entrails).  Chhenchki: Tiny pieces of one or more vegetable, generally a dice of vegetables along with general odds and ends, often even the peels (of potatoes, squash, gourd, pumpkin, bitter gourd, or potol for example)—usually flavoured with pach-pouron, whole mustard seeds or kalo jira. Chopped shallot and garlic can also be used, but hardly any ground spices.  Chutney: Generally Bengal is one of the pioneers for this particular dish, making it with everything, including preserved mango sheets, called amshotto.  Dalna: Mixed vegetables or eggs, cooked in a medium thick gravy seasoned with ground spices, especially gorom moshla and a touch of ghee.  Dom: Vegetables, especially potatoes, or meat, cooked over a covered pot containing water, slowly over a low heat, slightly steaming. The word is derived from the dum technique popular in Mughlai food.  Dolma: A vegetable, potol, stuffed with fish boiled, de-boned, then prepared with Bengali five-spice powder, ginger and onions (alternately coconut-vegetable stuffing is used). A misconception once arose that this was a take on the Greek dolmathes or dolmades, but has not been proven so.  Ghonto: Different complementary vegetables (e.g., cabbage, green peas, potatoes or banana blossom, coconut, chickpeas) are chopped or finely grated and cooked with both a pouron and ground spices. Dried pellets of dal are often added to the ghonto. Ghee is commonly added at the end. Non-vegetarian ghontos are also made, with fish or fish
  • 114. 114 heads added to vegetables. The famous murighonto is made with fish heads cooked in a fine variety of rice. Some ghontos are very dry while others are thick and juicy.  Jhal: Literally, hot. A great favourite in West Bengali households, this is made with fish or shrimp or crab, first lightly fried and then cooked in a light sauce of ground red chilli or ground mustard and a flavouring of pach-pouron or kalo jira. Being dryish, it is often eaten with a little bit of dal poured over the rice.  Jhol: A light fish or vegetable stew seasoned with ground spices, like ginger, cumin, coriander, chilli, and turmeric, with pieces of fish and longitudinal slices of vegetables floating in it. The gravy is thin yet extremely flavourful. Whole green chillies are usually added at the end and green coriander leaves are used to season for extra taste. It is the closest to a “curry”, yet it is more of a jus than a sauce.  Kalia: A very rich preparation of fish, meat or vegetables using a lot of oil and ghee with a sauce usually based on ground ginger and fresh shallots pasted or fried along with a tempering of gorom moshla.  Kofta (or Boras): Ground meat or vegetable croquettes bound together by spices and/or eggs served alone or in savoury gravy. Koftas are usually softer than boras which are mainly made of ground lentils, sometimes with added chopped vegetables. Telebhaja is different.  Korma: A term that can also be called qurma, of Mughali origin, meaning meat or chicken cooked in a mild yogurt-based sauce with ghee instead of oil; poppy seed paste is often added to it. People of southern Bangladesh are known to add coconut milk to many of their dishes and korma is no exception.  Kosha: Meaning fried for a long time with ground and whole spices over high heat until shallot/garlic/ginger have dissolved into a thick paste. Usually applied to meat and some shellfish.  Paturi: Generally oily fish is sliced evenly, and then wrapped in a banana leaf, after the fish has been hit by a basting of freshly pasted mustard with a hint of mustard oil, chili, turmeric and salt.
  • 115. 115  Pora: Literally, burnt. Vegetables are wrapped in leaves and roasted over a wood or charcoal fire. Some, like aubergine, are put directly over the flames. Before eating the roasted vegetable is mixed with oil and spices.  Poshto: anything cooked with poppy seed paste as the main flavouring agent. Often poppy seed paste with some mustard oil is eaten mixed with rice all by itself as a mild beginner for any Bengali meal.  Torkari: A general term often used in Bengal the way `curry' is used in English. The word first meant uncooked garden vegetables. From this it was a natural extension to mean cooked vegetables or even fish and vegetables cooked together.  Shukto: A favourite Bengali palate cleanser, made with a lot of different vegetables including at least one bitter veg, simmered with a hint of sugar and milk to bring out the bitterness of the fresh vegetables.  Shak: Any kind of green leafy vegetable, like spinach and mustard greens, often cooked till just wilted in a touch of oil and tempering of nigela seeds.
