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ICWL 2009

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International Conference on Web-based Learning 2009. …

International Conference on Web-based Learning 2009.
A Machine Learning based Framework for Adaptive Mobile Learning

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  • 1.
    • Ahmed Al-Hmouz, Jun Shen & Jun Yan
    • School of Information Systems & Technology, University of Wollongong
    • Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    •  aa998 @uow.edu.au , [email_address] , [email_address]
    A Machine Learning based Framework for Adaptive Mobile Learning International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL): August 19th, 2009 RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  • 2. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Related Work
    • Framework Foundation
    • Basic Elements of a User Adaptive System
    • Layer Model Components
      • Context acquisition Layer
      • Information classification Layer
      • Learner model Layer
      • Information extraction Layer
      • Learner profile representation Layer
      • Reasoning layer
      • Interface layer
    • Learner Control over the M-learning Application
    • Conclusion & Future Work
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. Introduction (1)
      • Electronic learning (e-learning) continues to grow rapidly but most e- learning technology involves wired infrastructures.
      • Mobile learning (m-learning) is “any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies” [1].
      • It is believed that the emerging wireless and mobile networks will provide new applications in m-learning. With the rapid evolution of mobile devices such as PDAs, Table PCs and smart phones, pervasive (or ubiquitous) systems are becoming increasingly popular.
  • 5. Introduction (2)
      • Given the rapid use of mobile technologies for facilitating the learning process anywhere and anytime, learners are able to use idle time, for example, when waiting for public transport, in between lectures, and travelling to and from university. This time can therefore be used more efficiently in terms of learning [2].
      • The awareness of learning context is important. A learning system should adapt the learning process in response to context change. The main goal for context-aware mobile learning application is to sense the mobile learner’s situation (environment) and respond to it [3].
      • Most current learning contents were designed for use with desktop computers and high-speed network connections. They usually contain rich media data such as image, audio, and video.
  • 6. Introduction (3)
      • The widespread problem in e-learning environments is that they cannot offer personalization for the student and that they can only present identical contents to all the learners. Mobile based education is already reaching a large number of learners and it offers a valuable advantage over traditional teaching with the possibility to adapt to individual learners.
      • This paper presents an m-learning framework. The main objective of this framework is to provide personalization and tackle adaptation using machine learning technique according to obtained user profiles. These user profiles contain users’ preferences, knowledge, cognitive, goals, plans, place and possibly other relevant aspects that are used to provide personalized adaptations.
  • 7. Related Work
  • 8. Related Work (1)
        • Martin designed a system for recommending activities for learners; this process is dependent on the learner’s personal attributes, actions and the current context (location, time, available devices) [4].
        • Ogata and Yano designed a context-aware language learning support system for learning Japanese polite expressions [5].
        • The MOBIlearn project is an interactive model in which data is collected from sensors, and translated to appropriate services.
        • In Mobile scaffolding-aid-based bird-watching learning system, an outdoor learning system is proposed, meaning that a learner with higher learning efficiency will gain less support from the system [6].
  • 9. Related Work (2)
        • Ketamo have implemented an m-learning environment (xTask) that adapts to different user devices (PC, PDA and WAP devices) [7].
        • Few of the m-learning researchers have tackled the problems of adaptation of learning tasks and personalization of course content based on students’ models, learning styles and strategies [8].
        • These issues have been explored within the traditional web-based systems in numerous well-known projects. ELM-ART is an intelligent learning website environment that supports example based programming [9].
        • Museum tour guide is another research used mobile devices personal museum expert which is mainly concerned with user location [10].
  • 10. Framework Foundation
  • 11. Framework Foundation (1)
    • User adaptive systems aim to adapt learning content , location and presentation to each individual user’s characteristics or behavior in order to improve the interaction between users and the system.
    • The process is based on storing and exploiting information about the user. However, users differ in traits such as skills, aptitudes and preferences for processing information, constructing meaning from information, and applying it to real-world situations.
    • Modelling the users’ behavior is a fundamental mechanism for providing personalization [11]. Depending on the application, user profiles are generated to store information about user preferences, interests, goals, usage data and interactive behavior.
  • 12. Framework Foundation (2)
      • User preference is an important concept to predict user behaviors and make appropriate adaptation actions. Preferences can be explicitly supplied by the user [12].
      • A Personalization Engine is usually employed to infer adaptation actions on the basis of identified user characteristics, for retrieving or filtering appropriate content and adapting the content presentation, and to match the navigation support and the interface attributes to the user needs.
