Session 5.3 ‘Biodiversity and Agroforested Habitats’, Wednesday 12 February

Shade, litter, nematodes, earthworms,
termite...
Forest conversion to coffee
Can infiltration and soil functions
be maintained?
Do agroforestry systems matter?
Objective: ...
Activities
Lampung,
2004

1. Survey belowground biodiversity
(BGBD) in various land use systems

Lampung, 2004
& Malang 20...
Land Use Systems
1. HA= Undisturbed Forest
FOREST

2. HS = Disturbed (secondary)

3. AF = Coffee based agroforestry
4. KM=...
Coffee monokulture)
(CoffeeMonoculture

(Shaded coffee)
Coffee-based AF

What has changed?

1. Canopy cover
of
fe
e

M

on
o

i

Flower

C

-G
l ir

Leaf

Sh
ad
ed

40%

-P
ar

60%

at
Ma
on
o

Branch

Sh
ad
ed

0%
lir
i

14

M
Cu...
What has changed?

3.Micro climate
Source: Hairiah et al., 2006

28
26

Range of spatial variation, oC

Mean soil temperat...
ACTIVITY 1
BGBD Inventory
What has changed?

Earthworm Diversity
(Taxonomy, Biogeography, Function)
Biogeo
graphy

Fungti
on

Metaphire sp.1

N

Ep
...
What has changed?
LOST

DOMINANT

Metaphire javanica

Pontoscolex corethrurus
1

2

CHANGES ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: Soil Porosity
4

3

Soil Macropore
30 cm

30 cm

100 cm

Forest

Macropore invertical plane

20 %

Coffee-based
Agroforestry

30 cm

8%

Coffee
monoculture

...
No

TERMITES

39 species

Aini, 2006

Exclusive Species in the Forest

Total species in
Lampung:

Species

1 Coxocapriterm...
ACTIVITY 4

Companion crops

Nematodes Sampling
Coffee

50 m

Zone A

100 m

Zone B1

150 m

Zone B2

Zone c

10 cm

10 cm...
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200

100
0

UNF

LOF

AFC MNC

Land use systems

(B)

100

SFI

Relative density Functional
in...
Omnivora
1%

KK1

Predator
1%
Bakterivora
21%

Fungivora
4%

Algaivora
0%

KK3

Omnivora
Bakterivora
1%
7% Predator
1%

Al...
Effect of cropping pattern in coffee agroforestry system
on abundance of parasitic nematode (Radopholus)
Cropping pattern
...
Activity 2.
Farmer perceptions ~
BGBD

Earthworm is important for
maintaining enough ‘humus’ in
agricultural soil & good b...
Plannar cage

Field Day:

LIFE BENEATH OUR FEET
ACTIVITY 3. What “food quality” earthworms like?
Not all litters are the same……
Earthworm Mortality, %

Gliricidia

120

100
80
60
40

control

20

Control
0
Coffee (C)
Gl...
Mortality, %/pot

120

Gliricidia application > 4
Mg ha-1 is harmful for
earthworm started at 7
days after application

y ...
Process

Drivers

Forest

Agroforestry: Tree diversity

Tree density &
diversity: Canopy
cover

Micro Climate: Air &
Soil
...
Improving ABGD in complex AF systems is a key
factor in maintaining BGBD and optimizing its
ecosystem function.

BUT,
spec...
• BGBD Project
• Indonesian Ministry of
Education & Culture
• Indonesian Ministry of
Research Technology
• TULSEA Project ...
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Shade, Litter, Nematodes, Earthworms, Termites and Companion Trees in Coffee Agroforestry in relation to Climate Resilience

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This presentation was given by K.Kurniathan at the World Agroforestry Congress in New Delhi. February 10-14, 2014

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Shade, Litter, Nematodes, Earthworms, Termites and Companion Trees in Coffee Agroforestry in relation to Climate Resilience

