Akashdeepsinghjandu7

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  • After the report was written further information from the European CC/energy policy from March 2007 can be mentioned:
    Meeting the 2°C objective:
    Developed countries & EU: 30% GHG emission reduction target by 2020, compared to 1990 levels
    Developing countries: Reduced growth asap, absolute reductions after 2020
    Deforestation: halt within two decades and then reverse
    Tools:
    “An Energy Policy for Europe”
    Additional climate policies
    Emissions trading and the global carbon market
    Concrete proposals for strengthening developing country participation
    Leadership:
    EU leadership through a firm independent commitment to achieve at least 20% GHG emission reductions by 2020, compared to 1990 levels
    EU policies and measures
    Binding target of a 20 % share of renewable energies in total EU energy consumption by 2020 (different national targets to be agreed)
    Proposal for renewable energy directive in 2007 (Commission)
    Minimum 10% biofuels in total EU transport fuel (petrol, diesel) by 2020 subject to production being sustainable, second-generation biofuels being available, and successful amendments to the fuel quality directive
    Non-binding target to reduce total EU energy consumption 20% by 2020 (compared to baseline projections), through an EU action plan on energy efficiency (agreed end of 2006)
    Proposal for a European Strategic Energy Technology Plan in 2007 (strengthen research into renewable, low carbon and energy efficient technologies)
  • After the report was written the following conclusions from IPCC FAR can be mentioned:
    Based on the findings in its fourth assessment some conclusions can be drawn as they are formulated in “Summaries for policymakers”
    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level
    It is likely that there has been significant anthropogenic warming over the past 50 years averaged over each continent except Antarctica (see Figure SPM-4). The observed patterns of warming, including greater warming over land than over the ocean, and their changes over time, are only simulated by models that include anthropogenic forcing.
    Anthropogenic forcing is likely to have contributed to changes in wind patterns13, affecting extra-tropical storm tracks and temperature patterns in both hemispheres.
    Temperatures of the most extreme hot nights, cold nights and cold days are likely to have increased due to anthropogenic forcing. It is more likely than not that anthropogenic forcing has increased the risk of heat waves.
  • After the report was written the following conclusions from IPCC FAR can be mentioned:
    Based on the findings in its fourth assessment some conclusions can be drawn as they are formulated in “Summaries for policymakers”
    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level
    It is likely that there has been significant anthropogenic warming over the past 50 years averaged over each continent except Antarctica (see Figure SPM-4). The observed patterns of warming, including greater warming over land than over the ocean, and their changes over time, are only simulated by models that include anthropogenic forcing.
    Anthropogenic forcing is likely to have contributed to changes in wind patterns13, affecting extra-tropical storm tracks and temperature patterns in both hemispheres.
    Temperatures of the most extreme hot nights, cold nights and cold days are likely to have increased due to anthropogenic forcing. It is more likely than not that anthropogenic forcing has increased the risk of heat waves.
  • Akashdeepsinghjandu7

