[biurowi 6 - en] basic principles of providing fristaid

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  • 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PROVIDING FRIST AID
  • 2. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident First aid is a set of simple, immediate procedures performed on victims of accidents, disasters and sudden life-or health-threatening problems until professional medical care is provided. DEFINITION OF FIRST AID The scope of the aid includes emergency activities possible to perform by persons who have no formal medical education, with the several simple, generally accessible means.
  • 3. BASIC RULES OF PROVIDING FIRST AID
        • The rescuer cannot become the next victim
            • There must be an objective possibility of providing first aid
            • External threats are common for both the rescuer and the victim
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 4.
        • less heroism, more professionalism and common sense
        • while providing first aid, when contact with victim’s blood is possible, disposable protective gloves should be used – hepatitis
        • during CPR, a special mask for rescue breathing – the possibility of HIV transmission is low during CPR
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident BASIC RULES OF PROVIDING FIRST AID
  • 5.
    • The employer is obliged to provide his/ her workers with an efficient system of first aid in case of an accident and with means to provide first aid. In particular, the employer is obliged to provide:
      • first aid kits in individual departments
      • of the company
    FIRST AID KITS Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 6.
        • rubber gloves – surgical or foil – 2 pieces
        • mask for rescue breathing – 1 piece
        • sterile dressing gauze – 3 pieces (manufacturer’s confection)
        • codofix – several pieces. Big and small
        • triangular linen bandages – 2 pieces
        • cloth bandages – 2 pieces
        • elastic bandages – 2 pieces
        • adhesive gauze bandages – manufacturer’s confection
        • personal dressings – 2 pieces
        • sterile eye drops for rinsing the eyes
        • scissors
        • safety-pins
        • emergency blanket
    FIRST AID KIT’S CONTENTS Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 7. ORDER OF ACTIVITIES
    • ‘ Chain of survival’ means acting in the place of an accident in accordance with the following:
      • situation assessment (learning about what’s happened, how many victims, includ i ng seriously injured, there are)
      • calling for professional help,
      • securing the place of the accident,
      • a dministering CPR on the victims,
      • p rofessional help, restoration and stabilization of life functions with the use of rescue equipment and medicines,
      • transport of the rescued and stable victims to hospital to continue diagnostic and medicinal activities.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 8. CALLING FOR HELP Numbers of the rescue services:
    • For cellular phones: 112 ,
    • For regular (stationary) phones:
            • 999 (emergency service),
            • 998 (firefighting service),
            • 997 (police),
            • 112 (emergency number).
    Remember!!! Never hang up as the first one !!! Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 9. CALLING FOR HELP The notification about an accident should include the following information (applies to all emergency numbers):
    • What? – the kind of the accident (e.g. car crash, falling off the ladder, drowning, epilepsy attack, etc.),
    • Where? – the place of the accident,
    • How many? – the number of victims,
    • How? – conditions of the victims,
    • What are you doing? – information about help provided so far,
    • Who are you? – personal data of the person calling for help (the number of the home from which you are phoning).
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 10. RULES OF SECURING THE PLACE OF AN ACCIDENT AND VICTIMS’ EVACUATION
    • The following should be done in the place of an accident:
    • Road traffic or mechanical devices’ movement should be stopped (so that they do not threat rescue activities),
    • The protective area should be determined around the place of the accident,
    • Only necessary and minimal group of rescuers should be engaged directly in providing the first aid (all spectators, media representatives looking for sensation are best to be placed as far for the place of the rescue action as possible),
    • The decision abort the possible evacuation should be taken only if there is no direct threat (e.g. a fire, explosion, poisoning, escalation of the accident on the road) and transport will not directly pose threat to victims’ lives.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 11. ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM’S CONDITION – PROCEEDINGS Check whether the v i ctim is conscious Check whether the victim is breathing Ask if he/ she is injured, what hurts, and then try to dress possible bleeding. Begin the rescue breathing and closed-chest cardiac Place the victim in the safe position, unless he/ she has some injuries which require to be dressed YES YES NO NO Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 12. IF THE VICTIM IS CONSCIOUS
    • Leave the victim in the position you fund him/ her, unless there is some threat to his life,
    • Find out as much about the victim’s condition as you can,
    • Check on his/ her condition regularly.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 13. ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM’S CONDITION – PROCEEDINGS Check whether the vctim is conscious Check whether the victim is breathing Ask if he/ she is injured, what hurts, and then try to dress possible bleeding. Begin the rescue breathing and closed-chest cardiac Place the victim in the safe position, unless he/ she has some injuries which require to be dressed YES YES NO NO Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 14. SAFE POSITION If the victim is unconscious but his/ her breathing is regular, try to place him/ her on his/ her side in the safe position (as long as he/ she does not have any other body injuries requiring to be dressed immediately). The lateral position makes natural respiratory tract’s clearance possible and it prevents from potential choking with stomach’s contents while vomiting. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 15. PLACING THE VICTIM IN THE SAFE POSITION Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 16. ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM’S CONDITION – PROCEEDINGS Check whether the victim is conscious Check whether the victim is breathing. Ask if he/ she is injured, what hurts, and then try to dress possible bleeding. Begin the rescue breathing and closed-chest cardiac massage Place the victim in the safe position, unless he/ she has some injuries which require to be dressed YES YES NO NO Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 17. CLEARING THE AIRWAY
            • Place one hand on the victim’s forehead and gently tilt his/ her head back, make sure that you have your thumb and your index finger free so that you can block up his/ her nostrils when rescue breathing is necessary,
    • Place finger tips of the other
    • hand on victim’s jaw and then
    • lift it forward in order to clea r the
    • airway.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 18. RESCUE BREATHING If the victim is unconscious and does not breathe, but his/ her pulse is perceptible , rescue breathing should be begun.
