• ‘Motivation’ is derived from the word ‘motive’.
• It is the driving force within individuals that propels them into
• Types of Motivation:
Positive Vs Negative Motivation
Rational Vs Emotional Motivation
Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic Motivation
Financial Vs Non-Financial Motivation
• Among the most popular motivational strategies today are as
Other Motivational Strategies
• Positive reinforcement
• Effective discipline
• Treating people fairly
• Satisfying employees needs
• Setting work related goals
• Base rewards on job performance
• “An incentive scheme is a plan or programmes to motivate
individual for good performance. An incentive is most
frequently built on monetary rewards, but may also include a
variety of non-monetary rewards or prizes”(Burrack and
Types of Incentives
1. Financial Incentives:
i. Individual Incentives
ii. Group Incentives
iii. Enterprise Incentives
2. Non- Financial Incentives:
1. Job Security
3. Better Designation
4. Job Rotation
Advantages & Disadvantages
• Motivation to workers
• Increase in productivity
• Attractive Proposition for Management
• Increase in Earnings of Employees
• Increased Expenses
• Lead to Higher Labour Cost
• Feeling of Jealousy among workers
• Danger of Accidents
• Job enrichment was first coined by Herzberg.
• It is a motivational technique which emphasizes the need for
challenging and interesting work
• Job enrichment involves providing an employee with more
responsibility for a job and challenges the individual’s skills at
Advantages of Job Enrichment
• The importance or merits or advantages of job enrichment are:-
Job enrichment is useful to both the workers and the organization.
The worker gets achievement, recognition and self-actualization.
The worker gets a sense of belonging to the organization.
The worker finds the job meaningful.
Job enrichment reduces absenteeism, labour-turnover and grievances.
It motivates the workers to give best performance.
Limitations Of Job Enrichment
The shortcomings or demerits or limitations of job enrichment are:-
In many cases, job enrichment does not give the expected results.
It makes many changes in the job. So many workers oppose it.
It has limited use for highly skilled managers and professionals.
The consent of workers is not taken before implementing job
Managers force the workers to accept job enrichment, which is not
• “Empowerment is the process of sharing power with
employees”(Bateman & Snell)
• “Empowerment is any process that provides greater
autonomy through the sharing of relevant information and
the provision of control over factors affecting job
performance”(Newstrom & Davis)
Process Of Employee
Determining the Goals
Orienting the employees
Following-Up & Feedback
• “Job Satisfaction is an employee’s judgment of how well his
job has satisfied his various needs”(Smith)
• Motivation of employees is influenced by job satisfaction.
• Generally, motivated employees are more satisfied and
involved in their work.
Determinants of Job Satisfaction
•Level of Education
Nature Of Job
• Morale is the degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which
individual workers of a group set out to perform the assigned work
with zeal and sincerity, resulting in good team-work.
• “Organizational morale is basically a mental condition of groups
and individuals which determines their attitude”(Davis)
Types of Morale
1. High Morale: Basic sense of satisfaction with oneself
i. Willing cooperation towards objectives of the organization
ii. Loyalty to the organization and its leadership
iii. Good Leadership
iv. Sound superior subordinate relations
v. High degree of employee’s interest in their job and
vi. Reduction in grievance
vii. Team building
viii. Employee empowerment
2. Low Morale: Indicates presence of mental unrest.
• Low Morale exists when doubt and suspicion are common
and when individuals are depressed and discouraged.
• Adverse consequences are:
i. High absenteeism
ii. Decreased quality
iii. Decreased productivity
iv. Excessive complaints
v. Frustration among workers
vi. Lack of discipline
Importance of Morale
• Boosts Motivation
• Maintains a Good Organizational Atmosphere
• Enhances Productivity
• Provides Total Satisfaction
• Retains Employees
How to Strengthen Morale??
• Give Employees more Control
• Open the lines of Communication
• Express Gratitude and Reward Employees
• Design a welcoming Workspace
• Clarify Expectations
• Provide a Suggestion Box
• Respect Employees