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I. American Indian Voices (1) <ul><li>I.  American Indian Languages </li></ul><ul><li>over 2000 primitive tribes and langu...
I. American Indian Voices (2) <ul><li>III. The basic themes of American Indian Literature </li></ul><ul><li>1. harmony: De...
I. American Indian Voices (3) <ul><li>VI. American Indian Tales </li></ul><ul><li>1. Creation Tales  2. Origin Tales  </li...
II. Literature in the Colonial Period  (1607-1820) (1) <ul><li>I. Cultural Background: </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of Amer...
<ul><li>Literature in the Colonial Period  (1607-1820) (2) </li></ul><ul><li>III. The Literary in the Colonial Period </li...
II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820)  (3) <ul><li>D. Poetry:   </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Bradstreet  and her rel...
II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820)  (4) <ul><li>E. Novels :  </li></ul><ul><li>1.William Hill Brown,  Power...
II. Literature in the Colonial Period  (5) <ul><li>Three Representative Figures (in prose) </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwa...
III. American Romantic Period  (1820-1865) <ul><li>I. Romantic Fathers:  </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Irving  and  J.  F. ...
III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865) <ul><li>4. Other Romantic poets:  </li></ul><ul><li>a. W.C. Bryant ( Thanatopsis...
III. American Romantic Period  (1820-1865) <ul><li>5. Two models of American Prose: </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass  ...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.1 The High-tide of Realistic novels <ul><li>Realists : Henry James  and his psych...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.2 New Poetical Development: Regional Poetry <ul><li>Walt Whitman  and  Emily Dick...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.3  Afro-American literary scene   <ul><li>Abolitionists  and  Harriet Beecher Sto...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.4  The Rise of Women Writers   <ul><li>1. Kate Chopin:   Bayou   Folk, 1894 ; A N...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.5  The Slow Rise of Drama <ul><li>1.  James Herne ,  Margaret Fleming , 1890 (the...
IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914)   4.6 Literary Criticism in the early 20th Century <ul><li>New Humanism : </li></ul><...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)   5.1 Modern Poetry (Five Modernist Giants) (A) <ul><li>1.  Ezra Pound  (85-72):  Hugh Selwy...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.1 Modern Poetry (Other Modernist Poets)  (B) <ul><li>1.   Harriet Monroe  &  Louis Unterm...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists 1 <ul><li>1.  Two Novelists in the Transitional era </li></ul><ul><li>...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists 2 <ul><li>3.  Two Female Euro-Residing Geniuses in the modern literary...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists 3 <ul><li>5.  Epitome of the Southern Renaissance:  </li></ul><ul><li>...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  4 <ul><li>6.  Faulkner’s Southern Followers:   </li></ul><ul><li>A.  ...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  5 <ul><li>7.  Pearl Buck (1892-1973),  the first Woman Nobel Prize Wi...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  6 <ul><li>9.  The Black Novelists in the Harlem Renaissance:  </li></...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  7 <ul><li>10.  The Radical Novelists as the Leftist Writers:  </li></...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  8 <ul><li>11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period:  </li></u...
V. The Modern Era (1914-1945)  5.2 Modern Novelists  8 <ul><li>11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period:  </li></u...
V.  The Modern Era  (1914-1945)   5.3 Modern American Drama <ul><li>The Rise of Small Theatres : Neighborhood Playhouse, P...
V.  The Modern Era  (1914-1945)   5.3 Modern American Drama “ The Comedian Tradition ” <ul><li>George S. Kaufman ( 89-61 )...
V.  The Modern Era  (1914-1945)   5.3 Modern American Drama (Dramatic Renaissance) <ul><li>Eugene O’Neill  (88-53)  and Am...
V.  The Modern Era  (1914-1945)   5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama) <ul><li>Maxwell Anderson  (88-59):   O’Neill’s ...
V.  The Modern Era  (1914-1945)  5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama) <ul><li>Sidney Kingsley(06-95):  </li></ul><ul><...
VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>1. War Novels  </li></ul><ul><li>John Hersey(1914-):  Hi...
VI. Contemporary American Literature  A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>2. Jewish American Novelists </li></ul><ul><li>Saul Bel...
VI. Contemporary American Literature  A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>2. Jewish American Novelists </li></ul><ul><li>Philip R...
VI. Contemporary American Literature  A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>3. Southern Novels </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Penn Warren...
VI. Contemporary American Literature  A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>4. Novels Against the Cultural Norm   </li></ul><ul><li...
VI. Contemporary American Literature  A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>5.Experimental Novels </li></ul><ul><li>John Hawks  (19...