  1. 1. Session 5.3 ‘Biodiversity and Agroforested Habitats’, Wednesday 12 February Shade, litter, nematodes, earthworms, termites and companion trees in coffeebased agroforestry in relation to climate resilience K. Hairiah1), I G. Swibawa 2), W.S. Dewi3), F. K. Aini4), D.Suprayogo1), Widianto1), F.X. Susilo2) and M van Noordwijk4)
  2. 2. Forest conversion to coffee Can infiltration and soil functions be maintained? Do agroforestry systems matter? Objective: Quantify direct and indirect impact of changes in tree diversity on diversity of soil biota and ecosystem services of coffee based agroforestry systems ~ climate resilience
  3. 3. Activities Lampung, 2004 1. Survey belowground biodiversity (BGBD) in various land use systems Lampung, 2004 & Malang 2005 2. Focus group discusisons (FGD) ~ farmer local knowledge on BGBD Malang, 2007 3. Pot experiments ~ Earthworm response to litter quality Lampung, 2007 4. Survey on the spatial pattern of nematodes in a mixed coffee agroforestry system.
  4. 4. Land Use Systems 1. HA= Undisturbed Forest FOREST 2. HS = Disturbed (secondary) 3. AF = Coffee based agroforestry 4. KM= Monoculture coffee 5. TS = Annual food crop system 6. HT= Vegetables crop system Coffee garden Annual Crop 7. AL = Degraded land (Imperata grassland)
  5. 5. Coffee monokulture) (CoffeeMonoculture (Shaded coffee) Coffee-based AF What has changed? 1. Canopy cover
  6. 6. of fe e M on o i Flower C -G l ir Leaf Sh ad ed 40% -P ar 60% at Ma on o Branch Sh ad ed 0% lir i 14 M Cu oflti s fe t er Fo de rd es -G t Sh a 2 ar 4 Litter composition 6 -P st ra ta 8 de d ul ti 10 Sh a M 12 Fo re st Litter input, Mg/ha/yr What has changed? 2. Litter Input Fruit 11.5 100% 10.0 9.2 80% 6.1 3.6 20% 0
  7. 7. What has changed? 3.Micro climate Source: Hairiah et al., 2006 28 26 Range of spatial variation, oC Mean soil temperature, oC Sun Coffee Sun Shaded Multistrata Forest 30 24 22 Forest 20 18 18 20 22 24 26 o Mean air temperature, C 28 30 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 18 20 22 24 26 o Mean soil temperature, C 28
  8. 8. ACTIVITY 1 BGBD Inventory
  9. 9. What has changed? Earthworm Diversity (Taxonomy, Biogeography, Function) Biogeo graphy Fungti on Metaphire sp.1 N Ep Metaphire sp.2 N Ep Megascolex sp. N En Metaphire javanica group N A Pontoscolex corethrurus E En Gordeodrilus elegans E A Malabiria levis E En N. panamaensis E A Dichogaster saliens E En Ocnerodrilus occidentalis E En Species 11 species Jumlah jenis (10) HA HT AF KM PL HR AL Disappeared 3 4 5 5 2 N = native, E = exotic, Ep = epigeic, En = endogeic, A = anesic 3 2
  10. 10. What has changed? LOST DOMINANT Metaphire javanica Pontoscolex corethrurus
  11. 11. 1 2 CHANGES ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: Soil Porosity 4 3 Soil Macropore
  12. 12. 30 cm 30 cm 100 cm Forest Macropore invertical plane 20 % Coffee-based Agroforestry 30 cm 8% Coffee monoculture 30 cm 6% Imperata grassland 12 %
  13. 13. No TERMITES 39 species Aini, 2006 Exclusive Species in the Forest Total species in Lampung: Species 1 Coxocapritermes sp. A 2 Coxocapritermes sp. B 3 Microcapritermes connectens 4 Procapritermes sp.C 5 Pericapritermes buitenzorgi 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Termes comis Labritermes sp. A Pericapritermes nitobei Pericapritermes sp. D Pericapritermes speciosus Pericapritermes dolicephalus Nasutitermes havilandi Hospitalitermes hospitalis Schedorhinotermes brevialatus Longipeditermes longipes Macrotermes ahmadi Bulbitermes constrictus Bulbitermes flavicans Bulbitermessp. A Nasutitermes sp.B Nasutitermessp. C Parrhinotermes sp. C Parrhinotermes aequalis Bulbitermessingaporiensis Fungcional LUS Group HA HT AFI KM TP Soil 1) 3) Soil 1) 3) Soil 3) Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil 3) 1) 2) 3) 3) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 1) 3) Wood Epiphyte Wood HR AL 3) 3) 3) Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 14 species disappeared 3 Tolerant Species 7 New Species
