美国文学史通论

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  • 1. I. American Indian Voices (1)
    • I. American Indian Languages
    • over 2000 primitive tribes and languages
    • (such as Navaho, Iroquois, Mohican, Delaware, Zuni, Ojibwa, etc.)
    • about 500 existent languages, of which about 300 kinds existent
    • only oral form, no written form
    • the holiness of voice: the sacredness of oral language
    • II. The major features of American Indian Literature
    • 1. the dominating oral form – experience literature by listening, etc.
    • 2. closely connected with their life and living – nature, tribal affairs…
    • 3. a kind of “mass literature” assuming diverse tribal-social functions
    • 4. from the holiness of voice to the sacredness of literature
  • 2. I. American Indian Voices (2)
    • III. The basic themes of American Indian Literature
    • 1. harmony: Deity-Man, nature-man, spiritual-material
    • 2. respect to the land and directions: the focus upon four and round
    • IV. The forms of American Indian Literature
    • songs and tales : singing and telling (rituals, lyrics, legends, fairy tales, etc.)
    • V. The American Indian Songs/chants/chantways
    • The American Indian Oral Tradition
    • The categories: love songs, warrior songs, ritual songs, prophetic songs, etc.
    • The inseparability between songs and dances:
  • 3. I. American Indian Voices (3)
    • VI. American Indian Tales
    • 1. Creation Tales 2. Origin Tales
    • 3. Hero Legends 4. Animal Tales
    • 5. Trickster Tales
    • VII. American Indian Ritual Literature
    • They sing and dance out their “literature.”
    • 1. Harvest Rituals
    • 2. Hunter’s Rituals and Hunter’s Rock Stories
    • 3. Birth and Burial Rituals
    • 4. Healing and Pleading Rituals
  • 4. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (1)
    • I. Cultural Background:
    • Discovery of America and early settlers
    • II. American Puritanism
    • 1.Puritans – American Puritans – American Puritanism
    • 2.Calvinism:Predestination,Original Sin, Total Depravity, Limited Atonement
    • 3. Its influence upon American writings:
    • a. (technique): symbolism
    • b. (tone): optimism
    • c. (language): simplicity
    • d. (theme): redemption and salvation
  • 5.
    • Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (2)
    • III. The Literary in the Colonial Period
    • 1. General features : Of Humble origin; documentary; personal
    • 2. Literary Forms:
    • histories, letters, journals, sermons, narratives, poetry, novels, etc.
    • A. histories: Captain John Smith’s A Description of New England
    • William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation
    • John Winthrop’s A Model of Christian Charity
    • Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on Virginia
    • B. Personal account: Slave narratives, prisoner’s narratives, etc.
    • e.g. Marry Rowlandson’s personal account of her being captured and
    • imprisoned by the American Indians
    • C. Sermons: Jonathan Edwards’ Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God
  • 6. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (3)
    • D. Poetry:
    • Anne Bradstreet and her religious and secular poetry
    • John Norton and John Rogers’s elegies for Anne
    • Michael Wigglesworth ’s The Day of Doom (1662)
    • Edward Taylor's religious poetry: Preparatory Meditations
    • Benjamin Tompson : New England Crisis (satirical poem)
    • Ebenerzer Cook, Sotweed Factor ( 1708) (Bath’s in 1959)
    • (In the Revolutionary Period)
    • John Trumbull, Progress of Dulness and M’Fingal
    • Francis Hopkinson , The Battle of kegs (1779)
    • Joel Barlow , The Hasty Pudding (1796), The Vision of Columbus (1787)
    • Timothy Dwight , The Conquest of Canaan (1785)
    • David Humphreys , The Anarchiard (1787)
    • Philip Freneau’s patriotic and nature poetry: “ The Indian Burial Ground”
    • Phillis Wheatley the first Afro-American poetess: On Messrs Hussey and
    • Coffin, Thoughts on the Works of Providence
  • 7. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (4)
    • E. Novels :
    • 1.William Hill Brown, Power of Sympathy , 1789 (Sentimental epistolary novel).