  • 116. 116 9. 6 Bengali meals A traditional Bengali fish meal – Rice with Macher Jhol (Literally translated to "Fish's gravy"). The Bengalis are great food lovers and take pride in their cuisine. The medium of cooking is mustard oil which adds on its own pungency. Another very important item of Bengali cuisine is the variety of sweets or mishti as they call them. Most of them are milk based and are prepared from chaana (paneer as it is popularly known). The most popular among the Bengali sweets are the Rosogolla, Sandesh, Pantua and Mishti Doi and these four sweets are a must at every wedding besides some other sweets, which may vary as per individual choice. A meal, for the Bengali, is a ritual in itself even if it only boiled rice and lentils (dal bhat), with of course a little fish. Bengalis, like the French, spend not only the great deal of time thinking about the food but also on its preparation and eating. Quips like “Bengalis live to eat” and “Bengalis spend most of their income on food” are not exactly exaggerated. The early morning shopping for fresh vegetables, fish etc. is the prerogative of the head of the family, even in affluent household, because he feels that he alone can pick up the best at a bargain price. The Bengalis are very particular about the way and the order in which the food should be served. Each dish is to be eaten separately with a little rice so that the individual flavours can be enjoyed. The first item served may be a little ghee which is poured over a small portion of rice and eaten with a pinch of salt. Then come the bitter preparation, shukto, followed by lentils or dals, together with roasted
  • 117. 117 or fried vegetables (bhaja or bharta). Next come the vegetable dishes, the lightly spiced vegetables, chenchki, chokka, followed by the most heavily spiced dalna, ghonto and those cooked with fish. Finally the chicken or mutton, if this being served at all. Chaatni comes to clear the palate together with crisp savoury wafers, papor. Dessert is usually sweet yogurt (mishti doi). The meal is finally concluded with the handing out of betel leaf (paan), which is considered to be an aid to digestion and an astringent. Traditionally the people here eat seated on the floor, where individual pieces of carpet, called asans, are spread for each person to sit on and the meal is served on a large gun-metal or silver plate (thala) and the various items of food are placed in bowls (batis) around the top of the thala, running from right to left. Rice is mounded and placed on the middle of the thala, with a little salt, chilies and lime placed on the upper right hand corner. They eat with the fingers of the right hand and strict etiquette is observed with regard to this. The typical Bengali fare includes a certain sequence of food—somewhat like the courses of Western dining. Two sequences are commonly followed, one for ceremonial dinners such as a wedding and the day-to-day sequence. Both sequences have regional variations, and sometimes there are significant differences in a particular course between West Bengal and Bangladesh. At home, Bengalis traditionally ate without silverware: kaţa (forks), chamoch (spoons), and chhuri (knives) gradually finding use on Bengali tables in urban areas. Most Bengalis eat with their right hand, mashing small portions of meat and vegetable dishes with rice and in some cases, lentils. In rural areas, Bengalis traditionally eat, sitting on the floor with a large banana or plantain leaf serving as the plate or plates made from sal leaves sown together and dried. The elaborate dining habits of the Bengalis were a reflection of the attention the Bengali housewife paid to the kitchen. In modern times, thanks to Western influence, this is rarely followed any more. Courses are frequently skipped or combined with everyday meals. Meals were usually served course by course to the diners by the youngest housewives, but increasing influence of nuclear families and urbanisation has replaced this. It is now common to place everything on platters in the centre of the table, and each diner serves him/herself. Ceremonial occasions such as weddings used to have elaborate serving rituals, but professional catering and buffet-style dining is now commonplace. The traditions are far from dead, though; large family occasions and the more lavish ceremonial feasts still make sure that these rituals are observed.