  14. 14. ACTIVITY 4 Companion crops Nematodes Sampling Coffee 50 m Zone A 100 m Zone B1 150 m Zone B2 Zone c 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm 20 cm 20 cm 20 cm 30 cm 30 cm 30 cm
  15. 15. 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 UNF LOF AFC MNC Land use systems (B) 100 SFI Relative density Functional indiv/100 nematodes Group, Nematodes density, indiv./ 300 cc soil (A) 1000 90 Pt Fv Bv Pr Om Plant parasitic 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 UNF LOF AFC MNC SFI Land use systems (Pt = herbivore (plant parasitic), Fv = fungivore, Bv = bacterivore, Pr = predator, and Om = omnivore; UNF=Undisturbed natural forest, LOF=Logged over forest, AFC= Agroforestry coffee based, MNC=Monoculture coffee system, LAN=Low intensified annual cropping , HAN= High intensified annual cropping, SFI= Shrub – Imperata grassland)
  16. 16. Omnivora 1% KK1 Predator 1% Bakterivora 21% Fungivora 4% Algaivora 0% KK3 Omnivora Bakterivora 1% 7% Predator 1% Algaivora 0% Plant-parasitic nematodes Fungivora 2% Parasit tbh 75% Monoculture coffee, 1 yr Algaivora 1% Parasit tbh 87% Monoculture coffee, 3 yr KP5 KG3 Omnivora 3% Omnivora 5% Predator 5% Predator 7% Algaivora 0% Bakterivora 23% Parasit tbh 50% Bakterivora 28% Fungivora 3% Fungivora 9% Gliricidia -shaded coffee Parasit tbh 66% AF coffee+ banana KA5 Omnivora 3% Predator 3% Bakterivora 14% Algaivora 0% Fungivora 5% Parasit tbh 75% AF coffee+ avocado Kelimpahan klp. makan nematoda pada lahan kopi
  17. 17. Effect of cropping pattern in coffee agroforestry system on abundance of parasitic nematode (Radopholus) Cropping pattern Monoculture Coffee + banana Coffee+ Gliricidia Coffee + Gliricidia + Avocado Coffee + Gliricidia + Avocado + Mahogany Probability Population (individu per 300 cc soil) 97.47 b 328.39 a 95.02 b 88.47 b 136.92 b 0.0005 (Swibawa et al, 2008)
  18. 18. Activity 2. Farmer perceptions ~ BGBD Earthworm is important for maintaining enough ‘humus’ in agricultural soil & good bite for fishing !
  19. 19. Plannar cage Field Day: LIFE BENEATH OUR FEET
  20. 20. ACTIVITY 3. What “food quality” earthworms like?
  21. 21. Not all litters are the same…… Earthworm Mortality, % Gliricidia 120 100 80 60 40 control 20 Control 0 Coffee (C) Gliricidia (G) Avocado (A) C+G C+G+A coffee 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time, days Gliricidia litter poisonous to Pontoscolex
  22. 22. Mortality, %/pot 120 Gliricidia application > 4 Mg ha-1 is harmful for earthworm started at 7 days after application y = 57.13ln(x) - 13.98 R² = 0.748 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 0 -40 2 4 6 7 8 Under field condition: Litter production of Gliricidia 5- 6 Mg ha-1 Dosage Gliricidia, Mg ha-1 Mortality, %/pot 120 100 Mg ha-1 0 80 2 60 4 40 6 20 0 0 7 14 Time, day 21 28
  23. 23. Process Drivers Forest Agroforestry: Tree diversity Tree density & diversity: Canopy cover Micro Climate: Air & Soil Temperature, Soil moisture Soil Organisms Termites Earthworms Factors Control soil borne disease Services Nematodes ECONOMIC & ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Surface Litter composition: snag, branch, twig, leaf, fruit, flower Litter quality Decomposition Mineralisation SOM Nutrients Macropore formation Growth & Yield of desirable crops Low erosion risk Maintain C stock
  24. 24. Improving ABGD in complex AF systems is a key factor in maintaining BGBD and optimizing its ecosystem function. BUT, specific relations may be more complex as shown by Gliricidia, it provides specific benefits by suppressing plant-parasitic nematodes…. BUT, it can be harmfull for earthworms mixing Gliricidia with coffee prunings + others reduced the negative effect of Gliricidia
  25. 25. • BGBD Project • Indonesian Ministry of Education & Culture • Indonesian Ministry of Research Technology • TULSEA Project - ICRAF

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