    • 2.Susana Rowson, Charlotte Temple (1791), third-person narrative
    • 3.Hannah Foster, The Coquette (1797)
    • 4.Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry , (1792-1815) (Picaresque novel)
    • 5.Gilbert Imlay, The Emigrants (1793)
    • 6.Royall Tyler, The Algerine Captive (1797)
    • 7.Charles Brockden Brown and his gothic novels
    • Wieland (1798), Edgar Huntly (1799), Ormond (1799), Arthur Mervyn (1800)
  • 8. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (5)
    • Three Representative Figures (in prose)
    • Jonathan Edwards and his sermon : Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
    • Benjamin Franklin and The Autobiography (1791,1818) and Poor Richard’s Almanac
    • Thomas Paine and his political essays: Common Sense and American Crisis
    • John de Crevecoeur and his Letters from an American Farmer
  • 9. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865)
    • I. Romantic Fathers:
    • Washington Irving and J. F. Cooper
    • II. New England Transcendentalists (1836-1855):
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
    • III. The First Literary Renaissance
    • 1. Two novelists: Hawthorne and Melville
    • 2. A Controversial man of letters: E. A. Poe
    • 3. The Epitomes of American Poetry:
    • Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson
  • 10. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865)
    • 4. Other Romantic poets:
    • a. W.C. Bryant ( Thanatopsis, The Yellow Violet, To a waterfoul )
    • b. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (A Psalm of Life; The Song of
    • Hiawatha; Evangeline; The Courtship of Miles Standish)
    • c. John Greenleaf Whittier, New England Laureate , ( Snow-Bound )
    • d. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Boston Brahmin
    • ( Old Ironsides, The last Leaf )
    • e. James Russell Lowell, Boston Brahmin
    • (A Year’s Life, Biglow Papers)
    • f. Frederick Goddard Tuckerman, poet of forest
    • ( Poems, Sonnets, “A Cricket”)
  • 11. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865)
    • 5. Two models of American Prose:
    • Frederick Douglass as a prose writer
    • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
    • Abraham Lincoln as a prose writer
    • Gettysburg Address
    • 6. Two Literary Critics: Emerson and Poe
    • Poe as the first professional critic
    • “ The Philosophy of Composition”, 1846
    • “ The Poetic Principle”,1850
  • 12. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.1 The High-tide of Realistic novels
    • Realists : Henry James and his psychological realism
    • William Dean Howells and his moral realism
    • Local Colorists:
    • Mark Twain and other Local colorists (regionalism)
    • - Frances Bret Harte , The Luck of the Roaring Camp (1968)
    • The Outcasts of Poker Flat
    • - Hamlin Garland , Much-Traveled Roads
    • A Son of the Middle Border, Crumbling Idols.
    • Naturalists:
    • Frank Norris, Stephan Crane, Jack London
    • Theodore Dreiser and his naturalist novels
    • E.A. Robinson and naturalist poetry: The Man Against the Sky
    • “ Richard Cory”, “Miniver Cheevy”
  • 13. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.2 New Poetical Development: Regional Poetry
    • Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson as the Titanic Figures
    • William Moody , An Ode in Time of Hesitation, The Menagerie
    • Sidney Lanier , a musical poet , To Beethoven, Corn, The Symphony
    • Edgar Lee Masters and his Spoon River Anthology
    • Amy Lowell , A Dome of Many-Colored Glass ,
    • Sword Blades and Poppy Seed, “Autumn Haze”
    • Paul Hamilton Hayne ,“Southern Laureate”, Midsummer in the South
    • Edwin Markham , The Man with the Hoe , Lincoln and Other Poems
    • Lizette Reese, Tears, A Branch of May , A Handful of Lavender
    • Anna H. Branch , The Shoes That Danced , Rose of the Wind
  • 14. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.3 Afro-American literary scene
    • Abolitionists and Harriet Beecher Stowe ’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin(1851), The Minister’s Wooing, Oldtown Folks, Dred
    • Other abolitionists : William Lloyd Garrison, Henry Highland Garnet, Wendell Phillips, Thomas Higginson, William W. Brown ( Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave )
    • William Du Bois , first Harvard Afro-Am. Ph.D, The Souls of Black Folk (1903 ), The Autobiography of W.E.B. Du Bois (1963)
    • Booker T. Washington , a mild protestant, Up from Slavery (1901)
    • Charles Waddell Chesnutt , The Conjure Woman (1899), The Goophered Grapevine, The House behind the Cedars (1900)
    • Paul Laurence Dunbar, poetry: “The Colored Soldiers”,“When Dey Listed Colored Soldiers’;Fiction: The Lynching of Jube Benson, The Sport of the Gods
    • George Washington Cable , Sieur George, Old Creole Days, the Grandissimes
    • Joel Chandler Harris , Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings,
    • Free Joe and Other Sketches
  • 15. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.4 The Rise of Women Writers
    • 1. Kate Chopin: Bayou Folk, 1894 ; A Night in Acadie, 1897; The Awakening, 1899; “The Story of an Hour” “The Storm”
    • 2. Edith Wharton , The House of Mirth,1905 ; Ethan Frome , 1911;
    • The Custom of Country , 1913; The Age of Innocence , 1920.