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美国文学史通论

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Transcript of "美国文学史通论"

  1. 1. I. American Indian Voices (1) <ul><li>I. American Indian Languages </li></ul><ul><li>over 2000 primitive tribes and languages </li></ul><ul><li>(such as Navaho, Iroquois, Mohican, Delaware, Zuni, Ojibwa, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>about 500 existent languages, of which about 300 kinds existent </li></ul><ul><li>only oral form, no written form </li></ul><ul><li>the holiness of voice: the sacredness of oral language </li></ul><ul><li>II. The major features of American Indian Literature </li></ul><ul><li>1. the dominating oral form – experience literature by listening, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. closely connected with their life and living – nature, tribal affairs… </li></ul><ul><li>3. a kind of “mass literature” assuming diverse tribal-social functions </li></ul><ul><li>4. from the holiness of voice to the sacredness of literature </li></ul>
  2. 2. I. American Indian Voices (2) <ul><li>III. The basic themes of American Indian Literature </li></ul><ul><li>1. harmony: Deity-Man, nature-man, spiritual-material </li></ul><ul><li>2. respect to the land and directions: the focus upon four and round </li></ul><ul><li>IV. The forms of American Indian Literature </li></ul><ul><li>songs and tales : singing and telling (rituals, lyrics, legends, fairy tales, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>V. The American Indian Songs/chants/chantways </li></ul><ul><li>The American Indian Oral Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>The categories: love songs, warrior songs, ritual songs, prophetic songs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The inseparability between songs and dances: </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. American Indian Voices (3) <ul><li>VI. American Indian Tales </li></ul><ul><li>1. Creation Tales 2. Origin Tales </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hero Legends 4. Animal Tales </li></ul><ul><li>5. Trickster Tales </li></ul><ul><li>VII. American Indian Ritual Literature </li></ul><ul><li>They sing and dance out their “literature.” </li></ul><ul><li>1. Harvest Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hunter’s Rituals and Hunter’s Rock Stories </li></ul><ul><li>3. Birth and Burial Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>4. Healing and Pleading Rituals </li></ul>
  4. 4. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (1) <ul><li>I. Cultural Background: </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of America and early settlers </li></ul><ul><li>II. American Puritanism </li></ul><ul><li>1.Puritans – American Puritans – American Puritanism </li></ul><ul><li>2.Calvinism:Predestination,Original Sin, Total Depravity, Limited Atonement </li></ul><ul><li>3. Its influence upon American writings: </li></ul><ul><li>a. (technique): symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>b. (tone): optimism </li></ul><ul><li>c. (language): simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>d. (theme): redemption and salvation </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (2) </li></ul><ul><li>III. The Literary in the Colonial Period </li></ul><ul><li>1. General features : Of Humble origin; documentary; personal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Literary Forms: </li></ul><ul><li>histories, letters, journals, sermons, narratives, poetry, novels, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A. histories: Captain John Smith’s A Description of New England </li></ul><ul><li>William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop’s A Model of Christian Charity </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>B. Personal account: Slave narratives, prisoner’s narratives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Marry Rowlandson’s personal account of her being captured and </li></ul><ul><li>imprisoned by the American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>C. Sermons: Jonathan Edwards’ Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God </li></ul>
  6. 6. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (3) <ul><li>D. Poetry: </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Bradstreet and her religious and secular poetry </li></ul><ul><li>John Norton and John Rogers’s elegies for Anne </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Wigglesworth ’s The Day of Doom (1662) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Taylor's religious poetry: Preparatory Meditations </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Tompson : New England Crisis (satirical poem) </li></ul><ul><li>Ebenerzer Cook, Sotweed Factor ( 1708) (Bath’s in 1959) </li></ul><ul><li>(In the Revolutionary Period) </li></ul><ul><li>John Trumbull, Progress of Dulness and M’Fingal </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Hopkinson , The Battle of kegs (1779) </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Barlow , The Hasty Pudding (1796), The Vision of Columbus (1787) </li></ul><ul><li>Timothy Dwight , The Conquest of Canaan (1785) </li></ul><ul><li>David Humphreys , The Anarchiard (1787) </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Freneau’s patriotic and nature poetry: “ The Indian Burial Ground” </li></ul><ul><li>Phillis Wheatley the first Afro-American poetess: On Messrs Hussey and </li></ul><ul><li>Coffin, Thoughts on the Works of Providence </li></ul>