    • Place the victim on his/ her back,
    • Tint his/ her head back and the chin forward,
    • Block the nostrils with your thumb and index
    • finger of the hand placed on victim’s forehead,
    • Take a deep breath and insufflate it into victim’s mouth, altogether make 10 insufflations within c. 1 min.,
    • If the pulse is perceptible, continue only with lung ventilation, nevertheless check the pulse after each 10 insufflations or every minute; if the pulse starts to fade, begin closed-chest cardiac massage.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 19. CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE If the victim is unconscious, does not breathe and his/ her pulse is not perceptible, closed-chest cardiac massage should be started. The point of the compression in the closed-chest cardiac massage. To do this, uncover victim’s chest, determine where the upper middle part of the sternum and the angle under the ribs is. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 20. Pressure should be exerted perpendicularly to the chest, with arms straightened out. Fingers bent back. Hands should be placed on the lower tip of the sternum and you should rhythmically press down the sternum about 3-5 cm towards the backbone. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE
  • 21. After each 30 compressions of the chest, make 2 insufflations. The frequency of compressions should be 100 per minute. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE 30 x 2 x
  • 22.
    • The rescue procedure should be continued until:
        • Professional medical services arrive and take over the action
        • The victim starts to breathe properly
        • You feel exhaustion
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE
  • 23. PROCEDURE IN CASE O FAN INJURY
    • In case o fan injury, the bleeding wound (after uncovering it, slitting clothes) should be:
      • Pressed through a clean gauze or a piece of clothing (sterility of temporary dressings is not of the highest importance). Cotton batting or lignin should not be used directly on the wound as their scraps may be left in the wound.
            • Put on a pressure bandage
            • Lift the limb (it lowers blond
            • pressure in the limb and therefore
            • bleeding from the wound)
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 24.
    • The fracture should be immobilized in the place o fan accident – if it is possible without moving the victim
    • Bones must not be set! This is the task of the physician!
    • In the broken limb two neighbouring joints should be immobilized.
    • Immobilization can be done with a flat piece of wood, a triangular bandage, a stick, etc.
    • In a compound fracture the wound should be secured by putting on a sterile dressing, and then immobilize the broken limb
    • In case of a spine fracture, the whole body of the victim should be immobilized with the use of a stretcher – e.g. a broad wooden board, a door.
    FRACTURES - PROCEDURE Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 25. THERMAL BURNS Burns should be cooled with (as much as possible) cold water and then covered with a ster i le dre s sing. Remember!!! You should not apply any ointments or creams on burns, and should not rinse them with any disinfectant (no spirit!); also, you should not tear off any scraps of clothes, cut blisters or use any animal or vegetable ‘mixtures’. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 26.
    • While rescuing a person who has been given an electric shock, the following order of the procedure is important:
      • assessment of the situation
      • cutting off the source of the power supply
      • freeing the victim
      • assessment of victim’s conditions
        • scald
        • loss of consciousness
        • no breathing or heartbeat
        • death
    AN ELECTRIC SHOCK Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 27.
    • If, as a result of an electric shock breathing and blood circulation have stopped – immediately begin closed-chest cardiac massage and rescue breathing.
    • Uncons c ious person with effective breathing should be placed in safe position and should be supervised until the emergency service arrives and takes over responsibilities.
    • Injuries and skin burns which are a result of an elect r ic shock should be covered with a sterile dressing.
    Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident AN ELECTRIC SHOCK
  • 28. FAINTING In case of fainting (a short loss of consciousness), if breathing and the pulse are perceptible, both lower and upper limbs of the victim should be lifted for a dozen of seconds. If this does not bring the expected result, help should be called and the victim should be placed in the lateral position and attentively observed. Principles of providing first aid and procedures in case of an accident
  • 29. Thank you for choosing our presentation. We hope that the presented materials will bring closer the topic connected with occupational health and safety and will allow you to complete the test correctly. Our consultants are available under one of the following numbers: (22) 824-03-66 (22) 668-97-94
  • 30. THE END