    1. 1. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 1 Europe’s Environment The fourth assessment
    2. 2. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 2 From Kiev to Belgrade • The ‘Environment for Europe’ process: environmental challenges and their relationship to society • 53 European countries, USA, Canada and Israel
    3. 3. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 3 The European Environment Agency prepared assessments for ministerial conferences in • Sofia 1995, • Århus 1998, • Kiev 2003, In Belgrade 2007 the fourth assessment was presented. From Kiev to Belgrade
    4. 4. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 4 The fourth assessment presents … • the current state of the pan-European environment • assessed in relation to social and economic change • for use as a basis for policy development and implementation • changes since Kiev
    5. 5. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 5 53 countries and over 870 million people
    6. 6. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 6 Main messages on: 1. Environment, health and the quality of life 2. Climate change 3. Biodiversity 4. Marine and coastal environments 5. Sustainable consumption and production 6. Sectoral drivers of environmental change
    7. 7. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 7 Environment, health and quality of life AIR • Pollutant emissions in WCE falling but still significant. • Emissions in EECCA up by 10% or more
    8. 8. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 8 AIR • Particulate material and ozone caused 380,000 premature deaths in Europe in 2000 • Small particles remain main health threat in EECCA and SEE Loss of statistical life expectancy (months) due to anthropogenic PM2.5 emitted in 2000 Environment, health and quality of life
    9. 9. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 9 WATER QUALITY • More than 100 million people in the region lack access to safe drinking water or adequate sanitation • In EECCA and SEE the quality of water supply and sanitation services has deteriorated continuously over the past 15 years. • The rural population is affected more than urban citizens. • Some improvement of water quality in rivers • But some large rivers remain severely polluted MONITORING • Limited water quality data for EECCA and SEE - status and trends unclear Environment, health and quality of life
    10. 10. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 10 River catchments affected by flooding 1998-2005 WATER QUANTITY • One‑third of the pan‑European population lives in countries where water resources are under substantial pressure. • Over the past five years, the region has suffered more than 100 major floods. Environment, health and quality of life
    11. 11. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 11 Climate change • Energy consumption and GHG emissions increasing • Proposed EU target: 50% emission reduction globally by 2050 Source: IEA, 2006
    12. 12. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 12 Climate change • Environmental impacts: more extreme weather, rising sea level, shrinking ice cover • Economic impacts: agriculture and tourism • Adaptation measures needed even if emissions reduced
    13. 13. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 13 Climate change
    14. 14. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 14 Biodiversity • More than 700 species in Europe threatened • Habitat loss from urban development, road construction, agricultural intensification, land abandonment • Invasive alien species • Climate change will increase pressures on biodiversity in coastal, arctic and alpine areas
    15. 15. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 15 Biodiversity loss • Networks of protected areas being created, but their conservation status is insufficiently known • Importance of sensitive agricultural and forestry areas with high nature value • Target of halting biodiversity loss in 2010 will not be met.
    16. 16. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 16 Marine and coastal environments • First general review of seas and coasts since 1995 (Dobris) • Pressure from over-exploitation of resources and high coastal population densities • Impacts aggravated by climate change • Policy actions are reducing concentrations of toxic chemicals in western seas.
    17. 17. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 17 Marine and coastal environments • Eutrophication in enclosed seas and sheltered waters • Overfishing and illegal fishing – needs improved policies and stricter law enforcement • Oil spills reducing, but significant oil pollution from sea transport and refineries
    18. 18. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 18 Sustainable consumption and production Policy development: • On the policy agenda since 2003 (WSSD conference) • Slow progress since Kiev • Political process not converted into measurable results
    19. 19. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 20 Sustainable consumption and production Major regional differences in the efficiency of resource use
    20. 20. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 21 Sustainable consumption and production Some decoupling achieved: • major differences in efficiency of resource use persist • link between economic growth and energy consumption broken in many countries • some decoupling not ‘real’–shift of burden to other countries
    21. 21. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 22 Trade flows between EECCA and WCE/SEE Sustainable consumption and production
    22. 22. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 23 Sustainable consumption and production • Growing consumption causing global environmental impacts • Greatest life-cycle environmental impacts from food and drink, private transport, housing • Tourism and air transport future key impact areas
    23. 23. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 24 Sustainable consumption and production Waste generation is growing: • Driven by increase in economic activity and consumption • Municipal waste increasing by 2% annually, more in EECCA
    24. 24. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 25 Sectoral drivers of environmental change Energy: energy consumption and GHG emissions increasing despite energy efficiency improvements and more renewables Agriculture: irrigated area increasing, showing continuing intensification and causing decline in water resources and quality
    25. 25. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 26 Transport: *Transport energy consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions per capita in WCE continue to be two to four times higher than in SEE and EECCA *Growing in WCE and SEE, falling in EECCA Transport energy consumption per capita by region 1993 and 2004 Sectoral drivers of environmental change
    26. 26. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 27 Tourism increasing demand for the most environmentally damaging transport modes: cars and air Tourism inbound and outbound expenditure—EECCA and SEE Sectoral drivers of environmental change
    27. 27. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 28 Options for future action • Promote implementation of regional environmental agreements (e.g. Black Sea, Caspian, Carpathian) • Set clear, realistic environmental targets and monitoring mechanisms • Strengthen governmental support for education on sustainable development
    28. 28. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 29 Options for future action • Strengthen governmental support for public participation and awareness • Expand existing pan-European partnerships; • Continue regular assessments through a shared environmental information system • Further develop environmental indicators
    29. 29. European Environment AgencyEurope’s Environment: The Fourth Assessment – Slide 30 Akashdeep Singh Jandu

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