  7. 7. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (1607-1820) (4) <ul><li>E. Novels : </li></ul><ul><li>1.William Hill Brown, Power of Sympathy , 1789 (Sentimental epistolary novel). </li></ul><ul><li>2.Susana Rowson, Charlotte Temple (1791), third-person narrative </li></ul><ul><li>3.Hannah Foster, The Coquette (1797) </li></ul><ul><li>4.Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry , (1792-1815) (Picaresque novel) </li></ul><ul><li>5.Gilbert Imlay, The Emigrants (1793) </li></ul><ul><li>6.Royall Tyler, The Algerine Captive (1797) </li></ul><ul><li>7.Charles Brockden Brown and his gothic novels </li></ul><ul><li>Wieland (1798), Edgar Huntly (1799), Ormond (1799), Arthur Mervyn (1800) </li></ul>
  8. 8. II. Literature in the Colonial Period (5) <ul><li>Three Representative Figures (in prose) </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwards and his sermon : Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin and The Autobiography (1791,1818) and Poor Richard’s Almanac </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Paine and his political essays: Common Sense and American Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>John de Crevecoeur and his Letters from an American Farmer </li></ul>
  9. 9. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865) <ul><li>I. Romantic Fathers: </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Irving and J. F. Cooper </li></ul><ul><li>II. New England Transcendentalists (1836-1855): </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>III. The First Literary Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>1. Two novelists: Hawthorne and Melville </li></ul><ul><li>2. A Controversial man of letters: E. A. Poe </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Epitomes of American Poetry: </li></ul><ul><li>Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson </li></ul>
  10. 10. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865) <ul><li>4. Other Romantic poets: </li></ul><ul><li>a. W.C. Bryant ( Thanatopsis, The Yellow Violet, To a waterfoul ) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (A Psalm of Life; The Song of </li></ul><ul><li>Hiawatha; Evangeline; The Courtship of Miles Standish) </li></ul><ul><li>c. John Greenleaf Whittier, New England Laureate , ( Snow-Bound ) </li></ul><ul><li>d. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Boston Brahmin </li></ul><ul><li>( Old Ironsides, The last Leaf ) </li></ul><ul><li>e. James Russell Lowell, Boston Brahmin </li></ul><ul><li>(A Year’s Life, Biglow Papers) </li></ul><ul><li>f. Frederick Goddard Tuckerman, poet of forest </li></ul><ul><li>( Poems, Sonnets, “A Cricket”) </li></ul>
  11. 11. III. American Romantic Period (1820-1865) <ul><li>5. Two models of American Prose: </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass as a prose writer </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln as a prose writer </li></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg Address </li></ul><ul><li>6. Two Literary Critics: Emerson and Poe </li></ul><ul><li>Poe as the first professional critic </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Philosophy of Composition”, 1846 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Poetic Principle”,1850 </li></ul>
  12. 12. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.1 The High-tide of Realistic novels <ul><li>Realists : Henry James and his psychological realism </li></ul><ul><li>William Dean Howells and his moral realism </li></ul><ul><li>Local Colorists: </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain and other Local colorists (regionalism) </li></ul><ul><li>- Frances Bret Harte , The Luck of the Roaring Camp (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>The Outcasts of Poker Flat </li></ul><ul><li>- Hamlin Garland , Much-Traveled Roads </li></ul><ul><li>A Son of the Middle Border, Crumbling Idols. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalists: </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Norris, Stephan Crane, Jack London </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Dreiser and his naturalist novels </li></ul><ul><li>E.A. Robinson and naturalist poetry: The Man Against the Sky </li></ul><ul><li>“ Richard Cory”, “Miniver Cheevy” </li></ul>
  13. 13. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.2 New Poetical Development: Regional Poetry <ul><li>Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson as the Titanic Figures </li></ul><ul><li>William Moody , An Ode in Time of Hesitation, The Menagerie </li></ul><ul><li>Sidney Lanier , a musical poet , To Beethoven, Corn, The Symphony </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Lee Masters and his Spoon River Anthology </li></ul><ul><li>Amy Lowell , A Dome of Many-Colored Glass , </li></ul><ul><li>Sword Blades and Poppy Seed, “Autumn Haze” </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Hamilton Hayne ,“Southern Laureate”, Midsummer in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin Markham , The Man with the Hoe , Lincoln and Other Poems </li></ul><ul><li>Lizette Reese, Tears, A Branch of May , A Handful of Lavender </li></ul><ul><li>Anna H. Branch , The Shoes That Danced , Rose of the Wind </li></ul>
