[kierownicy 7 - en] basic pronciples of fire protection

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[kierownicy 7 - en] basic pronciples of fire protection

  1. 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIRE PROTECTION
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>General information about fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-fighting equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguishing fires with the fire-fighting equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of conduct in case of fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety marking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety signs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marking firefighting facilities. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Is b orn: by the owner, administrator or user of the building or the ground, and he/ she is especially obliged to: <ul><li>follow constructional, installation and technological </li></ul><ul><li>fire protection requirements </li></ul><ul><li>equip the building or ground with firefighting and rescue equipment as well as the means of fire extinguishing </li></ul><ul><li>ensure that people inside the bui l ding or on the premises are safe and have the possibility to evacuate </li></ul><ul><li>prepare the building or ground to conduct the rescue action </li></ul><ul><li>introduce workers with fire protection principles </li></ul><ul><li>establish ways of conduct in case of fire, natura disaster or some other local threat </li></ul>Liability for fire protection
  4. 4. A fire is an uncontrolled process of burning in the place not intended for it which may cause health hazard and life threat and considerable material losses. DEFINITION General information about fires
  5. 5. CONDITIONS FOR THE BEGINNING OF A FIRE <ul><li>To initiate the process of burning the following are necessary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supplying enough energy (ignition), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to an oxidizer (air), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable material, </li></ul></ul>General information about fires mixing fuel with the air HEAT flame, hot air FUEL gas, liquid, solid substance AIR nitrogen, oxygen FIRE Transmitting heat to the fuel Transmitting heat into the air
  6. 6. PHASES OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT IN A CLOSED ROOM General information about fires PRELIMINARY PHASE DEVELOPED PHASE EXTINGUISHING PHASE FLARING UP
  7. 7. General information about fires PHASES OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT IN A CLOSED ROOM
  8. 8. GROUPS OF FIRES Fires OF FATS AND KITCHEN OILS Fires OF SOLIDS Fires OF GASES Division of flammable materials into fire groups: General information about fires Fires OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS Fires OF METALS
  9. 9. METHODS OPF EXTINGUISHING FIRES Cooling Cutting off oxygen supply Isolating flammable material Anticatalytic activity General information about fires
  10. 10. Firefighting equipment Firefighting equipment is designe d to extinguish fire in the preliminary phase of its development (nipping the fire in the bud). Firefighting equipment includes:
  11. 11. TYPES OF FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT <ul><ul><li>Dry powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>EXTINGUISHERS </li></ul><ul><li>Fire bankets </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER EQUIPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>EXTINGUISHING AGGREGATES </li></ul>Firefighting equipment <ul><ul><li>Dry powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. DIVISION OF EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Because of the design, fire extinguishers and extinguishing aggregates can be divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type ‘X’ equipment – under constant pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type ‘Z’ equipment – with a cartridge (a propulsive cartridge) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Firefighting equipment
  13. 13. Type ‘X’ extinguishers – the propulsion factor is a gas (nitrogen) kept under constant pressure. A manometer fixed to the valve provides information about the efficiency of this extinguisher is Type ‘Z’ extinguishers – the propulsive cartridge (usually CO 2 ) is located in a separate container. Firefighting equipment DIVISION OF EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT
  14. 14. RULES OF OPERATION O F TYPE ‘X’ EXTINGUISHERS Firefighting equipment
  15. 15. RULES OF OPERATION OF TYPE ‘Z’ EXTINGUISHERS Firefighting equipment
  16. 16. DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS ABC Dry powder extinguisher GP-6x-ABC Can be used to put out fires of alive devices with voltage up to 1 kV Firefighting equipment
  17. 17. Dry powder extinguisher GP-1z-BC (car extinguisher) Designed to extinguish fires from groups B and C Firefighting equipment DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS
  18. 18. GS-5X Carbon-dioxide extinguisher Designed to extinguish fires from groups B and C Can be used to put out fires of alive devices with voltage up to 1 kV CARBON-DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHERS Firefighting equipment
  19. 19. EXTINGUISHERS’ MARKING How to activate Type of the extinguisher How to activate (groups of fires) Indicator of inspections of the extinguisher Firefighting equipment
  20. 20. FIRE BLANKET Fire blanket – a firefighting equipment used to extinguish a fire in the bud by cutting off the air flow from the material in flames. Made of fibreglass, has the area of about 2-3m 2 Firefighting equipment
  21. 21. Using the blanket means tightly covering the object on fire e.g. a frying pan, a barrel with burning liquid. When using the blanket, it should be born in mind to cover embers of the fire from your side in order to avoid burning yourself, and hands should be hidden behind the blanket. Firefighting equipment FIRE BLANKET Covering and wrapping persons on fire in fire blankets – if it is necessary to extinguish the fire, the victim on fire should be rolled.
