Curr. 1


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Curr. 1

  1. 1. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Presented By Akmaludin
  2. 2. WHAT IS CURRICULUM? The four commonplaces of education are that someone teaches something to someone somewhere. Some people define the “something,” the curriculum, as what is found in the textbook or teacher’s guide. Others broaden the definition of curriculum to mean everything that happens with the support of the school.
  3. 3. The curriculum defines all of the educative experiences learners have in an educational program, the purpose of which is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives that have been developed within a framework of theory and research, past and present professional practice, and the changing needs of society.(Parkay et al 2006)Curriculum, simply put, is a way of talking about what we want students to learn. Curriculum is the organization of teaching and learning.
  4. 4. HERE ARE SEVERAL OTHER DEFINITIONS: A curriculum can be defined as a plan of action or a written document that includes strategies for achieving desired goals or ends. This position, popularized by Ralph Tyler and Hilda Taba, exemplifies a linear view of curriculum. Curriculum can be defined broadly as dealing with the experiences of the learner. This view considers almost anything in school as part of a curriculum. It is rooted in Dewey’s definition of experience and education.
  5. 5. Curriculum can also be viewed as a field of study, comprising its own foundations and domains of knowledge as well as its own research, theory, and principles and its own specialists to interpret this knowledge. Curriculum can also be considered in terms of subject matter (such as, mathematics, science, English, history, etc.) or content which means the way we organize and assimilate information.
  6. 6. Curriculum is a planned, composite effort of a school to guide students toward predetermined learning outcomes. Marsh and Willis (2007) place the various definitions of curriculum along a spectrum: At one end, curriculum is seen merely as a course of study; at the other end, curriculum is more broadly defined as everything that occurs under the auspices of the school.
  7. 7. The word “curriculum” is derived from the Latin word currere, meaning “the course or circuit that a race is to follow. It implies the path or track to be followed or the course of study to be undertaken” Some people understand curriculum as everything that runs or occurs under the auspices of the school. In the middle of the spectrum, curriculum is viewed as an interaction between students and teachers that is designed to achieve specific educational goals (Marsh and Wilis: 2008).
  8. 8. Curriculum, then, is much more than what we see in curriculum guides, textbooks, and teachers’ guides. To show the interconnectedness of written materials with teaching, learning, and learning outcomes, this paper will discuss three areas of curriculum emphasis: the intended curriculum, the taught curriculum, and the learned curriculum. In addition, we will consider the hidden curriculum and the null curriculum.
  9. 9. ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS OF THE CURRICULUM For most curricula, the major components or elements are (1) aims, goals and objectives; (2) subject matter/content; (3) learning experiences and (4) evaluation approaches.
  10. 10. When translated into questions, each component can be addressed by the following: 1. What is to be done? 2. What subject matter is to be included? 3. What institutional strategies, resources and activities will be employed? 4. What methods and instruments will be used to assess the results of the curriculum? (Bilbao, et al: 2008)
  11. 11. CURRICULUM APPROACHES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Behavioral approach Managerial approach Systems approach Academic approach Humanistic approach Reconceptionalists approach
  12. 12. AREAS OF CURRICULUM EMPHASIS Curriculum is a process, not just textbooks and other learning materials. It includes intended, taught and learned curriculum. The intended curriculum refers to the formal, approved guidelines for teaching content to pupils that is developed for teachers and/or by teachers. A nation’s goals often shape or direct the broad set of guidelines for the overall curriculum. The Department of Education intends that teachers will teach and students will learn what the guidelines set for the training.
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES FOR CURRICULUM DESIGN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Curriculum is a process, not just textbooks and other learning materials. It includes intended, taught and learned curriculum. National goals for education need to be linked with national assessment, pupils learning outcomes, school curriculum, and teacher training curricula. Curriculum needs to extend beyond an emphasis on acquiring fact-based knowledge to include skills, attitudes, and values. Curriculum must specify adequate instruction time for basic subjects, especially language development and mathematics in primary grades. Professionals with current teaching experience need to be involved at all levels of writing, developing, and evaluating curriculum. Curriculum should be widely validated by parents, community members, teachers, ministries across sectors and the business community. This will build understanding, support and confidence in schools and teachers.
  14. 14. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Textbooks need to follow the clear, well-organized scope and sequence of the curriculum and to be available when a new official curriculum is published. Textbooks and materials need to be piloted before they are distributed widely. National investments need to make provision for updates and changes to textbooks and learning materials. The curriculum review and development cycle must proceed expeditiously to ensure that the curriculum is relevant and current. For example, a ten-year cycle is too long. Effective curriculum evaluation examines and makes judgments on the value of intended, taught, and learned curriculum according to pre-set standards. Summative evaluation should precede curriculum revision.
  15. 15. 12. 13. 14. 15. Curriculum needs to be responsive to emerging issues as they arise, for example, Life Skills approaches, whether they relate to HIV/AIDS prevention, Environment Education, Peace Education, or Education for Development. It will often be necessary to incorporate new agendas into curriculum. Pupil achievement is enhanced if pupils first become literate in their mother tongue, but investments in first language texts of increasing complexity may be prohibitively expensive. However, whatever the languages policy may be, teaching must be effective for pupils to achieve. Curriculum also consists of how the teacher teaches and makes links with what children already know. Direct improvement of teaching and learning at the classroom level can contribute to better learning outcomes, even in the face of a less than optimal curriculum. Teacher education and professional development need to include a curriculum development focus that helps teachers understand both curricula content and the processes involved in supporting learning (e.g., how to teach reading and writing and how to assess student learning).
