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    [kierownicy 3 - en] identification of threats and occupational risk assessment [kierownicy 3 - en] identification of threats and occupational risk assessment Presentation Transcript

    • IDENTIFICATION OF THREATS AND OCCUPATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT
    • The employer in whose workplace there are factors harmful to health is obliged to carry out examination and measurement of these factors. EXAMINATION AND MEASUREMENT OF FACTORS HARMFUL TO HEALTH Factors of the work environment
      • THE HIGHEST PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATION (HPC)
      • - it is an average weighted value of concentration whose effect on a worker during an 8-hour-per-day and average weekly working time, specified in the Labour Code, over the time of his/ her professional activity should not lead to any negative changes in his/ her own health as well as his offspring’s.
      THE HIGHEST PERMISSIBLE INTENSITY (HPI) OF A PHYSICAL FACTOR HARMFUL TO HEALTH - It is an intensity defined as an average value of intensity whose effect on a worker during 8-hour-per-day and average weekly working time over the time of his/ her professional activity should not lead to any negative changes in his/ her own health as well as his offspring’s HPC HPI Factors of the work environment
    • Carcinogenic or mutagenie agents: FREQUENCY OF EXAMINATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HARMFUL FACTORS Factors of the work environment The value measure in relation to HPC, HPI Frequency of examination or measurement > 0.5 At least once every 3 months 0.1 – 0.5 At least once every 6 months If a change is introduced regarding conditions of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents’ presence. In case a change is introduced
    • Agents other than carcinogenic or mutagenic: Factors of the work environment FREQUENCY OF EXAMINATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HARMFUL FACTORS The value measure in relation to HPC, HPI Frequency of examination or measurement > 0.5 At least once a year 0.1 – 0.5 At least once e v ery two years If a change is introduced regar d ing conditions of other than carcinogenic or mutagenic agents’ presence. In case a change is introduced
    • Factors of the work environment FREQUENCY OF EXAMINATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HARMFUL FACTORS The value measure in relation to HPC, HPI Frequency of examination or measurement If the results of two latest measurements of the factor or agent were below 0.1 of the value of HPC or HPI. Not carried out
      • Company’s records regarding work environment’s examination are:
      • The register of the results of examinations and measurements of factors and agents harmful to health in work environment,
      • Cards of measurement of factors and agents harmful to health
      The register of the results of examinations and measurements of factors and agents harmful to health in work environment as well as cards of measurement of factors and agents harmful to health should be stored for 40 years , whereas the results of these examinations should be kept for 3 years . PRACY DOCUMENTATION OF WORK ENVIRONMENT’S EXAMINATION Factors of the work environment
      • The employer is obliged to inform his/ her employees about occupational risk if it is connected with work they perform as well as about the rules of protection against threats.
      • The employer is obliged to assess and document occupational risk characteristic for certain works and to take appropriate preventive measures to lower the risk
      Art. 226 LC Occupational risk
      • Occupational risk is the probability of unwelcome incidents connected with the performed work which may lead to unwelcome consequences connected with health.
      • In particular, it is refers to unwelcome consequences connected with health being the result of occupational threats of the work environment or the way of its use.
      WHAT IS OCCUPATIONAL RISK? Occupational risk
      • Occupational risk assessment refers to predicting what kind of damages (e.g. injuries, illnesses) and how often th e y can happen to the worker employed at a given position, and it refers to planning what should be done to avoid them.
      OCCUPATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT Occupational risk
      • To check whether threats characteristic
      • for a particular position have been identified
      • and whether they bear occupational risk,
      • Elimination of threats or limiting their results,
      • To demonstrate to the employer, workers
      • and supervising bodies that threats have been considered and appropriate protective measures have been taken,
      • To select the right equipment and organization of work and positions as well as to select proper materials and resources,
      • To arrange the most important actions eliminating or controlling threats as well as identify preventive measures,
      • To ensure continuous and systematic improvement ofconditions of occupational safety and hygiene.
      THE AIM OF OCCUPATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT Occupational risk
      • Calling into being an occupational risk unit:
      • The employer or his/ her representative ,
      • Occupational health and safety specialist
      • The manager or master supervising work at certain position,
      • The technologist or an external expert.
      OCCUPATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT Occupational risk
      • Mechanical, technological and
      • organizational parametres,
      Identification of threats, their sources and the way of protection, Description and analysis of accidents at during work and occupational diseases . The requirements of rules and norms. The results of factors’ and agents’ measurements. ESSENTIAL INFORMATION Occupational risk
      • Once the risk has been assessed, appropriate actions should be taken – if necessary. These should include organizational and mechanical actions aiming at lowering the level of risk.
      ACTIONS TO LOWER THE RISK Occupational risk
      • Systematic prophylactic examination of workers,
      • Training in the field of occupational health and safety,
      • Arranging social rooms,
      • Caring about good interpersonal relationships,
      • Setting clear division of responsibilities among workers,
      • Conducting measurements and examinations or networks as well as electric and gas devices,
      • Ensuring free service roads.
