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E government in indonesia Document Transcript

  • 1. HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Siyaset Bilimi ve Kamü Yönetimi Anabilim Dalı Kamu Yönetimi Bilim DalıDers: Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojileri ve Kamu Yönetimi E-KTP PROGRAM IN INDONESIA Hazırlayan: AKMAL KHAIRI N12123144 ANKARA Aralık, 2012
  • 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS……………………………………………………………………………… 1I. PREFACE.................................................................................................................... 2II. PROFILE OF INDONESIA………………………………………………….……... 3 2.1. Data and Fact……………………………………………………….….… 3 2.2. Governments Level………………………………………………….….... 4III. E-KTP PROGRAM………………............................................................................. 7 3.1. Function and Format of E-KTP..................................................................... 7 3.2. Making Procedures of E-KTP........................................................................ 8 3.3. Practice and Problems.................................................................................... 9 3.4. Analysis of E-KTP Program………………………………………………... 10IV. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………….. 14RESOURCES...................................................................................................................... 15 1
  • 3. I. PREFACE In Indonesia languages, "KTP" is short for "Kartu Tanda Penduduk" (identity card).Electronic-KTP (e-KTP) is a national identity card that was made electronically, in terms ofboth the physical and use computerized function. E-KTP program was launched by theMinistry of Interior of the Republic of Indonesia in February 2011. Observance is dividedinto two phases, the first phase, started in February 2011 – April 2012 that covering 67million people in 2348 districts and 197 regency/cities. The second phase, covers 105 millionpeople spread over 300 regency/cities others in Indonesia. Overall, at the end of 2012, istargeted at least 172 million people already have an e-KTP card.1 E-KTP program is the big most e-government projects that ever undertaken by thegovernment of Indonesia. The program was implemented nationally with budget around IRP6.3 trillion (US$ 653 million).2 Previously, projects of e-government has made, but onlyapplies at the local level, like as one stop services and one roof services programs in localgovernments. The e-KTP program has intends to change conventional ID card system in Indonesiawhich allows one to have more than one ID. This is due to the lack of a unified database thatcollects population data from all over Indonesia. E-KTP can close opportunities to skew withreduplicate his ID card. For example it can be used for: avoiding tax, making fake passports,secures corruption, hiding the identities (such as terrorists). Therefore, driven by theimplementation of e-government as well as to improve the quality of service to thecommunity, the Interior Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia to implement a populationinformation system which based on the technology namely e-KTP card.1 http://www.e-ktp.com2 http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1305026130/anggota-dpr-minta-anggaran-e-ktp-ditinjau-ulang 2
  • 4. II. PROFILE OF INDONESIA2.1. Data and Fact Republic of Indonesia that was built in August, 17, 1945 is a country in SoutheastAsia. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president, and It has 33provinces. The nations capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with PapuaNew Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore,Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Indonesia is a member of the G-20 major economies and the worlds sixteenth largest by GDPUS$ 847 billion (2011) 3. Picture 1 Map of Indonesia Source: http://www.google.com/imgres Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,487 islands.4 Besides ofmany islands, Indonesia has over 241 million people (2011),5 and is the worlds fourth mostpopulous country. The people consists of 1,128 ethnic6 and more 746 linguistic groups7 (10%3 http://www.worldbank.org/in/country/indonesia4 http://us.nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/260537-indonesia-daftarkan-13-487-pulau-ke-pbb5 http://www.riauterkini.com/sosial.php?arr=441506 http://www.jpnn.com/index.php?mib=berita.detail&id=574557 http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/10/22/22260274/depdiknas.terbitkan.peta.bahasa 3
  • 5. of the number of languages in the world) that widespread in Indonesian Islands. Governmentrecognized four religions, as: Islam 85.1%, Christian (Protestant and Catholic) 12.7%, Hindu1.8%, and Buddhism 0.4%.8 Despite its large population and densely populated regions,Indonesia has large areas (1,904,569 km2)9 that support the worlds second highest level ofbiodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.2.2. Government Level Indonesia is a unitary state with a presidential system that give autonomy to localgovernment. Local governments consist of:10 1. Province A province is headed by a governor. Each province has its own legislative body. Governors and representative members are elected by popular vote for 5-year term. Indonesia is divided into 33 provinces that carry out the principle of deconcentration and decentralization. Five provinces have special status:  Province of Yogyakarta Special Region, Royal of Yogyakarta Sultans is de facto governor of Yogyakarta since the Republic of Indonesia was built until now. In this province governor not was elected, but held by The Sultan hereditarily.  Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam has greater role in local government, which includes its own Islamic Sharia law (for Muslim citizens), and decisions or laws made by the central government which directly affect Acehs administration must be referred to the local government or local legislative body.  Province of Papua, since 2001 local government has a greater role, including was given specific autonomy fund and the governor is from Papuan origins.8 http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agama_di_Indonesia9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subdivisions_of_Indonesia 4