  14. 14. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.3 Afro-American literary scene <ul><li>Abolitionists and Harriet Beecher Stowe ’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin(1851), The Minister’s Wooing, Oldtown Folks, Dred </li></ul><ul><li>Other abolitionists : William Lloyd Garrison, Henry Highland Garnet, Wendell Phillips, Thomas Higginson, William W. Brown ( Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave ) </li></ul><ul><li>William Du Bois , first Harvard Afro-Am. Ph.D, The Souls of Black Folk (1903 ), The Autobiography of W.E.B. Du Bois (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington , a mild protestant, Up from Slavery (1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Waddell Chesnutt , The Conjure Woman (1899), The Goophered Grapevine, The House behind the Cedars (1900) </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Laurence Dunbar, poetry: “The Colored Soldiers”,“When Dey Listed Colored Soldiers’;Fiction: The Lynching of Jube Benson, The Sport of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington Cable , Sieur George, Old Creole Days, the Grandissimes </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Chandler Harris , Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings, </li></ul><ul><li>Free Joe and Other Sketches </li></ul>
  15. 15. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.4 The Rise of Women Writers <ul><li>1. Kate Chopin: Bayou Folk, 1894 ; A Night in Acadie, 1897; The Awakening, 1899; “The Story of an Hour” “The Storm” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Edith Wharton , The House of Mirth,1905 ; Ethan Frome , 1911; </li></ul><ul><li>The Custom of Country , 1913; The Age of Innocence , 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Louisa May Alcott , Little Women ,1867; Little Men ,1871. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Frances E. W. Harper , Poems of Miscellaneous Subjects , 1854; “The Two </li></ul><ul><li>Offers”,1859; Iola Leroy , 1892.(Radical Black woman writer) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Alice Dunbar-Nelson , Violets and Other Tales , 1895; The Diary ,1984; </li></ul><ul><li>6 . Sarah Orne Jewett , Deephaven , 1877; A White Heron and Other Stories , 1886; </li></ul><ul><li>A Country Doctor , 1884; The Country of the Pointed Firs , 1896. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Fanny Fern , Ruth Hall , 1855; Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Porfolio ,1853 </li></ul><ul><li>8. Rebecca Harding Davis, Life in the Iron-Mills,1861; </li></ul><ul><li>Silhouettes of American Life,1892. </li></ul>
  16. 16. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.5 The Slow Rise of Drama <ul><li>1. James Herne , Margaret Fleming , 1890 (the most realistic ); </li></ul><ul><li>Shore Acres ,1892. </li></ul><ul><li>2. William Clyde Fitch , The City , 1909; Nathan Hale , 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Langdon Elwyn Mitchell , The New York Idea , 1906. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bronson Howard (the first American professional playwright and </li></ul><ul><li>the pioneer of American modern drama ) </li></ul><ul><li>Saratoga , 1870; Shenandoah , 1888. </li></ul><ul><li>5. David Belasco , The Heart of Maryland ,1895; </li></ul><ul><li>The Girl of the Golden West , 1905. </li></ul><ul><li>6. William Moody , The Great Divide, 1906; The Faith Healer, 1909. </li></ul>
  17. 17. IV. The Realistic Period (1865-1914) 4.6 Literary Criticism in the early 20th Century <ul><li>New Humanism : </li></ul><ul><li>Irving Babbitt : Literature and the American College,1908; The Laocoon,1910; The Masters of Modern French Criticism,1912; The Critic and American Life, 1932. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Elmer More : Shelburne Essays,1904-21; New Shelburne Essays, 1928-36. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Critics: </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Louis Mencken : The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche,1908 Prejudices, 1919-27; The American Language, 1919; Notes on the Democracy, 1926. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Wyck Brooks : The Malady of the Ideal,1913; The America’s Coming of Age, 1915; Letters and Leadership,1918; The Ordeal of Mark Twain,1920; The Pilgrimage of Henry James,1925. </li></ul><ul><li>Others: </li></ul><ul><li>James Gibbons Huneker , Iconoclasts: A Book of Dramatists,1905; Egoists: a Book of Supermen, 1909; Promenades of an Impressionist, 1910. </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Elias Spingarn , History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 1899; The New Criticism, 1911. </li></ul>