    • 3. Louisa May Alcott , Little Women ,1867; Little Men ,1871.
    • 4. Frances E. W. Harper , Poems of Miscellaneous Subjects , 1854; “The Two
    • Offers”,1859; Iola Leroy , 1892.(Radical Black woman writer)
    • 5. Alice Dunbar-Nelson , Violets and Other Tales , 1895; The Diary ,1984;
    • 6 . Sarah Orne Jewett , Deephaven , 1877; A White Heron and Other Stories , 1886;
    • A Country Doctor , 1884; The Country of the Pointed Firs , 1896.
    • 7. Fanny Fern , Ruth Hall , 1855; Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Porfolio ,1853
    • 8. Rebecca Harding Davis, Life in the Iron-Mills,1861;
    • Silhouettes of American Life,1892.
  • 16. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.5 The Slow Rise of Drama
    • 1. James Herne , Margaret Fleming , 1890 (the most realistic );
    • Shore Acres ,1892.
    • 2. William Clyde Fitch , The City , 1909; Nathan Hale , 1898.
    • 3. Langdon Elwyn Mitchell , The New York Idea , 1906.
    • 4. Bronson Howard (the first American professional playwright and
    • the pioneer of American modern drama )
    • Saratoga , 1870; Shenandoah , 1888.
    • 5. David Belasco , The Heart of Maryland ,1895;
    • The Girl of the Golden West , 1905.
    • 6. William Moody , The Great Divide, 1906; The Faith Healer, 1909.
  • 17. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.6 Literary Criticism in the early 20th Century
    • New Humanism :
    • Irving Babbitt : Literature and the American College,1908; The Laocoon,1910; The Masters of Modern French Criticism,1912; The Critic and American Life, 1932.
    • Paul Elmer More : Shelburne Essays,1904-21; New Shelburne Essays, 1928-36.
    • Radical Critics:
    • Henry Louis Mencken : The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche,1908 Prejudices, 1919-27; The American Language, 1919; Notes on the Democracy, 1926.
    • Van Wyck Brooks : The Malady of the Ideal,1913; The America’s Coming of Age, 1915; Letters and Leadership,1918; The Ordeal of Mark Twain,1920; The Pilgrimage of Henry James,1925.
    • Others:
    • James Gibbons Huneker , Iconoclasts: A Book of Dramatists,1905; Egoists: a Book of Supermen, 1909; Promenades of an Impressionist, 1910.
    • Joel Elias Spingarn , History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 1899; The New Criticism, 1911.
  • 18. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.1 Modern Poetry (Five Modernist Giants) (A)
    • 1. Ezra Pound (85-72): Hugh Selwyn Mauberley; Cantos; Cathay
    • 2. T.S. Eliot : The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock(1915),
    • The Wasteland (1922), Four Quartets(1935-42)
    • 3. Wallace Stevens : Harmonium, Ideas of Order, The Man with the
    • Blue Guitar and Other Poems; “Anecdote of the Jar”
    • 4. W.C. Williams : Paterson (1946-63); “The Red Wheelbarrow”
    • 5. Robert Frost(1874-1963) :
    • A Boy’s Will (1913, “Mowing”)
    • North of Boston (14, “Home Burial”, “Mending Wall”, “After Apple-Picking” )
    • Mountain Interval (1916, “Birches”, “The Road Not Taken”)
    • New Hampshire (23/“Fire and Ice”; “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”)
    • West-Running Brook (28); A Further Range (36, “Design”);
    • A Witness Tree (42); Steeple Bush (47, “Directive”); In the Clearing (1962)
  • 19. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.1 Modern Poetry (Other Modernist Poets) (B)
    • 1. Harriet Monroe & Louis Untermeyer : two modernist pioneers
    • 2 . Carl Sandburg and Midwest poets: Chicago Poems; Cornhuskers; Good Morning, America; The People, Yes; Smoke and Steel.