  • 6.  Province of West Papua, has the same status as Papua  Province of Jakarta is Special Capital Region, because it is the capital city of Indonesia. The Governor of Jakarta has the power to appoint and dismiss mayors and regent within the Jakarta Special Capital Region. The local government is allowed cooperate with other cities from other countries.2. Regency and City Regency (Kabupaten) and City (Kota) is a local level of government beneath that of province, however they enjoy greater decentralization affairs than province does, such as provide public schools and public health facilities. Indonesia has 399 Regency and 98 City. Both regency and city are the same level, having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a Regency and a City lies in differing demographics, size and economics. Generally the regency has larger area than city, and city has a non-agricultural economic activities. A regency is headed by a regent (Bupati), and a city is headed by a mayor (Walikota). Regent or mayor and member of representatives are elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years. Each regency or city is divided into Districts (Kecamantan).3. District A District (Kecamatan) is an area within a regency or city, totally Indonesia has 6589 kecamatan. The head of a District is known as a "Camat". Camats are civil servants, responsible to the regent (for regency) or to the mayor (for city). In Papua Province and West Papua Province, this administrative level is translated as "Distrik", and is headed by a "Head of District" (Kepala Distrik). Each district is divided into village (desa or kelurahan). In Aceh Province, a Mukim is a subdivision of a district. A mukim contains some villages (Gampong). 5
  • 7. 4. Village The Village level was consist of the “Desa” or “Kelurahan”. Both Desa and Kelurahan are the area within sa district, however Desa enjoys greater local matters than Kelurahan does not. Though Desa and Kelurahan are part of a district, a Kelurahan has less power than a Desa. A Kelurahan is headed by a "Lurah". Lurahs are civil servants, directly responsible to their Camat. A Kelurahan is part of Regency/City government bureaucracy. In Indonesian, as in English, village (desa) has rural connotations, in the context of Indonesian Government Administration, a Desa can be defined as a body which has authority over the local people in accordance with acknowledged local traditions of the area. Desa is headed by "Head of Desa" (Kepala Desa), who is elected by popular vote. Most Indonesian villages use the term "desa". In some places, however, there are many other terms used, i.e.:  Gampong in Aceh  Nagari in West Sumatra  Dusun in Bungo Regency (Jambi)  Kampung in some places in Indonesia  Pekon in Pringsewu, Tanggamus, and West Lampung Regencies (Lampung)  In Bali, there are two forms of "desa", i.e. desa dinas (service village) and desa adat (cultural village). Desa dinas deals with administrative functions, while desa adat deals with religious and cultural functions.  Lembang in Toraja and North Toraja Regencies (South Sulawesi) 6
  • 8. III. E-KTP PROGRAM3.1. Function and Format of E-KTPE-KTP has some functions, that is: a) As a self identity b) Nationwide, so no need to create a local ID card for a permit, opening a bank account, etc. c) Preventing multiple ID cards and ID forgery d) The creation of accurate population data to support development programs.Forms of e-KTP cards in accordance with ISO 7810 with a credit card-sized format that is53.98 mm x 85.60 mm. It structure consists of nine layers will increase the security from theconventional ID card. Chip planted between white and transparent plastic layer on the toptwo. The chip has an antenna in it that would create waves when swiped. This Wave will beidentified by the e-ID card detection device that can be known whether the ID is in the handsof the right person or not. To create the e-ID card with nine layers, the stage of manufacturequite a lot, including: 1) Hole punching, 2) Pick and pressure, 3) Implanter, 4) Printing, 5) Spot welding, 6) Laminating. 7
  • 9. Picture 1 e-KTP Sample Source: http://www.e-ktp.com E-KTP also has advantages over ordinary ID card, including: Identification of a singleidentity, can not be forged, it can not be duplicated, can be used as a sound card in theelection or elections (e-voting). e-KTP cards in Indonesia is more comprehensive as it isequipped with a biometric or fingerprint recording and chips. Fingerprints shall be recordedfrom any e-ID card is all fingers (of ten), but the data that is included in the chip only twofingers, the thumb and forefinger of the right.3.2. Making Procedures of E-KTP  Applicant (aged over 17 years) to come to the place of service to bring a summons  Applicants go to the specified window  Officers conducted the verification of data with database  Officers took photos applicant directly  Applicant to signature on the recorder signature  Further recording fingerprints and retina scan  Officer affixing signature and stamp on the summons as well as evidence that the population has done recording photos, signatures and fingerprints 8