  18. 18. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.1 Modern Poetry (Five Modernist Giants) (A) <ul><li>1. Ezra Pound (85-72): Hugh Selwyn Mauberley; Cantos; Cathay </li></ul><ul><li>2. T.S. Eliot : The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock(1915), </li></ul><ul><li>The Wasteland (1922), Four Quartets(1935-42) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Wallace Stevens : Harmonium, Ideas of Order, The Man with the </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Guitar and Other Poems; “Anecdote of the Jar” </li></ul><ul><li>4. W.C. Williams : Paterson (1946-63); “The Red Wheelbarrow” </li></ul><ul><li>5. Robert Frost(1874-1963) : </li></ul><ul><li>A Boy’s Will (1913, “Mowing”) </li></ul><ul><li>North of Boston (14, “Home Burial”, “Mending Wall”, “After Apple-Picking” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Interval (1916, “Birches”, “The Road Not Taken”) </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire (23/“Fire and Ice”; “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”) </li></ul><ul><li>West-Running Brook (28); A Further Range (36, “Design”); </li></ul><ul><li>A Witness Tree (42); Steeple Bush (47, “Directive”); In the Clearing (1962) </li></ul>
  19. 19. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.1 Modern Poetry (Other Modernist Poets) (B) <ul><li>1. Harriet Monroe & Louis Untermeyer : two modernist pioneers </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Carl Sandburg and Midwest poets: Chicago Poems; Cornhuskers; Good Morning, America; The People, Yes; Smoke and Steel. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Vachel Lindsay : General William Booth Enters into Heaven; The Congo; The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hart Crane: White Buildings,26; The Bridge, 30 </li></ul><ul><li>5. e. e.cummings: The Enormous Room (22);Tulips and Chimneys(23) </li></ul><ul><li>6. H.D. (Hilda Doolittle): Sea Garden; Helen in Egypt ; “Oread” “Heat” “Hermes of the Ways” </li></ul><ul><li>7. John Gold Fletcher: Irradiations: Sand and Spray; The Ghosts of an Old House; Goblins and Pagodas </li></ul><ul><li>8. Marianne More: Poems; Observations; “No Swan So Fine;” “Fish” </li></ul><ul><li>9 . Fugitives such as Ransom , Allan Tate, Donald Davidson , etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 1 <ul><li>1. Two Novelists in the Transitional era </li></ul><ul><li>A. Sherwood Anderson(1876-1941) : </li></ul><ul><li>Windy McPherson’s Son (16); Marching Men (17); </li></ul><ul><li>Winesburg, Ohio (19); Poor White (20); The Triumph with the Egg (21 ); </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Laughter (25); Death in the Woods (33) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Willa Cather(1873-1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander’s Bridge(12), O Pioneers(13), </li></ul><ul><li>The Song of the Lark(15), My Antonio (18) </li></ul><ul><li>One of Ours (22); The Professor’s House (23) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The first Nobel Prize Winner: Sinclair Lewis(1885-1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Our Mr. Wrenn (14); Main Street (1920); Babbitt (1922); </li></ul><ul><li>Arrowsmith (25); Elmer Gantry (27); Dodsworth (29) </li></ul>
  21. 21. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 2 <ul><li>3. Two Female Euro-Residing Geniuses in the modern literary stage </li></ul><ul><li>A. Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) Three Lives (1909); The Making of America (1925); Tender Buttons (1914); The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Djuna Barnes (1892-1982) A Book (1923); A Night Among the Horses (1929); Ryder (1928); Nightwood (1936); Smoke and Other Early Stories(82) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Representatives of the Lost Generation: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) </li></ul><ul><li>In Our Time (25); The Sun also Rises (26); Men without Women (27); A Farewell to Arms (29); Winner Take Nothing (33); Death in the Afternoon (32); Green Hills of Africa (35); To Have and For Whom the Bell tolls (40); The Old Man and the Sea (52); </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”. </li></ul><ul><li>B. F. S. Fitzgerald (1896-1940) </li></ul><ul><li>This Side of Paradise (20); Flappers and Philosophers (20); Tales of the Jazz Age (22); The Beautiful and the Damned (22); The Great Gatsby (25); Tender is the Night (34); The Last Tycoon (41) </li></ul>
  22. 22. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 3 <ul><li>5. Epitome of the Southern Renaissance: </li></ul><ul><li>William Faulkner (1897-1962) and his Yoknapatawpha country </li></ul><ul><li>Soldier’s Pay (26); Mosquitoes (27); Sartoris (29); The Sound and the Fury (29); As I Lay Dying (30); Sanctuary (31); Light in August (32); Absalom, Absalom (36) </li></ul><ul><li>The Unvanquished (38); The Wild Palms (39); Go Down, Moses (42)(“The Bear”) </li></ul><ul><li>The Hamlet (40); A Fable (57); The Town (57); The Mansion (60); </li></ul><ul><li>Intruder into the Dust (48); Requiem for a Nun (51); The Reivers (62) </li></ul>