  • 118. 118 The slightly elaborate daily meal The foods of a daily meal are usually simpler, geared to balanced nutrition and makes extensive use of vegetables. The courses progress broadly from lighter to richer and heavier and goes through various tastes and taste cleansers. Rice remains common throughout the meal and is the main constituent of the meal, until the chaţni (chutney) course. First course or starter Shukto The starting course is made from bitter vegetables or herbs, often deep fried in oil or steamed with cubed potatoes. Portions are usually tiny—a spoonful or so to be had with rice—and this course is considered to be both a palate-cleanser and of great medicinal value. The ingredients used for this course change seasonally, but commonly used ones are kôrolla or uchhe(forms of bitter gourd) which are available nearly all year round, or tender nim leaves in spring. In West Bengal, a thick soupy mixture of vegetables in a ginger-mustard sauce called shukto usually follows the bitter starting course, but sometimes replaces it as a starter altogether. Eaten in much bigger portions, Shukto is usually eaten in summer. It is a complex dish, featuring a fine balance of many different tastes and textures and is often a critical measure of a Bengali cook's abilities in the kitchen. However, it is not particularly popular in Bangladesh.
  • 119. 119 Shak The first course is then followed by shak (leafy vegetables) such as spinach, palong chard, methi fenugreek, or amaranth. The shak can be steamed or cooked in oil with other vegetables such as begun (aubergine). Steamed shak is sometimes accompanied by a sharp paste of mustard and raw mango pulp called Kashundi. Dal Luchis with alur dom, cholar dal and sondesh. The đal course is usually the most substantial course, especially in West Bengal. It is eaten with a generous portion of rice and a number of accompaniments. Common accompaniments to đal are aaloo bhaate (potatoes mashed with rice), and bhaja (fritters). Bhaja literally means 'deep- fried'; most vegetables are good candidates but begun (aubergines), kumro (pumpkins), or alu (potatoes) like French fries, or shredded and fried, uchhe, potol pointed gourd are common. Machh bhaja (fried fish) is also common, especially rui (rohu) and ilish (hilsa) fishes. Bhaja is sometimes coated in a beshon (chickpea flour) and posto (poppyseed) batter. A close cousin of
  • 120. 120 bhaja is bôra or deep-fried savoury balls usually made from posto (poppyseed) paste or coconut mince. Another variant is fried pointed gourd as potoler dorma with roe/prawn. Another accompaniment is a vegetable preparation usually made of multiple vegetables stewed slowly together without any added water. Labra, chorchori, ghonto, or chanchra are all traditional cooking styles. There also are a host of other preparations that do not come under any of these categories and are simply called tôrkari—the word merely means 'vegetable' in Bengali. Sometimes these preparations may have spare pieces of fish such as bits of the head or gills, or spare portions of meat. A charchari is a vegetable dish that is cooked without stirring, just to the point of charring. Pickles such as raw mangoes pickled in mustard oil and spices or sweet and tangy tamarind picckles and lemon pickle are also served with the dal course. Main course Deep-fried Carp The next course is the fish course. Generally you would have to go through one fish course a day, because Bengalis do tend to eat fish and generally derive the necessary protein intake from fish and dal. Meat till the 1990s was a once-a-week affair, but now with changing culture, meat is served more often in the household. Generally the most common fish dish is the Jhol, where a
  • 121. 121 thin jus of fish is made with ginger, turmeric, chili and cumin (the basic group of spices), and fish and sometimes potato or other vegetable. of course Bengalis fame in cooking fish, both dried fish called "Shutki" (more present in East Bengali households) as well as fresh fish. Prawn is also considered to be a kind of fish, and Crabs are also a favourite of the Bengalis. Apart from it, mutton and chicken feature big time in Non-vegetarian menu, while the vegetarian menu contains homemade paneer, gram flour "dhoka" (a cousin to the gatta of the Marwari/Gujrati food group). Generally one or two pieces of fish or meat is served during lunch, with rice, to balance out the meal. Additional main course Then comes the meat course. This course may be eaten occasionally for 2 reasons: the Hindu principle of ahimsa, which is observed throughout the region, and cost, as meat is very costly. The divide among the Bengalis of Bangladesh and West Bengal is most evident when it comes to the meat course. Meat is readily consumed in urban parts of Bangladesh and some consider it the meal's main course. Beef is mainly consumed in some of the feasts and banquets in major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong. Because the consumption of beef is prohibited among Bengali Hindu communities, Khashi mutton is traditionally the meat of choice in West Bengal, but murgi chicken and đim eggs are also commonly consumed. At the time of Partition, it was rare for caste Hindus to eat chicken or even eggs from hens, choosing rather duck eggs if eggs were to be consumed. Although it is debatable as to whether chicken is more popular than khashi in West Bengal today, the proliferation of poultry farms and hatcheries makes chicken the cheaper alternative.
