Intro to Trans 350 methods of translation


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Here you find a presentation on methods of translation

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  • the text in literal translation hereunder is same as text in abook of translation as problems and solutions by dr. Hassan Ghazala professor at Al-fatih University
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Intro to Trans 350 methods of translation

  1. 1. || Methods of translation ||
  2. 2. Introduction |L| |“  | <ul><li>What is the meaning of method of translation? </li></ul><ul><li>We can defined it as ‘ the way we translate, whether we translate literally or freely, the words or the meaning , the form or content , the letter or the spirit , the manner or the matter, the direct meaning or the implied meaning, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you || get that?! </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  3. 3. Introduction |L| |“  | <ul><li>Writer on translation have suggested different methods based two major old-new methods of translation, LITERAL and FREE. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you || get that?! </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  4. 4. 1- literal translation |L| |“  | <ul><li>literal translation is understood and applied in three different ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Word-for-word translation: </li></ul><ul><li>Each English Word is translated into equivalent word in Arabic which is kept the same as, and in line with that of English: e.g. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1- e.g. Word-for-word translation: <ul><li>That child is intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>How can we translate this sentence by using this method ? </li></ul><ul><li>That child is intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>ذكي يكون الطفل ذاك </li></ul><ul><li>( ذاك الطفل يكون ذكي ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you || get that?! </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  6. 6. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>This method is risky as it may disrupt meaning and, hence, translation, for a number of reasons, some of which are: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>It ignores the target language completely, making it subject to the source language wholly and entirely </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>( ذاك الطفل يكون ذكي ) intelligent That child is </li></ul><ul><li>But the correct is: ذاك الطفل ذكي </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  8. 8. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>It disregards the grammatical differences between two language </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary wanted to take tea </li></ul><ul><li>ماري ارادت ان تأخذ شاياً wrong </li></ul><ul><li>( أرادت ماري ان تشرب ( تتناول ) شاياَ ) correct </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  9. 9. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>3.It transfers the SL grammar and word order . It does not acknowledge the different word order (s) of two language . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>He is living from hand to mouth </li></ul><ul><li>) هو يكون عائشاًََ من يد إلى فم ) wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Correct يعيش على الكفاف </li></ul>
  10. 10. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>It has no respect for the context of the words in language and allows for words to be understood in isolation, not in combination with other surrounding words. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>please stay with me on the campus </li></ul><ul><li>wrong من فضلك ابق معي على الحرم الجامعي </li></ul><ul><li>correct من فضلك ابق معي في الحرم الجامعي </li></ul>LET’S CONTINUE
  11. 11. Disadvantages for this method <ul><li>5 .It transfers the primary (or common) meaning of words. By this, it dismisses the possibility of any polysemous, special indirect or metaphorical use of words. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>stop beating about the bush </li></ul><ul><li>wrong أوقف الضرب حول الشجرة </li></ul><ul><li>correct كف عن اللف والدوران / عن المراوغة </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>It cannot deal with SL words that have no equivalents in the TL </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>This man is a big shot </li></ul><ul><li>wrong هذا الرجل يكون كبيرة رمية </li></ul><ul><li>correct هذا الرجل عظيم الشأن / مهم </li></ul>
  13. 13. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>7- It views meanings as the product of words only, which is not acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>I know this information </li></ul><ul><li>wrong أنا أعرف هذه المعلومة </li></ul><ul><li>correct أعرف هذه المعلومات </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2-One –to-one literal translation <ul><li>One –to-one literal translation is to Newmark </li></ul><ul><li>“ a boarder form of translation, each SL words has a corresponding TL word” </li></ul><ul><li>He also adds “One –to-one translation is more common than word-for-word translation ” </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2-One –to-one literal translation <ul><li>this method of translation means to translate each SL word or phrase into an identical word or phrase in the TL, with