  22. 22. ‘ Buildings should be equipped with portable or mobile extinguishers which meet the requirements of Polish Norms and which are designed to extinguish such fires as may break out in a particular building.’ EQUIPPING WITH FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting equipment
  23. 23. RULES FOR PLACING FIRE EXTINGUISHERS <ul><li>In buildings, fire extinguishers should be placed in easily accessible and visible places, in particular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>near entrances to buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in staircases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in corridors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>near buildings’ exits </li></ul></ul>Firefighting equipment
  24. 24. Mark the location of the equipment in accordance with PN. In multi-storey buildings, the equipment should be located in the same places on each story, if con s tructional conditions permit. The equipment should be located in places not at risk of mechanical damage or operation of heat sources (ovens, furnaces or heaters). Firefighting equipment RULES FOR PLACING FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
  25. 25. <ul><li>While placing fire extinguishers, the following conditions should be fulfilled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distance from each place in the building where a person may be staying should not be bigger than 30 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There should be an access to extinguishers of the width of at least 1 m </li></ul></ul>Firefighting equipment RULES FOR PLACING FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
  26. 26. <ul><li>Turn off electric devices, close doors and windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Select an appropriate extinguisher for the type of the material on fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin extinguishing by directing the extinguishing stream at the source of the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not start operation of the extinguisher until next to the source of the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the extinguisher vertically. </li></ul><ul><li>The stream of the extinguishing means direct from below upwards a n d from the front to the back. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of the fire of a car’s engine, the stream of the extinguishing means should be directed to the center of the engine’s chamber through the cooling opening or from below. </li></ul>Putting out fires with firefighting equipment RULES OF CONDUCT
  27. 27. <ul><li>Use the sufficient number of extinguishers, never one after another. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay close attention to the possibility to catch fire once again. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind should be blowing into one’s back. </li></ul><ul><li>The distance between the nozzle of the carbon dioxide and dry powder extinguishers from alive electric devices should be at least 1 m. </li></ul>Putting out fires with firefighting equipment RULES OF CONDUCT Wind 1 m
  28. 28. <ul><li>One must be very careful when opening locked doors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check the exact temperature of the door with your outward side of the hand, from the top to carefully check whether there is no smoke coming through under the door. Do not open hot doors!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully push the door open and, at the same time, hide yourself behind the door’s frame or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let a short stream of the fire extinguishing through some space, then, open the doors and begin putting out the fire </li></ul></ul>Putting out fires with firefighting equipment RULES OF CONDUCT
  29. 29. Rules of conduct during a fire <ul><li>Stay calm. </li></ul><ul><li>Report the fire immediately, givin g detailed data of the place and size of the fire </li></ul><ul><li>Warn other workers about the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off ventilating, mobile and heating devices, close the main valve of the gas, if necessary, turn off alive electric devices. </li></ul>RULES OF CONDUCT DURING A FIRE. 998
  30. 30. <ul><li>Do not use lifts. </li></ul><ul><li>Move as close to the floor as possible (protection against smoke and hot air). </li></ul><ul><li>8. Conduct the rescue action according to fire-protection instructions. </li></ul>5. Immediately leave place of threat by using staircases as well as the marked evacualtion and fire routes. Rules of conduct during a fire RULES OF CONDUCT DURING A FIRE.