      Organizational actions include: ACTIONS TO LOWER THE RISK Occupational risk
      • Equipping workers with clothing and working footwear as well as the proper means of individual protection,
      • Giving instructions regarding safe methods of work,
      • Eliminating threats, removing used equipment, purchasing new, safe devices,
      • Introducing measures which eliminate hand transport and hand-lifting,
      • Equipping workstations with computers with the right chairs.
      Technical actions involve: Occupational risk ACTIONS TO LOWER THE RISK
      • New positions are created,
      • Any changes at the existing positions are introduced (e.g. technological or organizational),
      • The requirements regarding the assessment of positions change,
      • Any changes in the used means of protection are introduced.
      The consecutive assessment of the occupational risk, at the particular positions, is conducted if: CONSECUTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RISK Occupational risk
      • Periodic assessment of the risk is to be made, above all, at these positions at which numerous accidents at work or cases of occupational disease are reported, while the used preventing measures do not lead to the reduction of the number of accidents or occupational diseases.
      PERIODIC ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RISK Occupational risk
      • The way of documenting the occupational risk should be determined by the employer. It can be devised by a person designated by him/ her, including a worker of the occupational health and safety service.
      • After the assessment of the occupational risk at a certain position has been made, the results of this assessment should be written down.
      WAYS OF DOCUMENTING Occupational risk
      • Position characteristics,
      • Information concerning threat identification,
      • Information concerning the means of protection necessary to eliminate threats,
      • The final result of the assessment.
      CONTENT OF THE DOCUMENTATION Occupational risk
      • Before a worker begins his/ her work, the employer is obliged to present full information regarding rules of protection against threats resulting from the occupational risk to the worker,
      • The way of providing information should be determined by the employer.
      • Workers should confirm the fact of having been informed about the occupational risk in a written form.
      INFORMING ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL RISK Occupational risk
      • Physical threats.
        • Mechanical threats (falls, explosion, hits, crushes, cuts, punctures, poisonings, slips, vibration)
        • Electric threat,
        • Thermal threats (high temperature, fire, cold),
        • Threats connected with noise,
        • Threats connected with radiation (ionizing, non-ionizing),
      THREATS WHICH REQUIRE USING THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION Occupational risk
      • Chemical threats.
        • Aerosols (dust, fibre, smoke, haze),
        • Liquids (dipping, splashing, spraying),
        • Gases and steam,
      • Biological threats.
        • Harmful bacteria and viruses
        • Protozoons and invertebrates,
        • Fungi and biological antigens,
      Occupational risk THREATS WHICH REQUIRE USING THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION
      • Responsibilities connected with the use of means
      • of individual protection are always born by the
      • employer. Above all, they refer to:
        • providing workers with means of individual protection, free of charge,
        • selecting these means suitably to the threats in a workplace,
        • organizing trainings on how to use them,
        • ensuring that they are kept in the right conditions and inthe right way,
        • not allowing to work e m ployees without protective clothing for the given position.
      Means of individual protection EMPLOYER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
      • Means of individual protection are all things carried, worn and kept by the worker for self-protection from threats connected with hazardous or harmful factors in the work environment , including all sorts of a ccessories and other things intended for this purpose.
      THE NOTION OF MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION Means of individual protection
      • P rotective clothing,
      • Means of head protection,
      • Means of upper limbs protection,
      • Means o lower limbs protection,
      • Means of respiratory tract protection,
      • Means of face and eyes protection,
      • M eans of hearing protection,
      • M eans isolating the whole body,
      • Protective means for works at height,
      • Means to preventing the effects. of static constriction.
      TYPES OF THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION Means of individual protection
      • Overalls,
      • Trousers,
      • Jackets,
      • Vests,
      • Aprons,
      • Coats.
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Means of individual protection
      • Protective helmets,
      • Caps,
      • Berets,
      • Hats,
      • Hoods,
      Helmet’s impact resistance test Helmet with net mask, protecting against chips and thermal radiation MEANS OF HEAD PROTECTION Means of individual protection
      • Protective gloves,
      • Hands patches,
      • Fingers patches,
      In the photo – latex-coated gloves for chemical works. In the photo – two-layer protective gloves with the protective layer of steel plates. MEANS OF UPPER LIMBS PROTECTION Means of individual protection
    • 1. Glasses 2. Goggles 3. Sawyers’ protection kit 4. Visors MEANS OF FACE AND EYES PROTECTION Means of individual protection
    • 1. Anti-noise plugs 2. Anti-noise earmuffs 3. Electronic hearing protection MEANS OF HEARING PROTECTION Means of individual protection
    • 1. Protective footwear with steel toecap and anti-rupture pad 2. Protective footwear for ford industry with steel toecap and anti-electrostatic and anti-slip sole 3. Fishing boots with anti-slip sole MEANS O LOWER LIMBS PROTECTION Means of individual protection
      • Protective straps,
      • Hip straps,
      • Safety lines,
      • Shock-absorbers,
      • Self-braking devices.