    • 3. Vachel Lindsay : General William Booth Enters into Heaven; The Congo; The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems
    • 4. Hart Crane: White Buildings,26; The Bridge, 30
    • 5. e. e.cummings: The Enormous Room (22);Tulips and Chimneys(23)
    • 6. H.D. (Hilda Doolittle): Sea Garden; Helen in Egypt ; “Oread” “Heat” “Hermes of the Ways”
    • 7. John Gold Fletcher: Irradiations: Sand and Spray; The Ghosts of an Old House; Goblins and Pagodas
    • 8. Marianne More: Poems; Observations; “No Swan So Fine;” “Fish”
    • 9 . Fugitives such as Ransom , Allan Tate, Donald Davidson , etc.
  • 20. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 1
    • 1. Two Novelists in the Transitional era
    • A. Sherwood Anderson(1876-1941) :
    • Windy McPherson’s Son (16); Marching Men (17);
    • Winesburg, Ohio (19); Poor White (20); The Triumph with the Egg (21 );
    • Dark Laughter (25); Death in the Woods (33)
    • B. Willa Cather(1873-1947)
    • Alexander’s Bridge(12), O Pioneers(13),
    • The Song of the Lark(15), My Antonio (18)
    • One of Ours (22); The Professor’s House (23)
    • 2. The first Nobel Prize Winner: Sinclair Lewis(1885-1951)
    • Our Mr. Wrenn (14); Main Street (1920); Babbitt (1922);
    • Arrowsmith (25); Elmer Gantry (27); Dodsworth (29)
  • 21. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 2
    • 3. Two Female Euro-Residing Geniuses in the modern literary stage
    • A. Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) Three Lives (1909); The Making of America (1925); Tender Buttons (1914); The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933)
    • B. Djuna Barnes (1892-1982) A Book (1923); A Night Among the Horses (1929); Ryder (1928); Nightwood (1936); Smoke and Other Early Stories(82)
    • 4. Representatives of the Lost Generation:
    • A. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
    • In Our Time (25); The Sun also Rises (26); Men without Women (27); A Farewell to Arms (29); Winner Take Nothing (33); Death in the Afternoon (32); Green Hills of Africa (35); To Have and For Whom the Bell tolls (40); The Old Man and the Sea (52);
    • “ The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”.
    • B. F. S. Fitzgerald (1896-1940)
    • This Side of Paradise (20); Flappers and Philosophers (20); Tales of the Jazz Age (22); The Beautiful and the Damned (22); The Great Gatsby (25); Tender is the Night (34); The Last Tycoon (41)
  • 22. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 3
    • 5. Epitome of the Southern Renaissance:
    • William Faulkner (1897-1962) and his Yoknapatawpha country
    • Soldier’s Pay (26); Mosquitoes (27); Sartoris (29); The Sound and the Fury (29); As I Lay Dying (30); Sanctuary (31); Light in August (32); Absalom, Absalom (36)
    • The Unvanquished (38); The Wild Palms (39); Go Down, Moses (42)(“The Bear”)
    • The Hamlet (40); A Fable (57); The Town (57); The Mansion (60);
    • Intruder into the Dust (48); Requiem for a Nun (51); The Reivers (62)
  • 23. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 4
    • 6. Faulkner’s Southern Followers:
    • A. Anne Porter (1890-1980):
    • Flowering Judas (30); Noon Wine (37); Pale Horse, Pale Rider (39);
    • Ships of Fools (62); The Never-Ending Wrong (77); Letters (90)
    • B. Eudora Welty (1909- ):
    • A Curtain of Green (41); The Wide Net (43); The Golden Apples (49);
    • The Bride of the Innisfallen (55); Moon Lake (80); The Robber Bridegroom (42); Delta Wedding (46); The Ponder Heart (54); The Optimist’s Daughter (72)
    • C. Carson McCullers(1917-67): The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (40); Reflections in a Golden Eye(41); The Member of the Wedding (46); Clock without Hands(61); The Ballad of the Sad Café (51)
  • 24. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 5
    • 7. Pearl Buck (1892-1973), the first Woman Nobel Prize Winner in Literature and China under her Pen
    • “ The House of Earth” trilogy: The Good Earth ,1931, Pulitzer Prize; Sons , 1932; A House Divided , 1935.