  • 122. 122 Chutney Unripe mango chutney, Kolkata. Next comes the chutney course, which is typically tangy and sweet; the chutney is usually made of am mangoes, tomatoes, anarôsh pineapple, tetul tamarind, pepe papaya, or just a combination of fruits and dry fruits called mixed fruit chutney served in biye badi (marriage). The chutney is also the move towards the sweeter part of the meal and acts also as a palate cleanser, similar to the practice of serving sorbet in some Western cuisines. Papoŗ (papadum), a type of wafer, thin and flaky, is often made of đal or potatoes or shagu (sago) and is a usual accompaniment to the chutneys. In Bangladesh, chutney is usually eaten during the đal course, and no separate course is dedicated to chutney.
  • 123. 123 Desserts Mishti Doi The last item before the sweets is Doi or yogurt.It is generally of two varieties, either natural flavour and taste or Mishti Doi – sweet yogurt, typically sweetened with charred sugar. This brings about a brown colour and a distinct flavour. Like the fish or sweets mishti doi is typically identified with Bengali cuisine. In a daily meal it is likely that some of the courses might get missed, for instance the 'Shak',the additional course, Chutney and Papor. In some cases, the dessert might be given a miss as well. The courses overall are the same at home or at a social function (e.g. marriage feast). Rice, which is the staple across the meal gets replaced by 'luchi' or luchi stuffed with dal or mashed green peas. Interesting thing to note is that the replacement is a relatively recent phenomenon and has been seen in practice only from about early 20th century.
  • 124. 124 Mishţi (sweets) Sweets occupy an important place in the diet of Bengalis and at their social ceremonies. It is an ancient custom among both Hindu and Muslim Bengalis to distribute sweets during festivities. The confectionery industry has flourished because of its close association with social and religious ceremonies. Competition and changing tastes have helped to create many new sweets, and today this industry has grown within the country as well as all over the world. The sweets of Bengal are generally made of sweetened cottage cheese (chhena), unlike the use of khoa (reduced solidified milk) in Northern India. Additionally, flours of different cereals and pulses are used as well. Some important sweets of Bengal are: Shôndesh Made from sweetened, finely ground fresh chhena (cottage cheese), shôndesh in all its variants is among the most popular Bengali sweets. The basic shôndesh has been considerably enhanced by the many famous confectioners of Bengal, and now a few hundred different varieties exist, from
  • 125. 125 the simple kachagolla to the complicated abar khabo, jôlbhôra or indrani. Another variant is the kôrapak or hard mixture, which blends rice flour with the paneer to form a shell-like dough that last much longer. Note that Shondesh is also the name of a sweet rice flour and palm sugar fritter eaten in Bangladesh and West Bengal (where it is called malpua). What West Bengal call "shondesh" is a type of halwa in Bangladesh. 9.7 Snacks Muŗi Muŗi (puffed rice) is made by heating sand in a pot, and then throwing in grains of rice. The rice may have been washed in brine to provide seasoning. The rice puffs up and is separated from the sand by a strainer. Muŗi is very popular and is used in a wide variety of secular and religious occasions, or even just munched plain. Muri is also often used as a replacement for or in combination with regular rice. A variant of muŗi is khoi, which is popped rice. Both varieties are used to make many different snack foods. Jhal-Muŗi One of the most popular and iconic snack foods of Bengal, jhal literally means 'hot' or 'spicy'. Jhal-muŗi is puffed rice with spices, vegetables and raw mustard oil. Depending on what is added, there are many kinds of jhal-muŗi but the most common is a bhôrta made of chopped onion, jira roasted ground cumin, bitnoon black salt lôngka / morich chilis (either kacha 'ripe' or shukna 'dried'), mustard oil, and dhone pata (fresh coriander leaves). and ( mudhi ) also. Moa A moa is made by taking muri with gur (jaggery) as a binder and forming it into a ball, made all over Bengal. Another popular kind of moa is Joynagarer moa, a moya particularly made in Jaynagar, South 24 Parganas district, West Bengal which uses khoi and nolen gur as binder. Moas are made specially during winter.