      MEANS OF PROTECTION AGAINST FALLUS FROM HEIGHTS Means of individual protection
      • Decision regarding the use of the means of individual protection must be preceded with undertaking all possible actions, both technical as well as organizational, whose aim is to eliminate a threat at its source.
      DECISION REGARDING THE USE OF THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION Means of individual protection
      • the ‘noisy’ machine should be replaced with a ‘less noisy’ one or the noise should be reduced (e.g. by using sound-absorbing cover, silencers or by making a vibroacoustic isolation),
      • Zones of excessive noise should be sectioned off and isolated (e.g. by fencing off noisy areas or marking them with safety signs informing about the threat of excessive noise),
      • The time of the workers’ exposure to noise should be reduced by introducing changes in work organization (e.g. by introducing breaks during work).
      First of all, the assessment of the level of exposure, e.g. to noise, should be made. If it turns out that the level of noise should be lowered, then: Means of individual protection DECISION REGARDING THE USE OF THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION
    • If the above-mentioned actions are impossible to take, only then the decision regarding the use of hearing protectors should be made ATTENTION! Means of individual protection should be treated as the last link of protection. Means of individual protection DECISION REGARDING THE USE OF THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION
    • ATTENTION! If the employer allows in his/ her company to use the means of individual protection which do not meet the re q uirements of ‘European Conformity’, such employer violates workers’ rights (Art. 283 LC). PURCHASING INDIVIDUAL PROTECTORS Means of individual protection
    • The basis for selecting means of individual protection in a company should be gathering and analy z ing information directly connected with the future use of these means at given positions. HOW TO SELECT MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION? Means of individual protection
        • the kind of performed work,
        • kinds and intensity (concentration) of harmful agents and factors,
        • the parts of the body of a worker which may be exposed to the harmful agents/ factors,
        • position of the body in which the worker performs his/ her work,
        • necessity to move around and range of the movement,
        • the degree of difficulty and how stren u ous the performed work is,
        • required length of time of worker’s staying in the hazardous zone/ area,
        • Additional external threats (e.g. adverse climatic conditions).
      The information should relate to: HOW TO SELECT MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION? Means of individual protection
      • Intending to use means of individual protection in his/ her company, the employer should be guide by the rules according to which means of individual protection should:
        • meet safety requirements,
        • be appropriate to the threat,
        • not lead to increasing the threat out of themselves,
        • be appropriate for the conditions of a particular position,
        • take into account ergonomics requirements, and in the course of regulation be adjusted to a particular worker.
      THE LIST OF RULES Means of individual protection
    • ATTENTION! Too much protection may be as dangerous as the lack of it. Means of individual protection
    • Supervision of the use of means of individual protection is crucial, as they are the last element which protect s the worker. It is essential to use them at all times when there is a threat. An exception to this rule should never be permitted, especially in case of the so called odd jobs. It is worthwhile to carry out a sample visual inspection of protectors and workers who use them. SUPERVISION OF PERSONAL PROTECTOR’S USE Means of individual protection
    • ATTENTION! Supervising the use of personal protectors by employees is one of the obligations of people supervising and managing workers. SUPERVISION OF PERSONAL PROTECTOR’S USE Means of individual protection
      • To provide the worker working clothing and footwear, free of charge,
      • Not allow persons without the right working clothing and footwear at a particular position to work at the given position.
      • To ensure washing, maintenance, repairs, dusting and disinfecting of working clothes and footwear.
      Working clothing and footwear OBLIGATIONS OF THE EMPLOYER
      • The employer is obliged to determine the norms regarding allotting means of individual protection as well as working clothing and footwear to workers employed at the given positions (including kinds of means of individual protection as well as working clothing and footwear, and also an expected period of using working clothin g and footwear).
      OBLIGATIONS OF THE EMPLOYER Working clothing and footwear
    • THE LIST OF THE NORMS OF ALLOTTING OCCUPASTIONAL HEALTH AND S AFETY EQUIPMENT Working clothing and footwear Item Position Kind of equipment R - working clothing and footwear O – means of individual protection Assortment Predicted period of time of usage: m – in months, dz – until worn out 1. Tuner-locksmith R R R R O Drill clothing Flannel shirt Headgear Leather shoes Safety glasses 9 m 12 m 12 m 18 m dz 2. Production manager R R Drill apron Leather shoes 9 m 15 m 3. Welder O R R O O O O Overalls for welders Flannel shirt Headgear Welder’s footwear Safety goggles (visor) Protective leather apron Welder’s gloves 9 m 12 m 12 m 18 m dz dz dz
    • For each worker entitle d , the employer is also obliged to keep an updated record card of both working clothing and footwear as well as means of individual protection. RECORDS Working clothing and footwear