Coffea ajith

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  • GRU
  • Coffea ajith

    1. 1. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    2. 2. A presentation on By; AJITHKUMAR S3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    3. 3. • Though over a hundred species of insects, a few invertebrates and mammals have been recorded as pests on coffee in India, only a few of them are economically important.• Among coffee pests, insects form the major group. Coffee is a perennial plant and is subjected to attack by passing as well as sedentary insects.• Almost all portions of coffee plants are susceptible to one pest or the other.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    4. 4. • In India, coffee is cultivated under shade trees, which greatly influences the microclimate in the coffee ecosystem.• Coffee pests could be kept below economic injury level by adopting integrated management strategies such as anticipation and continuous monitoring of pest outbreaks, maintenance of optimum over-head shade for judicious management of ecological factors, handling and pruning of coffee bush, conservation and augmentation of indigenous natural enemies, introduction of exotic natural enemies and timely use of need based biopesticides / insecticides.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    5. 5. I Borer III. Sap feeders• 1. White stem borer 1. Green Scale• 2. Red borer 2. Root lesion nematode• 3. Coffee bean beetle 3. Brown scale 4. Aphid• 4. Coffee berry borer 5. Thrips• 5. Shot-hole borer• 6. Mealy bugs IV.Root feedersII. Leaf feeders 1. White grub 1. Leaf miner• 2. Hairy caterpillar• 3. Leaf caterpillar• 4. Coffee grasshopper• 5. Wooly bears3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    6. 6. 1. White stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Coleoptera: Cerambycidae• It is a most serious insect pest of Arabica coffee in India (Hall et. al. 2006) it was first reported in india in 1883.• This is the one of the major cause for coffee decline in india.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    7. 7. Symptoms of attack and nature of damage• Larvae enter into the hardwood and make the tunnels may extend even into the roots.• Tunnels - tightly filed with the excreta of the grubs.• Infested plants show visible ridges around the stem.• Yellowing and wilting of leaves.• Young plants (7 to 8 years old) attacked by the borer may die in a year3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    8. 8. Larva feeding on bark Tunnels3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    9. 9. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    10. 10. • Adult - slender, long beetle (2.5 cm).• Forewings are black with white bands.• Males are generally smaller than females.• Head Male beetle - possesses distinctly raised black ridges.• Female beetle these ridges are inconspicuous.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    11. 11. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    12. 12. Management• Maintain optimum shade on the estates.• Trace the infested plants - flight periods (i.e, during March and September)• Every year - looking for ridges on the main stem and thick primaries.• Collars prune the infested plants, uproot and burn the affected parts.• Remove the loose scaly bark of the main stem and thick primaries using coir glove or coconut husk – kill the eggs• Scrubbing during flight periods - kills the eggs and grubs present in the bark region.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    13. 13. • Deep scrubbing should be avoided ( sharp implement may injure the green wood and eventually kill the plant)• Swab the main stem and thick primaries - Lindane 20 EC @ 1300 ml in 200 l of water along with 200 ml of any wetting agent.• Spraying the main stem and thick primaries with neem kernel extract may afford good control of the pest.• Field release of predators Apenesia sps for effective control of white stem borer• Field release of white muscardine fungus Beaveria bassiana (2.5 % field infection reported)3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    14. 14. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    15. 15. 2. Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera:Scolytidae• In India, the pest was first noticed on a few plantations in the Nilgiris during early 1990.Symptoms of attack and nature of damage• Pin hole at the tip of the berries (novel region)• Severe infestation - two or more holes may be seen.• Female beetle bores into the berries through the navel region make tunneling and feed inside content• Powdery substance pushed out through the holes3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    16. 16. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    17. 17. Identificatio n• Adult - small black beetle with a sub cylindrical body covered with thick hairs.• Males are smaller.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    18. 18. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    19. 19. Management• Proper adoption of cultural practices and phytosanitary measures important for management of coffee berry borer.• Transportation of infested coffee to uninfected areas is the main reason for spread.• Crop bags should be fumigated before delivery to estates to avoid cross infestation.• Timely harvest3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    20. 20. • Gleaning - spreading gunny bags or polythene sheets on the ground after picking the berries - minimize gleaning.• Maintain optimum shade and good drainage• Dipping infested berries in boiling water for 2-3 minutes kills all the stages inside.• Drying of coffee beans – prevents breeding of beetles in stored coffee based on moisture content level. – Arabica (10% moisture content) - 16kg/lit – Roubsta (11% moisture content) - 18kg/lit• Install attractant trap to collect and kill the beetles3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    21. 21. • Install multiple funnel trap and pitfall trap to collect and kill the adults.• Spray application of endosulfan 35 EC at 340 ml/200 lit of water along with 200ml of wetting agent for quite effective.• Chlorpyriphos is also effective in controlling the beetle.• Field release of Cephalonomia stephendarix and phymastichus coffea (parasites) for effective control these pests.• Applications of white muscardine fungus, Beauveria bassiana effectively reduce the borer attack 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    22. 22. 3. Shot hole borer, Xylosandrus compactus Coleoptera : Scolytidae• The short hole borer is a major pest of robusta coffeeSymptoms of attack and nature of damage• Infests green succulent branches.• Young plants - main stem may be attacked.• Presence of shot hole• Initial symptom - drooping of leaves• Withered (faster in young branches and delayed in older twigs) or dried branches• Attacked Leaves fall and prematurely• Terminal leaves wilt, droop and dry up.• Severe infestation - loss of considerable number of productive branches.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    23. 23. Identification• Adult brown to black with a short, sub cylindrical body and covered with fine hairs.• Females are darker and larger (1.5 to 1.8 mm)• Males are dull and small (0.8 to 1.0 mm) 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    24. 24. Management• Insecticide applications do not provide for shot hole borer control.• Grub entered into twig and make tunneling – Ambrosia fungus developed from the tunneling. Female lays eggs on the tunneling• After egg hatching, the white milky larvae feed on the ambrosia fungus• Prune the affected twigs 2 to 3 inches beyond the shot-hole and burn (September)• Remove and destroy all the unwanted/infested suckers during summer (avoid breeding).• Maintain thin shade and good drainage.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    25. 25. 4. Mealy bugs, Planococcus spp Homoptera: Pseudococcidae• Mealy bugs are the most important sucking pests of coffee.• P.citri and P. lilacinus are the most common species infesting coffee.Symptoms of damage and nature of attack Young plants – susceptible for heavy infestation.• Infest tender branches, nodes, leaves, spikes, berries and roots• Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves.• Severe infestation - Chlorotic leaves, aborted flower buds and small berries• Honey dew excrete – development of sooty mould fungus (affects photosynthesis)3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    26. 26. Identification• Males - smaller and winged.• Female - wingless, oval body 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    27. 27. • Maintain adequate shade.• Destroy nets of red ant and cocktailed ant.• Control ants by dusting quinalphos 1.5% or methyl parathion 2% or malathion 5% around the base of coffee and shade trees.• Spray the affected patches with quinolphos 25 EC 300 ml or fenthion 100 EC 150 using a gator sprayer.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    28. 28. • Infested roots - drench the soil near the root zone with any one of the above insecticides at the same dosage. (Add 300 ml of Plantvax 20 EC or 160 g of Bayleton 25 WP in 200 l water)• In the case of young plants (2-4 year old) drenching with dimethoate 30 EC @ 3 ml per litre of water effective in root and shoot mealy bugs.• Field release of two introduced natural enemies viz., the predatory lady bird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    29. 