  31. 31. direction of the evacuation route – It is a sign showing the direction towards exit; ! short arrows are used along with other signs, a long arrow can be used individually; evacuation door - the sign used above the wing doors which constitute evacuation exits (the door opened to the left or right respectively) EVACUATION SIGNS Safety marking
  32. 32. Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS No Set of signs Meaning of signs Use 1 Way to the exit - left and straight forward To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns left and then runs straight on 2 Way to the exit - right and straight forward To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns right and then runs straight on 3 Way to the exit - left and down To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns left and then runs down 4 Way to the exit -right and down To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns right and then runs down
  33. 33. Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS No Set of signs Meaning of signs Use 5 Way to the exit - right and up To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns right and then runs up 6 Way to the exit - left and up To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route turns left and then runs up 7 Way to the exit - down To mark the evacuation door behind which the evacuation route runs down
  34. 34. the direction of the evacuation route’s exit – (the width of the evacuation route – 1.4 m) the sign shows the direction of the evacuation route to the e x it; ! it may lead to the left or right; used when: - the sign EVACUATION EXIT or EVACUATION DOOR is not noticeable - there are more than one sign easily noticeable EVACUATION EXIT the direction of the evacuation route’s exit up or down the stairs – the sign shows the direction of the evacuation route up or down the stairs, to the left or to the right; Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS
  35. 35. <ul><li>Evacuation exit - the sign is used to mark the door partitioning off the given evacuation , routes including : </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation exits from the rooms which require at least two of such exits. </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation exits leading from inside a building outsider. </li></ul><ul><li>The exit leading to another fire zone, also to a cased and closed staircase of a height of above 25 m (high) </li></ul><ul><li>The exit leading through an atrium and exit door to the atrium. </li></ul>Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS
  36. 36. Push to open - the sign placed on the door in order to show the direction of opening; Pull to open - the sign is placed on the door to show the direction of opening; EVACUATION SIGNS Safety marking
  37. 37. <ul><li>push to open - </li></ul><ul><li>placed in the sliding door of the evacuation exit where using such door is permitted; the arrow should show the direction of opening the door! </li></ul><ul><li>This sign is used with the EVACUATION DOOR symbol </li></ul><ul><li>break in order to gain access – </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the place where it is necessary to break glass in order to gain access to the key or opening system as well as when breaking the partition is necessary to reach the exit. </li></ul>Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS
  38. 38. key to the evacuation exit – used to mark the place next to the lockable evacuation door where the key is kept; the sign should be supplemented with the information regarding the specific location of the key Evacuation ladder – used to mark places where the evacuation ladders can be found escape masks container – used to mark containers with the escape masks protecting the respiratory system against smoke or toxic substances, Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS
  39. 39. Evacuation assembly area – used to mark the area where people should gather during evacuation Rescue sleeve – used to mark the entrance to the rescue sleeve First medical aid Safety marking EVACUATION SIGNS
  40. 40. SYMBOLS OF THE FIREFIGHTING FACILITIES direction towards the location of firefighting equipment or a warning device - the symbol to be used only with other signs in order to show the direction towards the place where fire-fighting equipment or a warning device is located, fire extinguisher, firefighting equipment set – the sign used in order to avoid listing individual symbols marking fire-fighting equipment, Safety marking
  41. 41. internal fire hydrant – the symbol is placed on the fire hydrant cabinet, emergency phone – the sign pointing at the location o fan available phone intended for fire emergency, fire route – to mark external driveways for the firefighting service Safety marking SYMBOLS OF THE FIREFIGHTING FACILITIES
  42. 42. fire escape ladder – used to mark the ladder permanent l y fixed to the building and designed for the rescue a n d fire-extinguishing activities of the firefighting service; external fire hydrant – used to mark the place of the external water, foam, underground or ground fire hydrant; characteristics of a hydrant should be placed on an additional sign, Fire door – to mark the door placed in safety separation walls Safety marking SYMBOLS OF THE FIREFIGHTING FACILITIES
  43. 43. Fire safety power switch – used to mark inside buildings the switch shutting off power supply to all circuits, except for the circuits which power installations whose operation is necessary in case of a fire, main tap of the gas installation – t o mark the location of the gas installation’s main tap. Safety marking SYMBOLS OF THE FIREFIGHTING FACILITIES

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