      • Adaptive system uses the knowledge given by learner models to implement the following tasks [13]:
        • Recommendation and
        • Classification.
  • 13. Basic Elements of a User Adaptive System
  • 14. Basic Elements of a User Adaptive System
  • 15. Layer Model Components
  • 16. Layer Model Components
    • Content Acquisition Layer
    • Information Classification Layer
    • Learner Model Layer
    • Information Extraction Layer
    • Learner Profile Representation
    • Reasoning Layer
    • Interface Layer
  • 17. Context Acquisition Layer
  • 18. 1- Context Acquisition Layer
        • The context acquisition layer is used to gather the information required for adaptation. It relies on both explicit and implicit information collection.
        • Explicit information relies on information provided by the user, usually through the use of forms with text boxes and check boxes.
        • Implicit information is gathered by monitoring the user’s interactions with a system and making assumptions as to their motivations and needs.
        • Explicit information forms will be filled out just once when the learner uses a system for the first time. Any such form should not require significant extra thinking, typing or memory retrieval.
  • 19. Information Classification Layer
  • 20. 2- Information Classification Layer
        • Deals with all data obtained from the previous stage by categorizing the data into several class types
        • Consists of two categories:
          • Personal context - all relevant attributes to the learner through out his/her use of the system.
          • Shared Context - attributes relevant to all learners when using the system.
  • 21. Learner Model Layer
  • 22. 3- Learner Model Layer
        • Aims to make information systems learner-friendly by adapting the behavior of the system to the needs of the individual.
        • Should capture the behavior ( patterns , goals , interesting topics , etc.) of a learner when interacting with the system.
        • Defined as a set of information structures designed to represent one or more of the following elements:
          • Goals, plans and preferences
          • Representation of relevant common characteristics of learners stereotypes
          • The classification of a learner stereotypes
          • Learner behavior
          • The assumptions about the learner based on the interaction history; and/or
          • The interaction histories of many learners into groups.
  • 23. Information Extraction Layer
  • 24. 4- Information Extraction Layer
        • The process of adaptation is based on storing and exploiting information about the user. However, users differ in traits such as skills, aptitudes and preferences .
        • In a mobile learning environment, differences in user preferences, types and amounts of content are relevant and critical to the learning process.
        • This layer will assess , analyse , verify and filter the data based on the current user situation.
  • 25. Learner Profile Representation Layer
  • 26. 5- Learner Profile Representation Layer
        • In order to achieve personalized services, we must be able to specify user interests .
        • This can be done using a machine learning algorithm, which takes a learner’s information for input, then compares and analyses the learner’s need, interest and environment.
        • Enriched learner profiles enable the system to select between a number of topics and interests to match with the best learning style for that user.
        • Creating learner profiles allows for much more accurate results, given a sufficiently expressive keyword. Profiles are derived from a common keywords set.
        • A learner can indicate his interest in a specific domain or even single concept by specifying a value in a predefined range. Precise information allows the system to more accurately support user decision-making.
  • 27. Reasoning Layer
  • 28. 6- Reasoning Layer
        • The output of this layer is a set of structural descriptions of what has been learned about user behavior and user interests.
        • Any machine learning techniques based on adaptation should consider the following conditions to provide a wide range of possibilities on m-learning [5]:
          • the amount of effort required to provide the system with necessary background knowledge,
          • the amount of time (computational time) required,
          • the amount of input data required to be able to make useful decisions,
          • the appropriate handling of noise and uncertainty ,
          • and validity .
        • The details of machine learning based adaptation are beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed in future research.
  • 29. Interface Layer
  • 30. 7- Interface Layer (1)
        • Formed by the events that are processed by the adaptation system as well as the questions about the learner that it can answer.
        • Interface forms a description of the way the application interacts with the adaptation system.
        • The learner model contains the information about the learner that has been collected so far.
        • One of the main issues related to the interface layer is whether the adaptation system frequently changes the learner interface each time the learner uses the system.
  • 31. 7- Interface Layer (2)
        • These changes include the arrangement of icons and items on the learner’s device screen.
        • In our system we will make a default interface layout with only limited changes to the interface, for example font colour and size.
        • By using a default interface layout with limited changes to the device screen, problems arising from frequent changing interfaces will be minimised.
  • 32. Learner Control over the M-learning Application
  • 33. Learner Control over the M-learning Application
      • Learners expect benefits from using the adaptation system such as saving of time and efforts.