  23. 23. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 4 <ul><li>6. Faulkner’s Southern Followers: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Anne Porter (1890-1980): </li></ul><ul><li>Flowering Judas (30); Noon Wine (37); Pale Horse, Pale Rider (39); </li></ul><ul><li>Ships of Fools (62); The Never-Ending Wrong (77); Letters (90) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Eudora Welty (1909- ): </li></ul><ul><li>A Curtain of Green (41); The Wide Net (43); The Golden Apples (49); </li></ul><ul><li>The Bride of the Innisfallen (55); Moon Lake (80); The Robber Bridegroom (42); Delta Wedding (46); The Ponder Heart (54); The Optimist’s Daughter (72) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Carson McCullers(1917-67): The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (40); Reflections in a Golden Eye(41); The Member of the Wedding (46); Clock without Hands(61); The Ballad of the Sad Café (51) </li></ul>
  24. 24. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 5 <ul><li>7. Pearl Buck (1892-1973), the first Woman Nobel Prize Winner in Literature and China under her Pen </li></ul><ul><li>“ The House of Earth” trilogy: The Good Earth ,1931, Pulitzer Prize; Sons , 1932; A House Divided , 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spirit and the Flesh (36); All Men Are Good Brothers (33,37); Imperial Woman (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Raymond Chandler’s(1888-1959) mystery novels </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Sleep (39); Farewell, My Lovely (40); The Lady in the Lake (43); The Long Goodbye (54) </li></ul>
  25. 25. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 6 <ul><li>9. The Black Novelists in the Harlem Renaissance: </li></ul><ul><li>Zora Neale Hurston (1901-1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Jonah’s Gourd Vine (34); Their Eyes Were Watching God (37); Moses: Man of the Mountain (39); Seraph on the Suwanee (48); Dust Tracks on a Road (42) </li></ul><ul><li>Langston Hughes (1902-67) </li></ul><ul><li>Novels: Not Without Laughter (30); Tambourines to Glory (58) </li></ul><ul><li>Short Tale Collections: The Ways of White Folks (34); Something in Common (63) </li></ul><ul><li>Poems: The Weary Blues (26); Fine Clothes to the Jew (27); Dear Lovely Death (31); The Negro Mother (31); The Dream Keeper (32); Montage of a Dream Deferred (51); Ask Your Mama (61) </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Wright (1908-1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Children (38); Native Son(40 ); 12 Million Black Voices (41); Black Boy(45 ); The Outsider (53); The Long Dream (58) </li></ul>
  26. 26. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 7 <ul><li>10. The Radical Novelists as the Leftist Writers: </li></ul><ul><li>John Dos Passos (1896-1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Three Soldiers (21); Manhattan Transfer (25); Orient Express (27); </li></ul><ul><li>USA Trilogy: The 42nd Parallel (30); 1919 (32); The Big Money (36) </li></ul><ul><li>District of Columbia Trilogy (52 ): Adventures of a Young Man (39); Number One (43); The Grand Design (49) </li></ul><ul><li>Steinbeck(1902-1968): </li></ul><ul><li>The Cup of Gold (29); The Pastures of Heaven(32); Tortilla Flat (35); In Dubious Battle (36); Of Mice and Men (37); The Grapes of Wrath (39); The Pearl (48); Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team (42); The Moon is Down (42); Cannery Row (45); The Wayward Bus (47); East of Eden (52), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>James T. Ferrell(04-79) </li></ul><ul><li>Young Lonigan (32); The Yang Manhood of Studs Lonigan (34); Judgment Day (35) </li></ul><ul><li>Erskine Caudwell(03-87): </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco Road (32); God’s Little Acre (33); </li></ul><ul><li>Journeyman (35); Trouble in July (40); House in the Uplands 46) </li></ul>
  27. 27. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 8 <ul><li>11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period: </li></ul><ul><li>Nathaniel West (03-40): The Dream Life of Balso Snell, 31 ; Miss Lonelyhearts, 33 ; A Cool Million, 34 ; The Day of the Locust, 39. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin Rolfe (09-54): To My Contemporaries, 36; “Epitaph, for Arnold Reid”, 38; First Love and Other Poems,51; Permit Me Refuge,41. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Roth (05-95): Call It Sleep, 34; Mercy of a Rude Stream, 94 . </li></ul><ul><li>Tess Slessinger (05-45): Missis Flinders, 32; Time: The Present, 35; The Unpossessed, 34,her first novel . </li></ul><ul><li>Muriel Rukeyser (13-80): Theory of Flight, 35 ( including The Boy with His Hair Cut Short); U.S.1, 38 ; A Turning Wind, 39 ; The Soul and Body of John Brown, 40 ; Beast in View, 44. </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Shapiro (13-2000): Good Housekeeping; Poetry . </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Cahan (60-51): Yekl: A Tale of the New G York Ghetto , 1896; The Rise of Davis Levinsky , 17. </li></ul>
  28. 28. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.2 Modern Novelists 8 <ul><li>11. The Jewish American Novelists in this Period: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Antin (1881-1949): From Polotzk to Boston, 1899; The Promised Land,1912; “The Lie”,1913. </li></ul><ul><li>Anzia Yezierska (85-70): The Free Vacation House, 1913; All I could Never Be,32; Red Ribbon on a White Horse: My Story,50; The Fat of the Land,19; Hungry Heart,20; Children of Loneliness, 23; Salome of Tenements, 23; Bread Givers, 25; Arrogant Beggar, 27 . </li></ul><ul><li>Ludwig Lewishohn (82-55): Up Stream,22; The Broken Snare, 08; The Case of Mr. Crump, 26; The Island Within, 28. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Gold (93-67): Jews without Money, 30; 120 Million, 32; the Hollow Man, 41. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Dahlberg (1900-77): Bottom Dogs,29; From Flushing to Calvary, 32; Those Who Perish,34; Do These Bones Live?41. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Fearing (02-61): Death Reckoning,38; Clark Gifford’s Boy,42; The Big Clock, 46. </li></ul>