    • The Spirit and the Flesh (36); All Men Are Good Brothers (33,37); Imperial Woman (1956)
    • 8. Raymond Chandler’s(1888-1959) mystery novels
    • The Big Sleep (39); Farewell, My Lovely (40); The Lady in the Lake (43); The Long Goodbye (54)
  • 25. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 6
    • 9. The Black Novelists in the Harlem Renaissance:
    • Zora Neale Hurston (1901-1960)
    • Jonah’s Gourd Vine (34); Their Eyes Were Watching God (37); Moses: Man of the Mountain (39); Seraph on the Suwanee (48); Dust Tracks on a Road (42)
    • Langston Hughes (1902-67)
    • Novels: Not Without Laughter (30); Tambourines to Glory (58)
    • Short Tale Collections: The Ways of White Folks (34); Something in Common (63)
    • Poems: The Weary Blues (26); Fine Clothes to the Jew (27); Dear Lovely Death (31); The Negro Mother (31); The Dream Keeper (32); Montage of a Dream Deferred (51); Ask Your Mama (61)
    • Richard Wright (1908-1960)
    • Uncle Tom’s Children (38); Native Son(40 ); 12 Million Black Voices (41); Black Boy(45 ); The Outsider (53); The Long Dream (58)
  • 26. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 7
    • 10. The Radical Novelists as the Leftist Writers:
    • John Dos Passos (1896-1970)
    • Three Soldiers (21); Manhattan Transfer (25); Orient Express (27);
    • USA Trilogy: The 42nd Parallel (30); 1919 (32); The Big Money (36)
    • District of Columbia Trilogy (52 ): Adventures of a Young Man (39); Number One (43); The Grand Design (49)
    • Steinbeck(1902-1968):
    • The Cup of Gold (29); The Pastures of Heaven(32); Tortilla Flat (35); In Dubious Battle (36); Of Mice and Men (37); The Grapes of Wrath (39); The Pearl (48); Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team (42); The Moon is Down (42); Cannery Row (45); The Wayward Bus (47); East of Eden (52), etc.
    • James T. Ferrell(04-79)
    • Young Lonigan (32); The Yang Manhood of Studs Lonigan (34); Judgment Day (35)
    • Erskine Caudwell(03-87):
    • Tobacco Road (32); God’s Little Acre (33);
    • Journeyman (35); Trouble in July (40); House in the Uplands 46)
  • 27. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 8
    • 11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period:
    • Nathaniel West (03-40): The Dream Life of Balso Snell, 31 ; Miss Lonelyhearts, 33 ; A Cool Million, 34 ; The Day of the Locust, 39.
    • Edwin Rolfe (09-54): To My Contemporaries, 36; “Epitaph, for Arnold Reid”, 38; First Love and Other Poems,51; Permit Me Refuge,41.
    • Henry Roth (05-95): Call It Sleep, 34; Mercy of a Rude Stream, 94 .
    • Tess Slessinger (05-45): Missis Flinders, 32; Time: The Present, 35; The Unpossessed, 34,her first novel .
    • Muriel Rukeyser (13-80): Theory of Flight, 35 ( including The Boy with His Hair Cut Short); U.S.1, 38 ; A Turning Wind, 39 ; The Soul and Body of John Brown, 40 ; Beast in View, 44.
    • Karl Shapiro (13-2000): Good Housekeeping; Poetry .
    • Abraham Cahan (60-51): Yekl: A Tale of the New G York Ghetto , 1896; The Rise of Davis Levinsky , 17.
  • 28. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 8
    • 11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period:
    • Mary Antin (1881-1949): From Polotzk to Boston, 1899; The Promised Land,1912; “The Lie”,1913.
    • Anzia Yezierska (85-70): The Free Vacation House, 1913; All I could Never Be,32; Red Ribbon on a White Horse: My Story,50; The Fat of the Land,19; Hungry Heart,20; Children of Loneliness, 23; Salome of Tenements, 23; Bread Givers, 25; Arrogant Beggar, 27 .
    • Ludwig Lewishohn (82-55): Up Stream,22; The Broken Snare, 08; The Case of Mr. Crump, 26; The Island Within, 28.
    • Michael Gold (93-67): Jews without Money, 30; 120 Million, 32; the Hollow Man, 41.