      • A mount of learner control/involvement with the adaptation system must be determined from the outset of system development.
      • Incorrect action by the system may have serious consequences which will discourage the learner from using the system any more.
      • After consideration of the implications of level of user control, in our framework the system will have full control over the adaptations process with only one option for the learner to disable the entire process.
      • This decision is made for two reasons:
        • to give the learner full control over the system assumes that the learner has a certain level of knowledge about the system (which not everyone has); and
        • to decrease the computational time.
  • 34. Conclusion & Future Work
  • 35. Conclusion & Future Work (1)
      • This paper has presented a new framework that depicts the process of adapting learning content to satisfy individual learner characteristics by taking into consideration his/her learning style.
      • We have described the system architecture of our context adaptation based user profile framework and learning style adaptation which is fundamentally grounded on a number of logical layers: context acquisition , information classification , learner model , information extraction , learner profile representation , reasoning and interface .
      • It is a generic framework for selecting the appropriate learning style for learners based on their learner preferences and contextual features.
  • 36. Conclusion & Future Work (2)
      • The implementation of the system is currently in progress and the effectiveness of the system will be evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively, using a series of simulations and a small number of human users to work with our system.
      • We will also extend our tool for incorporating other types of learning objects and/or materials.
      • The ultimate goal of the framework is to provide a logical structure for the process of adapting learning content to satisfy individual learner characteristics by taking into consideration his/her learning style.
  • 37. References
      • 1. G. N. Vavoula, P. Lefrere, C. O’Malley, M. Sharples, and J. Taylor. Producing guidelines for learning, teaching and tutoring in a mobile environment. In J. Roschelle, T.-W. Chan, Kinshuk, and S. J. H. Yang, editors, WMTE, pages 173–176. IEEE Computer Society, (2004)
      • 2. E. Mart´ın, R. M. Carro, and P. Rodr´ıguez. A mechanism to support context-based adaptation inM-learning. InW. Nejdl and K. Tochtermann, editors, EC-TEL, volume 4227 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 302–315. Springer, (2006)
      • 3. T. Chan, M. Sharples, G. Vavoula, and P. Lonsdale. Educational metadata for mobile learning. (2004)
      • 4. E.Mart´ın, N. Andueza, R.M. Carro, and P. Rodr´ıguez. Recommending activities in collaborative m-learning. Lecture Notes in Learning and Teaching (ISSN 1649-8623), pages 197–204, (2006)
      • 5. H. Ogata and Y. Yano. Context-aware support for computersupported ubiquitous learning. In J. Roschelle, T.-W. Chan, Kinshuk, and S. J. H. Yang, editors, WMTE, pages 27–34. IEEE Computer Society, (2004)
  • 38.
      • 6. Y.-S. Chen, T.-C. Kao, J.-P. Sheu, and C.-Y. Chiang. A mobile scaffolding-aid-based bird-watching learning system. In M. Milrad, H. U. Hoppe, and Kinshuk, editors, WMTE, pages 15–22. IEEE Computer Society, (2002)
      • 7. H. Ketamo. xtask - adaptable working environment. In M. Milrad, H. U. Hoppe, and Kinshuk, editors, WMTE, pages 55–62. IEEE Computer Society, (2002)
      • 8. P. Brusilovsky. Adaptive navigation support in educational hypermedia: the role of student knowledge level and the case for meta-adaptation, Aug. 20 (2003)
      • 9. G. Weber and M. Specht. User modeling and adaptive navigation support in WWW-based tutoring systems. In A. Jameson, C. Paris, and C. Tasso, editors, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on User Modeling (UM- 97), volume 383 of CISM, pages 289–300, Wien, June 02– 05 (1997)
      • 10. L.-D. Chou, C.-C. Lee, M.-Y. Lee, and C.-Y. Chang. A tour guide system for mobile learning in museums. In J. Roschelle, T.-W. Chan, Kinshuk, and S. J. H. Yang, editors, WMTE, pages 195–196. IEEE Computer Society, (2004)
      • 11. T.-T. Goh and Kinshuk. A discussion on mobile agent based mobile web-based ITS. In ICCE, pages 1514–1515, (2002)
      • 12. A. Kobsa. Generic user modeling systems. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact, 11(1-2):49–63, (2001)
      • 13. E. F. Martinez, S. Y. Chen, and X. Liu. Survey of data mining approaches to user modeling for adaptive hypermedia. IEEE Trans. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 36(6):734–749, Nov. (2006)

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