  16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Learning outcomes should describe what children should know and can do, and they should be observable in the course of classroom life through a variety of mechanisms. Learning outcomes, not written tests, should drive the curriculum. Establishing clear learning outcomes provides the context for practical assessment. Assessing student ability to perform specific learning outcomes needs to be viewed as a tool which helps teachers to know whether learning is occurring or not. Assessment is more than testing children’s understanding. It also involves assessing the entire educational system's ability to provide learning opportunities for children. System-wide support is necessary for true curriculum change, especially for change at the most important level, the classroom.
  17. 17. RALPH TYLER MODEL: FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. 2. 3. 4. This is popularly known as Tyler’s rationale. He posited four fundamental questions or principles in examining any curriculum in school. These are as follows: What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
  18. 18. TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Allan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools, such as: Recommended curriculum- proposed by scholars and professional organizations Written curriculum- appears in school, district, division, or country documents Taught curriculum- what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and schools Supported curriculum- resource-textbooks, computers, and AV materials which supports in the implementation of the curriculum Asserted curriculum- that which is tested and evaluated Learned curriculum- what the students actually learn and what is measured Hidden curriculum- the unintended curriculum
  19. 19. THREE BASIC CURRICULUM DESIGNS 1. 2. 3. Subject-centered design - includes subject design, discipline design, broad field design, correlation design and process design Learner-centered design – those identified as child-centered design, experience design, romantic/radical design, and humanistic design Problem-centered design, considers life situations, core design, and social problems/reconstructionists design
  20. 20. NEW TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM BACHELOR IN SECONDARY EDUCATION (BSED) General Education Courses – 63 units required English Language 9 units Social Sciences 15 units Engl 113 - Comm Arts 1 Soc. Sci. - Rizal’s Life and Works Engl 123 - Comm Arts 2 Soc. Sci. - Agrarian Reform, Taxation, and Engl 213 - Oral Comm Current Issues English Literature 3 units Psychology - General Psychology Eng 223 - Intro to Lit. & Phil. Lit. Hist 113 Filipino Language 9 units Pol. Sci 233 - Phil. Gov’t & Constitution Fil 113 - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino Information & Com. Tech. (ICT) – 3 units Fil 123 - Pagbasa at Pagsulat Tungo sa Pananaliksik Physical Education – 8 units Fil 213 - Masining na Pagpapahayag PE 112 Natural Science 6 units - Phil. Hist., Roots & Devt. - Self- Testing PE 122 - Fund. of Rhythmic Sci 113 - Biological Science PE212 - Group Games Sci 123 - Earth Science PE222 - Social Recreation Mathematics 6 units NSTP – 3 units Math 113 - Basic Math Institutional Requirement Math 123 - College Algebra Draw 121 - Fund. of Drawing 1 unit Humanities 6 units Educ 413c -Guidance & Counseling 3 units Hum123 - Art Appreciation Fundamentals of Music 3 units Total = 69 units (75)
  21. 21. Professional Education Courses Theory/Concept Courses Child and Adolescent Development Facilitating Learning Social Dimensions of Education The Teaching Professions - 51 units - Methods and Strategies Courses - 1 unit Principles of Teaching 1 - 6 units Principles of Teaching 2 Assessment of Student Learning 1 Assessment of Student Learning 2 Educational Technology 1 Educational Technology 2 Curriculum Development Developmental Reading 1 - 12units 3 units 3 units 3 units 3 units Field Study Courses - 12 units Field Study 1 - 1 unit Field Study 2 - 1 unit Field Study 3 - 1 unit Field Study 4 - 1 unit Field Study 5 - 1 unit - 24 units Field Study 6 - 3 units - 3 units 3 units 3 units 3 units 3 unit 3 units 3 units Practice Teaching
  22. 22. Specialization/Content Courses- 60 units 60 units of contest courses in one of the following areas of specialization for BSED: Physical Sciences (Chemistry, Physics, General Science) Biological Sciences (Biology and Environmental Science) Mathematics English Filipino Social Studies Music, Arts, and Physical Education Technology & Livelihood Educ. Values Education
  23. 23. REFERENCES: Beyer, L. E., & Apple, M. W.,(1998) The curriculum: problems, politics, and possibilities. 2d ed. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. (2003) Curriculum construction. Sydney: Pearson, Education. Marsh, Colin J. & Willis, George . (2007)Curriculum, alternative approach, ongoing issues. Columbus, Ohio: Pearson, Merill Prentice Hall. Doll, W.E., Jr., & Gough, N. (Eds). (2002) Curriculum visions. New York: Peter Lang. Henderson, J. G., & Kesson K.R. (2004). Curriculum wisdom. Upper Saddle River, NJ:n Pearson. Hlebowitz, P. S. (2005). Designing the school curriculum. New York: Allyn & Bacon.  