    • Edward Dahlberg (1900-77): Bottom Dogs,29; From Flushing to Calvary, 32; Those Who Perish,34; Do These Bones Live?41.
    • Kenneth Fearing (02-61): Death Reckoning,38; Clark Gifford’s Boy,42; The Big Clock, 46.
  • 29. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama
    • The Rise of Small Theatres : Neighborhood Playhouse, Provincetown Players, The Theatre Gild, Washington Square Players, The Group Theatre, Playwrights’ Company, etc.
    • The Opening of the dramatic courses : George Pierce Baker’s English 47, from Harvard University to Yale University.
    • Susan Glaspell ( 1876-48 ) as the pioneer of the feminist drama
    • the founder of the Provincetown Players, the reformer of theatre
    • novels: The Glory of the Conquered (09); Fidelity (15); Visioning (11)
    • Plays: Suppressed Desires (15, the first of modern American Drama);
    • Trifles (1916, her masterpiece); The Outside (17); Bernice (19)
  • 30. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama “ The Comedian Tradition ”
    • George S. Kaufman ( 89-61 ) founder of modern popular comedy
    • major plays: Dulcy, 21; To the Ladies, 22; Once in a Lifetime, 30; Of Thee I Sing,31; You Can’t Take It with You, 36; Beggar on the Horseback, 22.
    • Samuel Nathaniel Behrman (93-73)
    • Major plays: The Second Man(27); Biography (32); End of Summer (36); The Burning Glass (68)
    • Philip Barry (96-49)
    • Major plays: You and I (23); The Youngest (24); In a Garden (25);
    • Paris Bound (1927); Holiday (28); Universe Hotel (30); The Philadelphia Story (39)
  • 31. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Dramatic Renaissance)
    • Eugene O’Neill (88-53) and American Theatrical Renaissance
    • Life: theatrical background; attending Prof. Baker’s Workshop
    • Divisions of Writings:
    • I (1913-1920):
    • A Wife for a Life (13); Bound East For Cardiff (14); Beyond the Horizon (20);
    • II (1920-1934):
    • Anna Christine (20); The Emperor Jones (20); Desire Under the Elms (24); The Hairy Ape (21); The Great God Brown (25); All God’s Chillun Got Wings (23); Marco Millions (25); Strange Interlude (27); Mourning Becomes Electra (31)
    • III (34-46):
    • The Iceman Cometh (39); Long Day’s Journey into Night (40); Hughie (40); A Moon for the Misbegotten (43)
  • 32. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama)
    • Maxwell Anderson (88-59): O’Neill’s Only Match in the 20s
    • White Desert (23); What’s the Price of Glory ?(24); Winterset (35)
    • Elmer Rice (92-67):
    • On Trial (14); The Adding Machine (23); Winter Scene (29); The Subway
    • Sidney Howard (91-39):
    • They Knew What They Wanted (24); Lucky Sam McCarver (25); Ned McCobb’s Daughter (24); The Silver Cord (26)
    • Robert E. Sherwood (96-55):
    • The Petrified Forest (35); Idiot’s Delight (36); Abe Lincoln in Illinois(38 ); There Shall Be No Night (40); Roosevelt and Hoptkins (48)
  • 33. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama)
    • Sidney Kingsley(06-95):
    • Men in White (33); Dead End (35)
    • Lillian Hellman (05-84)
    • The Children’s Hour (34); Days to Come (36); The Little Foxes (39 ); Watch on the Rhine (41); The Searching Wind (44)
    • Thornton Wilde (97-75)
    • Pullman Car Hiawatha (31); The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden (31); Our Town (38); The Skin of Our Teeth (42)
    • T. S. Eliot (the Advocate of the poetic drama in 20th Century)
    • Sweeney Agonistes (26); Murder in the Cathedral (35); Family Reunion (39); The Cocktail Party (49); The Confidential Clerk (53); The Elder Statesman (59)
  • 34. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 1. War Novels
    • John Hersey(1914-): Hiroshima (46); The Wall (50)
    • James Gould Cozzens (1903- ): Guard of Honor (1948)
    • Erwin Shaw (1913-84): The Young Lion (48)
    • James Jones (1921-77): From Here to Eternity (51)
    • Herman Wouk (1915- ): The Cain Mutiny (51); Winds of War (71);
    • War and Remembrance (79)
    • Norman Mailer (1923-): The Naked and the Death (48)
    • Joseph Heller (1923-): Catch-22 (61); Closing Time (1994, a sequel)
    • Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (1922-): Slaughterhouse Five (1969)
    • Thomas Pynchon (1937- ): The Gravity’s Rainbow (1973)
  • 35. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 2. Jewish American Novelists
    • Saul Bellow (1915-2005) -- 1976 Nobel Prize Winner
    • Dangling Man (44); The Victim (47); The Adventures of Augie March (53);
    • Seize the Day(56 ); Henderson the Rain King(59 ); Herzog (64); Mr. Sammler’s Planet (70); Humbolt’s Gift (75); Dean’s December (82); The Actual (97)
    • Bernard Malamud (1914-86)
    • Novels: The Natural (52); The Assistant (57); A New Life (61); The Fixer (66); Dubin’s Life (79); God’s Grace (82).