the same number, grammatical class and type of language. </li></ul><ul><li>noun is translated into a noun </li></ul><ul><li>two noun into two nouns </li></ul><ul><li>One adjectives into one </li></ul><ul><li>Idioms into idioms and so on </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2-One –to-one literal translation <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbors are good </li></ul><ul><li>جيراني يكونون طيبين </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2-One –to-one literal translation <ul><li>This method of literal translation is similar to the first one in two respects: </li></ul><ul><li>It retains the SL word order in the TL </li></ul><ul><li>It insists on having the same type and number of words </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2-One –to-one literal translation <ul><li>It is different from it in two respects too: </li></ul><ul><li>It take context into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>It translate collocational meaning, special and metaphorical SL words and phrase into their TL equivalents, if and when available. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is acceptable and better than word-for-word translation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>It transfers the SL grammar and word order, regardless of the TL grammar and word order: </li></ul><ul><li>(a)- starting all the Arabic versions with a subject then a verb each, ignoring sentences( ( الجملة الاسمية </li></ul><ul><li>And the start with the verb in verbal sentences ( ( الجملة الفعلية </li></ul>
  20. 20. Disadvantages of this method <ul><li>ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ </li></ul><ul><li>B- Insisting on translating verb “be” into “ يكون ” and “have” into “ يملك ” only in all examples. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ </li></ul><ul><li>C- translating all personal pronouns. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3-lieral translation of meaning: Direct translation <ul><li>It is the translation of meaning in context; it takes into account the TL grammar and word order. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be described as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ full translation of meaning ”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ the best method of literal translation. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>To run in the race يجري يركض في السباق </li></ul><ul><li>To run a company يدير شركة </li></ul><ul><li>In the long run على المدى البعيد </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ok we finished the literal translation let’s continue to second method … || Free translation ||…
  23. 23. … || Free translation ||… <ul><li>It means to translate without constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>The translators is not strictly constraints by the type of the text or context, or the direct and available meaning of words and phrases, looking perhaps for the spirit, or the message. He can translate something the way he understands it. </li></ul>
  24. 24. … || Free translation ||… <ul><li>All other terms pointed out above and used nowadays to substitute for “free”, such as ‘ communicative’, ‘dynamic’, pragmatic’, ‘creative’ and ‘idiomatic’ coincide with many of these implications. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bound Free Translation <ul><li>This type of free translation is derived from the context in a direct way, though it may go out of it in some way or another , in the form of exaggeration ,expressivity , and effective, rhetorical or formal language . It is the type we usually understand by the term free translation . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Examples:- <ul><li>He got nothing at the end </li></ul><ul><li>( رجع بخفي حنين / عاد خالي الوفاض ) </li></ul><ul><li>She was sad deep down </li></ul><ul><li>( تفطر قلبها من الحزن / أصبح فؤادها فارغا ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Common among these translation is their expressive ,effective ,rhetorical and very formal Arabic , by means of using: <ul><li>A- Expression from the Holy Quran (10); </li></ul><ul><li>B- a prophetic Tradition (i.g.Sunnah)(4); </li></ul><ul><li>C- popular religious expression (9); </li></ul><ul><li>D- proverbs(1); </li></ul><ul><li>امتطى صهوة + في أسرع من البرق E- collocation(2,3) </li></ul>
  28. 28. F- Poetry (5&6); G- pompous , exaggerated expressions(7) All these free translation are derived in one way or another from the original .
  29. 29. B-Loose Free Translation : This free translation method goes far away from the direct linguistic context to inferences. It is based on the translator's conclusions about what the speak-writer want to say .
  30. 30. Example : <ul><li>* Thank you , Mr. Wilson . Next please . </li></ul><ul><li>( تفضل بالانصراف يا سيد ويلسون . عندنا غيرك ) </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker says ”thank you” to a guest or customer at the end of their meeting , as an indirect way to ask him-her to leave .so ,instead of asking him-her directly to leave he goes for” thank you” which is understood as “will you leave, the interview is over” </li></ul>
  31. 31. THE END OF PRESENTATON <ul><li>Students : </li></ul><ul><li>Ashwag Al-mazamomy </li></ul><ul><li>Sara Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>Thank u Ashwag and Sara </li></ul>Dr Amira Kashgary  