Syntax 334 lecture 4 Noun phrases


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Syntax 334 lecture 4 Noun phrases

  1. 1. 4 Lecture Phrases
  2. 2. What is a Phrase? <ul><li>SENTENCE ↔ CLAUSE ↔ PHRASE ↔ WORD ↔ MORPHEME  </li></ul><ul><li>Words combine together to form phrases according to rules called phrase structure rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The set of phrase structure rules for a language form a generative grammar . </li></ul><ul><li>Different phrase structure rules generate phrases of different categorical structure: noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP), prepositional phrases (PP), adjective phrases (AP), adverbial phrases (AdvP), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 5. Phrase types: are they parallel? <ul><ul><ul><li>Noun Phrases (NP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The following phrase structure rule </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>NP -> Det (AP) N (S) </li></ul><ul><li>(PP)  </li></ul><ul><li>generate grammatical NP:   </li></ul><ul><li>[ NP [ N I ]] love [ NP [ N chocolate]] </li></ul><ul><li>[ NP The [ N tramp]] read [ NP the [ N diary]] </li></ul><ul><li>[ NP [ Det Both][ N girls]] enjoy [ NP [ AP classical] [ N music]] </li></ul><ul><li>[ NP [ Det The] [ N diary] [ S which the tramp was reading]] was amusing </li></ul><ul><li>[ NP [ Det Two] [ N boys] [ PP with red hair]] entered the room </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 6. A Noun Phrase <ul><li>A noun phrase contains of a head noun that is non-omissible. </li></ul><ul><li>The head noun may be preceded by a determiner specifier and an adjective that modifies the noun ( premodifier ): </li></ul><ul><li>The head noun may be followed by a postmodifier </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 7.       NP   The diary which the tramp was reading ”
  6. 8. Verb Phrases (VP) <ul><li> Is it only ONE phrase structure rule that generate VPs? Do all verbs belong to the same type? </li></ul><ul><li>to laugh </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>a) The tramp laughed </li></ul><ul><li>b) * The tramp laughed the little kid. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>VP -> V </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>to lean </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>a) The tramp leaned towards the German girl. </li></ul><ul><li>b) * The tramp leaned. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>VP -> V PP </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Each verb seems to have a different rule (or rules) for generating verb phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs fall into different (sub)categories depending on the number and category of phrasal complement, if any, they required they required to form a grammatical VP. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 10. Intransitive verbs subcategorise for 0 complement (e.g. laugh, sleep, etc.) Intransitive verbs subcategorise for 1 adverbial PP complement (e.g. lean, move, etc.) Copula verbs subcategorise for 1 AP, NP, or PP (e.g. be) Monotransitive verbs subcategorise for 1 NP or S (e,g, says, believe).
  9. 11. <ul><li>Transitive verbs subcategorise for 1 NP and 1 adverbial PP complement (e.g. put, lay, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ditransitive verbs subcategorise for 2 complements 1 NP plus 1 PP or 2 NPs (e.g. told, send). </li></ul><ul><li>Complex transitive verbs subcategorise for 2 complements 1 NP plus 1 AP or 2 NPs (e.g. call, put). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 12. Whether <ul><li>Determiner + noun </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>One word ( NOUN ) </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun ( He – she – it – they – you ….) </li></ul><ul><li>consists of one or more than one word this unit is called a PHRASE </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A dog chased that girl. </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>phrase A verb phrase B </li></ul><ul><li>chased </li></ul><ul><li>Determiner noun noun Determiner </li></ul><ul><li>A dog that girl </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The dog chased that girl. </li></ul><ul><li>S determiner+noun + verb + determiner+noun. </li></ul><ul><li>( determiner + noun ) functions as a single unit.. </li></ul><ul><li>( the pronoun ) can replaces the entire unit.. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase A verb phrase B </li></ul><ul><li>Determiner + noun Determiner + noun </li></ul><ul><li>The man the girl </li></ul><ul><li>Noun chased Noun </li></ul><ul><li>Henry carol </li></ul><ul><li>PRO PRO </li></ul><ul><li>He her </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of phrase is called a NOUN PHRASE or NP as a short form. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>NP verb NP </li></ul><ul><li>DET NOUN DET NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>a dog chased that girl </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>• In terms of forms , a sentence consists of a </li></ul><ul><li>noun phrase and a verb phrase . </li></ul><ul><li>• In terms of function , a sentence consists of a </li></ul><ul><li>subject and a predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>subject and a predicate . A predicate must contain </li></ul><ul><li>a predicator which is a verb. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Tree diagrams and phrase structure rules <ul><li>A tree diagram is a notational device which is equivalent to labeled bracketing. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides the same information about the syntactic structure of the sentence </li></ul>
  17. 20. On a tree diagram <ul><li>The two way split into noun phrase NP </li></ul><ul><li>(SUBJECT).. </li></ul><ul><li>And verb phrase VP ( PREDECATE ).. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like this : </li></ul>
  18. 21. Predicate Subject
  19. 22. What is meant by “phrase structure rules”? <ul><li>A convention used to sum up the system of expanding one unit into other units. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a set of instructions called </li></ul><ul><li>PS rules </li></ul>