  • 126. 126 West Indian food
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  • 128. 128 Part:10 Beverages
  • 129. 129 The most common beverage found in India is tea. The finest varieties of tea are grown in Darjeeling and Assam. It is frequently prepared as Masala Chai with a mixture of milk along with other spices. Another Popular beverage is coffee. It is ordinarily served in South India. One of the nicest kinds are grown in Mysore and Karnataka, It is sold by the name of “Mysore Nuggets”. Other drinks are nimbu pani (lemonade), Lassi ( milk with nuts and cardamom) and Chaach ( made from yogurt). Alcoholic drinks are served in India such as palm wine, fenny, bhang and Indian beer. Surprisingly, drinking a beverage is not polite when eating a meal in India. Indian drinks form an integral part of the Indian cuisine. With a climate as varied and extreme as India's, the people require myriad options to keep their thirst appropriately quenched according to the weather conditions, be it a steaming cup during winters or a frosty glass in the summers. Different regions in the country serve different drinks made with an eclectic assortment of ingredients including local spices, flavors and herbs. Available on the streets as well as on the menus of posh hotels, these drinks add to the delicious cuisine of India 10.1 Alcoholic, traditional  Hadia: rice, Central India  Mahua: Mahua flowers, Central Indian  Fenny: coconut or cashew apple, Goa  Toddy, Arrack: also called Sarayi,Kallu, made from various kinds of palm saps, South India  Sonti: rice, (unknown)  Bhang: Bhang is a preparation from the leaves and flowers (buds) of the female cannabis plant, smoked or consumed as a beverage in the Indian subcontinent.  Chhaang  Chuak  manri:fermented rice, Mithila
  • 130. 130  Gudamaba: sugar cane, Hyderabad : it was a traditional drink which is brewed from sugar cane.. in the due course it was produced from methane and other chemicals due to which the government banned it.  Sekmai: from the state of Manipur, sticky rice 10.2 Alcoholic, non-traditional  Indian Wines  Indian beer  Brandy such as Bejois Brandy  Indian Made Foreign Liquor  tamsin 10.3 Non-alcoholic  Indian filter coffee  Tea  Masala chai  Balma green tea  Green tea 10.4 Other milk-based  Lassi  Falooda -  Buttermilk - Chhachh in North India, Mor in Tamil, Majjiga in Telugu, Taak in Marathi  Bhang Lassi (intoxicating)  Badam Milk (Almond flavoured milk)  Sattu  Coconut water  Sharbat and its variants  Jal jeera  Nimbu pani  Kokam Sarbat  Aam panna
  • 131. 131  Kala Khatta  Thandaai  Kokum Sarbat  Mastani, Pune  Sambharam  Laopani  Apong  Kanji  Mango pana  Gajjar Ka Doodh  kesar kasturi  Jigarthanda, Madurai  Ookali(hot drink made by boiling coriander seeds), Western India  lassie How travel and tourism is related to cuisine ? Travel in style through the markets and restaurants of India for the ultimate cooking holiday in India. From the fascinating and often dramatic sights of the north to the relaxed languor of the south, this is a grand culinary adventure of history, cuisine and culture. From roadside restaurants and chai stalls to palace dining rooms and Indian cooking demonstrations: museums and monuments to backstreets and beaches .This discovers the authentic flavours of India. This Indian cooking holiday will introduce you to both the Indian people and their world class cuisine.
  • 132. 132 Part: 11 APPENDIX
  • 133. 133 11.1 Photo Gelary
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  • 139. 139 Part: 11 References and Bibliography
  • 140. 140 References and Bibliography Books 1. Theory Of Cookery.By Krisna Arora Website 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. http// cuisine/ Thanks for your help and kind information