  29. 29. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama <ul><li>The Rise of Small Theatres : Neighborhood Playhouse, Provincetown Players, The Theatre Gild, Washington Square Players, The Group Theatre, Playwrights’ Company, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Opening of the dramatic courses : George Pierce Baker’s English 47, from Harvard University to Yale University. </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Glaspell ( 1876-48 ) as the pioneer of the feminist drama </li></ul><ul><li>the founder of the Provincetown Players, the reformer of theatre </li></ul><ul><li>novels: The Glory of the Conquered (09); Fidelity (15); Visioning (11) </li></ul><ul><li>Plays: Suppressed Desires (15, the first of modern American Drama); </li></ul><ul><li>Trifles (1916, her masterpiece); The Outside (17); Bernice (19) </li></ul>
  30. 30. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama “ The Comedian Tradition ” <ul><li>George S. Kaufman ( 89-61 ) founder of modern popular comedy </li></ul><ul><li>major plays: Dulcy, 21; To the Ladies, 22; Once in a Lifetime, 30; Of Thee I Sing,31; You Can’t Take It with You, 36; Beggar on the Horseback, 22. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Nathaniel Behrman (93-73) </li></ul><ul><li>Major plays: The Second Man(27); Biography (32); End of Summer (36); The Burning Glass (68) </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Barry (96-49) </li></ul><ul><li>Major plays: You and I (23); The Youngest (24); In a Garden (25); </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Bound (1927); Holiday (28); Universe Hotel (30); The Philadelphia Story (39) </li></ul>
  31. 31. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Dramatic Renaissance) <ul><li>Eugene O’Neill (88-53) and American Theatrical Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Life: theatrical background; attending Prof. Baker’s Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions of Writings: </li></ul><ul><li>I (1913-1920): </li></ul><ul><li>A Wife for a Life (13); Bound East For Cardiff (14); Beyond the Horizon (20); </li></ul><ul><li>II (1920-1934): </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Christine (20); The Emperor Jones (20); Desire Under the Elms (24); The Hairy Ape (21); The Great God Brown (25); All God’s Chillun Got Wings (23); Marco Millions (25); Strange Interlude (27); Mourning Becomes Electra (31) </li></ul><ul><li>III (34-46): </li></ul><ul><li>The Iceman Cometh (39); Long Day’s Journey into Night (40); Hughie (40); A Moon for the Misbegotten (43) </li></ul>
  32. 32. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama) <ul><li>Maxwell Anderson (88-59): O’Neill’s Only Match in the 20s </li></ul><ul><li>White Desert (23); What’s the Price of Glory ?(24); Winterset (35) </li></ul><ul><li>Elmer Rice (92-67): </li></ul><ul><li>On Trial (14); The Adding Machine (23); Winter Scene (29); The Subway </li></ul><ul><li>Sidney Howard (91-39): </li></ul><ul><li>They Knew What They Wanted (24); Lucky Sam McCarver (25); Ned McCobb’s Daughter (24); The Silver Cord (26) </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Sherwood (96-55): </li></ul><ul><li>The Petrified Forest (35); Idiot’s Delight (36); Abe Lincoln in Illinois(38 ); There Shall Be No Night (40); Roosevelt and Hoptkins (48) </li></ul>
  33. 33. V. The Modern Era (1914-1945) 5.3 Modern American Drama (Social Drama) <ul><li>Sidney Kingsley(06-95): </li></ul><ul><li>Men in White (33); Dead End (35) </li></ul><ul><li>Lillian Hellman (05-84) </li></ul><ul><li>The Children’s Hour (34); Days to Come (36); The Little Foxes (39 ); Watch on the Rhine (41); The Searching Wind (44) </li></ul><ul><li>Thornton Wilde (97-75) </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman Car Hiawatha (31); The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden (31); Our Town (38); The Skin of Our Teeth (42) </li></ul><ul><li>T. S. Eliot (the Advocate of the poetic drama in 20th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeney Agonistes (26); Murder in the Cathedral (35); Family Reunion (39); The Cocktail Party (49); The Confidential Clerk (53); The Elder Statesman (59) </li></ul>
  34. 34. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>1. War Novels </li></ul><ul><li>John Hersey(1914-): Hiroshima (46); The Wall (50) </li></ul><ul><li>James Gould Cozzens (1903- ): Guard of Honor (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Erwin Shaw (1913-84): The Young Lion (48) </li></ul><ul><li>James Jones (1921-77): From Here to Eternity (51) </li></ul><ul><li>Herman Wouk (1915- ): The Cain Mutiny (51); Winds of War (71); </li></ul><ul><li>War and Remembrance (79) </li></ul><ul><li>Norman Mailer (1923-): The Naked and the Death (48) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Heller (1923-): Catch-22 (61); Closing Time (1994, a sequel) </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (1922-): Slaughterhouse Five (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Pynchon (1937- ): The Gravity’s Rainbow (1973) </li></ul>