    • Collection: The Magic Barrel (58); Idiots First (63); Rembrandt’s Hat(73 )
    • Issac Bashevis Singer (1904-1991)
    • Yiddish Works: Satan in Goray (34); The Family Moskat (45); Gimpel the Fool (53); The Magician of Lublin (59).
    • English Works: The Spinoza of Market Street(61 ); The Slave (62); The Manor (67)
  • 36. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 2. Jewish American Novelists
    • Philip Roth (1933- )
    • Goodbye, Columbus (59); Portnoy’s Complaint (69); The Breast (72);
    • The Professor of Desire (77); The Ghost Writer (79); Zuckerman Unbound (81)
    • The Anatomy Lesson (83); Patrimony (91); Operation Shylock (93); Sabbath Theatre (95); American Pastoral (97); I Married a Communist (98); The Human Stain (2000); The Dying Animal (2001); Plot Against American (2004); Every Man (2006); Exit The Ghost (2007)
    • Paul Auster (1947- )
    • City of Glass (85); Ghosts (86); The Locked Room (86); The Country of Last Things (87); The Music of Chance (1990);Mr. Vertigo (94); Timbuktu (99)
    • Cynthia Ozick (1928- )
    • Trust (66); Bloodshed (76); Levitation (82); The Shawl (89);
    • The Cannibal Galaxy (83); The Messiah of Stockholm (87)
  • 37. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 3. Southern Novels
    • Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989)(New Criticism)
    • All the King’s Men (46); World Enough and Time (50); Band of Angels (55); Wilderness (61)
    • Truman Capote (1924-84)
    • Other Voices, Other Rooms (48); The Grass Harp (51);
    • In Cold Blood (66)
    • William Styron (1925- )
    • Lie Down in Darkness (51); The Confessions of Nat Turner (67); Sophie’s Choice (79)
    • Flannery O’Cannor (1925-64)
    • Novels: Wise Blood (52); The Violent Bear It Away (1960)
    • Collections: A Good Man is Hard to Find (55); Everything That Rises Must Converge (55)
  • 38. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 4. Novels Against the Cultural Norm
    • Jerome David Salinger (1919- )
    • The Young Folks (40); The Catcher in the Rye (51); Nine Stories (53)
    • Fanny and Zooey (61); Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters (63)
    • William Burroughs (1914- )
    • Beat Novels: Junky (53); Naked Lunch (59)
    • Scientific Novels: The Soft Machine (61); The Wild Boys (71); Exterminator (73); Cities of the Red Night(81 ); The Place of Dead Roads (83)
    • Jack Kerouac (1922-69)
    • On the Road (57); The Dharma Bums (58); Desolation Angels (65)
  • 39. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945
    • 5.Experimental Novels
    • John Hawks (1925- )
    • The Cannibal (49); The Lime Twig (61);Second Skin (64); The Blood Oranges (71); Travesty (76); The Passion Artist (79)
    • John Barth (1930- )
    • The Floating Opera (56); The End of the Road (58); The Sot-Weed Factor (60); Giles Goat-Boat (66); Lost in the Funhouse (68);Chimera (71); Letters (79); Once Upon a Time (94)
    • William H. Gass (1924- )
    • Omensetter’s Daughter (66); The Tunnel (95)
    • Donald Barthelme (1931-89)
    • Unspeakable Practices, Unnatural Acts (68); Snow White (67)