  • 10.  Applicants are welcome to go home to await the results of the process of printing 2 weeks after creation.3.3. Practice and Problems Application of e-KTP is a mandate of the Act (Act) No. 23 of 2006 and a series ofother regulations such as the regulations of Law No. 35 of 2010 which states the rules ofprocedure and the technical implementation of e-KTP cards equipped with fingerprint andchip. This program in Indonesia has been started since 2009 with the appointment of fourcities as pilot projects. The city is the Padang, Makassar, Yogyakarta and Denpasar. Whilethe implementation of e-KTP project started in February 2011 – April 2012 that covering 67million people in 2348 districts and 197 regency/cities. May - end of 2012 The second phasecovers 105 million people spread over 300 regency/cities others in Indonesia. Overall, wastargeted at least 172 million people already have an e-KTP card. Recording e-KTP hasreached the target in November 2012, but only 89 million (51,7%) that was distributed. 11 Soe-KTP project can’t finish in 2012, or this is not according with previous plan. Implementation of e-KTP program smoothly only in major cities, but in remote areashas some problems. The main problem is the geographic area of Indonesia (Islands) is veryspacious and minimal infrastructure. Not all areas have electricity and personnel that capableof using IT equipment properly, so many broken equipment. Moreover, great variety ofethnic, religion, cultural and linguistic population also complicates the implementation of theprogram. This is not only happened in the e-KTP program but also in other governmentprograms. With all these problems, the implementation of e-KTP project in Indonesia took along time, about 2 years.11 http//nasional.kompas.com/read/2012/11/08/1505254/perekaman.E-KTP.Mencapai. 9
  • 11. 3.4. Analysis of E-KTP Program E-KTP project is part of the e-government program in an effort to reform thebureaucracy in Indonesia. This is a basic program that will be the foundation for furtherreform. Mete Yıldız make Subcategories of e-government as:12 Subcategories of e-Government Parties of Content Dominant Definition Examplecommunication characteristic Government to Government Communication, e-administration Establishing and Government information coordination, using a common and services standardization of data warehouse information and services Government to Communication, e-government Government Citizen transparency, organization accountability, web sites, e-mail effectiveness, communication efficiency, between the standardization of citizens and information and government services, officials productivity Government to Communication, e-government, Posting Business collaboration, e-commerce, e- government bids commerce collaboration on the web, e- procurement, e- partnerships Government to Communication, e-governance Electronic Civil society coordination, communication Organizations transparency, and coordination accountability efforts after disaster Citizen to Communication, e-governance Electronic Citizen coordination, discussion transparency, groups on civic accountability, issues grass roots organization12 Mete Yıldız, e-Government Research: Reviewing the literature, limitations, and ways forward, GovernmentInformation Quarterly (2007) 10
  • 12. E-KTP project is at the level of the two as part of the Government to Citizen and is defined asthe e-government. This function is Communication, transparency, accountability,effectiveness, efficiency, standardization of information and services, productivity. The nextplan, e-KTP will be developed as a tool for e-Voting and e-Health. According to Mete Yıldız,13 There is a problem about the explanatory power of muchresearch in the e-government literature. even the definition of the concept of e-government iselusive and it is ever-changing depending on the rapid change of technology itself and widearray of government applications and all the public policy issues these technologies can beapplied upon. E-government research has four big question, that is: 1) How can e-government studies be better connected to and grounded in the mainstream public administration research? E-government studies research is so far dominated by a technical focus, and shapedby economic and administrative values. Therefore, e-government studies should be betterconnected to and grounded in the mainstream public administration research. Furthermore, e-government research must more focus on macro-level public administration themes. Asmacro-level themes, e-government studies should most importantly focus on the role e-government in government reform and ICT-enabled institution creation and changegovernment. E-KTP is an attempt to reform the system of government in Indonesia. Previously,Indonesia using conventional ID card which has some limitations, such as:  Do not store complete data  Irregular ID number (can’t be the benchmark census)  People have to make a lot of identity as a birth certificate, family card and ID card13 Mete Yıldız, Big Questions of E-government Research, Information Polity (2012) 11
  • 13.  To make driving licenses and other permits, that only be used in the local province.E-KTP can solve these problems and make the government more effective and efficient. Sofar, the government has difficulties to run its programs because there is no certainty of thedata population, so many programs that are not well targeted and wasteful budget. Beside of,as a democracy, every 5 years Indonesia should make elections for president and legislative,governor in 33 provinces, and mayor/regent in 497 cities/regencies. Uncertainty of thenumber of voters and wasting budget for voter count is problems that often occur. With e-KTP, government programs could be on target, no longer have to do regular census, reducethe administrative burden of citizens and can make budget savings. 