  35. 35. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>2. Jewish American Novelists </li></ul><ul><li>Saul Bellow (1915-2005) -- 1976 Nobel Prize Winner </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling Man (44); The Victim (47); The Adventures of Augie March (53); </li></ul><ul><li>Seize the Day(56 ); Henderson the Rain King(59 ); Herzog (64); Mr. Sammler’s Planet (70); Humbolt’s Gift (75); Dean’s December (82); The Actual (97) </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard Malamud (1914-86) </li></ul><ul><li>Novels: The Natural (52); The Assistant (57); A New Life (61); The Fixer (66); Dubin’s Life (79); God’s Grace (82). </li></ul><ul><li>Collection: The Magic Barrel (58); Idiots First (63); Rembrandt’s Hat(73 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Issac Bashevis Singer (1904-1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Yiddish Works: Satan in Goray (34); The Family Moskat (45); Gimpel the Fool (53); The Magician of Lublin (59). </li></ul><ul><li>English Works: The Spinoza of Market Street(61 ); The Slave (62); The Manor (67) </li></ul>
  36. 36. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>2. Jewish American Novelists </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Roth (1933- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Goodbye, Columbus (59); Portnoy’s Complaint (69); The Breast (72); </li></ul><ul><li>The Professor of Desire (77); The Ghost Writer (79); Zuckerman Unbound (81) </li></ul><ul><li>The Anatomy Lesson (83); Patrimony (91); Operation Shylock (93); Sabbath Theatre (95); American Pastoral (97); I Married a Communist (98); The Human Stain (2000); The Dying Animal (2001); Plot Against American (2004); Every Man (2006); Exit The Ghost (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Auster (1947- ) </li></ul><ul><li>City of Glass (85); Ghosts (86); The Locked Room (86); The Country of Last Things (87); The Music of Chance (1990);Mr. Vertigo (94); Timbuktu (99) </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Ozick (1928- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Trust (66); Bloodshed (76); Levitation (82); The Shawl (89); </li></ul><ul><li>The Cannibal Galaxy (83); The Messiah of Stockholm (87) </li></ul>
  37. 37. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>3. Southern Novels </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989)(New Criticism) </li></ul><ul><li>All the King’s Men (46); World Enough and Time (50); Band of Angels (55); Wilderness (61) </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Capote (1924-84) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Voices, Other Rooms (48); The Grass Harp (51); </li></ul><ul><li>In Cold Blood (66) </li></ul><ul><li>William Styron (1925- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lie Down in Darkness (51); The Confessions of Nat Turner (67); Sophie’s Choice (79) </li></ul><ul><li>Flannery O’Cannor (1925-64) </li></ul><ul><li>Novels: Wise Blood (52); The Violent Bear It Away (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Collections: A Good Man is Hard to Find (55); Everything That Rises Must Converge (55) </li></ul>
  38. 38. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>4. Novels Against the Cultural Norm </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome David Salinger (1919- ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Young Folks (40); The Catcher in the Rye (51); Nine Stories (53) </li></ul><ul><li>Fanny and Zooey (61); Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters (63) </li></ul><ul><li>William Burroughs (1914- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Beat Novels: Junky (53); Naked Lunch (59) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Novels: The Soft Machine (61); The Wild Boys (71); Exterminator (73); Cities of the Red Night(81 ); The Place of Dead Roads (83) </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Kerouac (1922-69) </li></ul><ul><li>On the Road (57); The Dharma Bums (58); Desolation Angels (65) </li></ul>
  39. 39. VI. Contemporary American Literature A. Novels since 1945 <ul><li>5.Experimental Novels </li></ul><ul><li>John Hawks (1925- ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Cannibal (49); The Lime Twig (61);Second Skin (64); The Blood Oranges (71); Travesty (76); The Passion Artist (79) </li></ul><ul><li>John Barth (1930- ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Floating Opera (56); The End of the Road (58); The Sot-Weed Factor (60); Giles Goat-Boat (66); Lost in the Funhouse (68);Chimera (71); Letters (79); Once Upon a Time (94) </li></ul><ul><li>William H. Gass (1924- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Omensetter’s Daughter (66); The Tunnel (95) </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Barthelme (1931-89) </li></ul><ul><li>Unspeakable Practices, Unnatural Acts (68); Snow White (67) </li></ul>
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