Techniques from the
Electronics Industry for
the Generation of ShapeSpecific,
Functionalized Carriers for
• In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small
object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to
its transport and properties.
Particles are further classified according to
• Coarse particles cover a range between 10,000 and
• Fine particles are sized between 2,500 and 100
• Ultrafine particles, or nanoparticles are sized
between 1 and 100 nanometers.
Nanotechnology Initiative was launched in the USA, the
new name, "nanoparticle" had become fashionable.
• Nanoparticles may or may not exhibit size-related
properties that differ significantly from those observed in
fine particles or bulk materials.
• Nanoclusters have at least one dimension between 1 and
10 nanometers and a narrow size distribution.
• Nanometer-sized single crystals, or single-domain ultrafine
particles, are often referred to as nanocrystals.
A nanostructure is an object of
Often common chromophores,
vitamins, minerals, or drugs are
encapsulated in silica or a larger
Which are organic materials,
The use of liposomes in medical
applications has received a
great deal of attention during
• Nanomedicine is the application of
nanotechnology (the engineering of
tiny machines) to the prevention and
treatment of disease in the human
body. This evolving discipline has the
potential to dramatically change
• Near-future nanomedicine applications
chemotherapy, pacemakers, biochip s,
OTC tests, insulin pumps, needleless
injectors, hearing aids, medical flow
sensors and blood pressure, glucose
monitoring and drug delivery systems.
• The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
have recently coined the term
application of nanotechnology for the
treatment, diagnosis, monitoring, and
control of biological systems
• At the forefront of research in this
area is the development of methods
to target and deliver pharmaceuticallyrelevant cargo and diagnostic and
• One of the current trends in
nanomedicine materials development
is toward tunable monodisperse
• Examples include colloidal gold, iron
oxide crystals , quantum dots
• Nanomedicine has both the opportunity and the ability to
improve the effectiveness of drug delivery by targeting
pharmaceutically-relevant cargo to specific sites, by managing
the drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and
improving on its nonspecific toxicity and immunogenicity.
• Several areas of research are currently exploring the use of
NPs for drug delivery applications; these include liposomes,
micelles, and a variety of other polymeric NPs that are
composed of organic polymers with specific physical or
chemical properties that make them relevant delivery vehicles.
Micelles and liposomes in Nanomedicine
• Micelles – and liposomes in particular – are the
subject of major interest for drug delivery
• The surface can be modified such that the
liposome is targeted to a specific receptor,
leading in turn to reduced toxic side effects of the
Conventional liposomes have been used to
carry and transport both antimicrobials and
chemotherapeutics, as well as DNA and proteins.
• Unfortunately, there are disadvantages to
conventional liposomal carriers, the most
prominent being rapid clearance from the
blood and chemical and physical
• Thus, clear advances have been made
recently in the development of stabilized
• For example, a polyethylene glycol (PEG)
coating can be used to create longcirculating liposomal carriers.
Protein or Polymer conjucates
• In Nanomedicine, proteins are
called as a polymer conjucates.
conjugates are hybrid structures
that tend to be water-soluble.
(due to control of the chemical
composition of the polymer)
• Use of polymers in biomedical
materials applications — e.g., as
prostheses, medical devices,
contact lenses, dental materials
and pharmaceutical excipients.
• synthetic polymer NPs have been
developed as a more effective
drug delivery method, to use of
Nano imaging is the technique and
process used to create images of the
human body for clinical purposes
Although imaging of removed organs and
tissues can be performed for medical
reasons, such procedures are not usually
referred to as medical imaging, but rather
are a part of pathology.
Example - I
• Huang and co-workers have
described the use of gold
nanorods of a specific aspect
ratio that absorb and scatter
strongly in the near infrared
conjugated to anti-epidermal
monoclonal antibodies and
can be used simultaneously
for molecular imaging and
photothermal cancer therapy.
• Iron oxide NPs cause spinspin time relaxation changes
innearby water molecules, and
this property can be exploited
to detect cancers or other
Ecample - II
described the use of quantum
dots (CdSe/ZnS) for targeted in
vivo diagnostic imaging.
• Here, quantum dots are defined
as inorganic nanocrystals less
than 10 nm in size and with
tunable fluorescent properties.
• Recently, Whitesides described
functionalized with magnetic NPs
or dyes for use in imaging.
• In addition to nanoimaging applications,
nanomedicine can provide an array of
opportunities for targeted drug delivery
and controlled release applications.
• One of the nano imaging application for
drug delivey is nanorobots.
nanomedicine involves the use of
• Such machines might repair
damaged cells, or get inside cells
and replace or assist damaged
• At the extreme, nanomachines
might replicate themselves, or
correct genetic deficiencies by
Some types of Nanorobots
Nanorobots on brain cells
Nuclear Powered Nanorobots
Medical nanorobots drilling in a
Nanorobots for drug delivery