2) How can e-government studies be more multidisciplinary and comparative? E-government research becomes more fruitful and has a better chance of influencingother discipline when it is comparative. Moving e-government research from descriptive casestudies focusing on one academic discipline to empirical studies with multi-disciplinary focusand authorship will help strengthen it. Multi-disciplinary and comparative studies most likelyrequire the collaboration of researchers and policy actors across the board. A final andcritically important issue is coordination with different organizational, political, andadministrative cultures that limit fruitful international, multidisciplinary, and collaborativeresearch on e-government. E-KTP project does not stand alone, but relates to other disciplines and in practiceinvolves a variety of different organizations. That is relates to politic, psychology, sociology,and anthropology science. In politic, E-KTP able to overcome the problem of the disputedelection which caused by the inflation of votes and voters, as well as fraud in the election(double election, money politics, etc.). According to the Constitutional Court of Indonesia,from 2008 to December 2011 there are 440 local election. Of this amount, 392 that contained 12
  • 14. the disputed elections in the Constitutional Court.14 With the e-KTP, there is an opportunityto prevent cheating through e-voting. It provides an opportunity for political scientists toconduct research on changes in the quality of the local elections. In Psychology, Sociologyand anthropology, e-KTP can change the behavior of individuals, communities, and bring anew culture. In the region of Southeast Asia, an Indonesian was known has characteristicsdisorderly, criminal, troublemakers, and others. Neighboring countries that have implementede-ID card, like as Malaysia and Singapore, is recognized more disciplined and orderly. Thiswill be the object of comparison and research for scientists of psychology, sociology, andanthropology. In addition, as a large country and much population, China and India hadalready implemented e-ID card, can be comparable in the e-government studies. 3) How to better measure and evaluate e-government performance and result? Evaluation of performance in government organizations and employees is one of thebasic objectives of current government reform movements, such as the new publicmanagement. There are some problems about the assessment of e-government projects:measurement and evaluation of subjective, focus on online service (without flexible,responsive, accountable and participatory), quantity trap regardless quality, a lack ofemphasis on social, technical and political value-added, prioritize for benchmarking and risein rankings rather than for local and national priorities, and technical design or citizen needs. The good evaluate of e-government performance and result must objective withinvolve multi stakeholder like NGO, citizens, technician, politician and researcher.Government as an e-KTP project implementers should always make a poll about the quality,responsive, accountable of these project. In practice, the use of e-KTP cards have weakness.For example, the signature does not appear on the surface e-KTP card. That causes problem14 http://www.seputar-indonesia.com/edisicetak/content/view/462330/ 13
  • 15. to transactions with banking institutions. Signature are printed in the chip can not be readbecause the bank did not have the tools (card reader). Therefore necessary collaborationbetween government as the organizer of the e-KTP project with private as user. 4) How to produce novel and more useable concepts, model and theories in e-government research? E-government research is criticized for being rather weak in producing novel andmore usable concept, models and theories. Theoretical orientation may help e-governmentresearchers to rediscover critical theorizing supported by solid empirical (multi-disciplinary,multi-method, and collaborative) research. Academic cross-fertilization with otherdisciplines, as suggested in above-sections, is an old and successfully-tested way of theorygenerating and testing and theoretical development. E-KTP project is generating a multiplier effect, both among science (publicadministration, politics, sociology, psychology, anthropology) and between organizations(national and international). So that, to produce new models and theories is possible becauseit can use a multi-disciplinary, multi-method, and collaborative. IV. CONCLUSION E-KTP project is part of the e-government program in an effort to reform thebureaucracy in Indonesia. It is the basic program to establish communication between thegovernment premises to citizens more effectively and efficiently. E-KTP can be researchedwith multi-disciplinary, multi-method, and collaborative. 14
  • 16. RESOURCESYıldız, Mete. (2007). E-government Research: Reviewing the literature, limitations, and ways forward. Government Information Quarterly (p. 646-665).Yıldız, Mete. (2012). Big Questions of E-government Research. Information Polity (1-13)http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/10/22/22260274/depdiknas.terbitkan.peta.bahasa.http://us.nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/260537-indonesia-daftarkan-13-487-pulau-ke- pbb.http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1305026130/anggota-dpr-minta-anggaran-e-ktp-ditinjau- ulang.http://www.e-ktp.com.http://www.jpnn.com/index.php?mib=berita.detail&id=57455.http://www.riauterkini.com/sosial.php?arr=44150.http://www.seputar-indonesia.com/edisicetak/content/view/462330/.http://www.worldbank.org/in/country/indonesia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subdivisions_of_Indonesia.http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartu_Tanda_Penduduk_elektronik.http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agama_di_Indonesia.http//nasional.kompas.com/read/2012/11/08/1505254/perekaman.E-KTP.Mencapai. 15