29. Adult of C. Grub of C. montrouzieri feed on montrouzieri feed on Leptomastix dactylopii mealy bug mealy bug3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    30. 30. 5. Green scale, Coccus viridis (Green) Coccidae: Homoptera)• The green scale is a serious sucking pest of coffee, particularly ArabicaSymptoms of attack and nature of damage• Nymphs and adults sucks sap from under surface of the leaves, green shoots, spikes and berries.• Upward curling and tender twigs drop• Honeydew excrete – development of sooty mould fungus• Heavy loss of the sap causes debility or even death of the plant.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    31. 31. Green scales on coffee leaf3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    32. 32. Identificati on • Ants movement • Nymphs – pale yellow colour • Adult - flat, oval, light green, blackish spots on dorsum3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR AJITHKUMAR
    33. 33. • Control ants as in the case of mealy bugs.• Remove and burn weeds which harbour the scale.• Spray the affected patches quinolphos 25 EC @ 120 ml or fenthion 1000 @ 120 ml or methyl parathion 50 EC @ 120 ml using a gator sprayer in 200 l of water and add 200 ml of any agricultural wetting agent in 200 l of the spray solution.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    34. 34. 6. Brown scale, Saissetia coffeae Coccidae: Homoptera)Symptoms of attack and nature of damage• Nymphs and adults suck sap from undersurface of the leaves• Honeydew excrete – development of sooty mould fungusIdentification of the pest• Nymphs are yellow, greenish-brown or dark pink, flat and oval. ‘H’shaped yellow mark (Half grown scales)• Adult female is hemispherical, body is covered by a brown hard shield. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    35. 35. Brown scales on coffee leaf3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    36. 36. 7. Cockchafers or white grubs, Holotrichia spp. Melolonthidae : ColeopteraSymptoms of damage and nature of attack• Grown up coffee plants normally attacked.• Young plants (1 to 5 years old) attacked by white grubs• Yellowing of leaves• Stunted growth• Wilting of plants and die (summer period).• Attacked plants can be easily pulled out3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    37. 37. Identification • Grub C-shaped, dirty white with dark brown head. • Adults - reddish brown beetles Green scales on coffee fruits and leaves3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    38. 38. • Affected plants – soil drench around the root zone with lindane 20 EC @ 750 ml in 200 of water.• In white grub-infested areas – at the time of planting apply phorate 5 G 10 g or carbofuran 3G 10 g into the soil in the pit.• Soil application of phorate 10 G @ 20 g per plant.• Field sanitation• Collect and kill the grubs• Install light traps and kill the trapped adults (March – June)3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    39. 39. 8. Hairy caterpillars, Eupterote spp. Bombycidae: LepidopteraSymptom of damage• Eupterote canaraica - important pests of Arabica coffee.• Feed on leaves and cause severe damage by denuding the plants.• Badly affected plants take 2 to 3 years to recover.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    40. 40. Grub Adult3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    41. 41. 8. Hairy caterpillars, Eupterote spp.Symptom of damage yellow colour • Caterpillar – pale• Eupterote canaraica - important pests of Arabica coffee. • Adult - brownish yellow moth, two diagonal bands and zigzag lines on the wings.• Feed on leaves and cause severe damage by denuding the plants. • Male is smaller than the female• Badly affected plants take 2 to 3 years to recover.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR AJITHKUMAR
    42. 42. • Collect and kill the caterpillars.• Collect and burn pupae from January to May.• Install light traps (June/July) - collecting and killing months.• Spray any one of the insecticides such as quinalphos 25 EC @ 320 ml, methyl parathion 50 EC @ 160 ml, fenitrothion 50 EC @ 240 ml, along with 100 ml of an agricultural wetting agent in 200 I of water.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    43. 43. 9. Coffee bean beetle, Araecerus fasciculatus Anthribidae : Coleoptera• The coffee been beetle is a pest of coffee berries in the field and of beans in storage• Symptoms of damage• Severe infestation occurs only in storage• Absorption of moisture content• Infested coffee beans shows circular holes (bigger than made by the coffee berry borer)• Attacked fruits in the field shrink and become black.• Infestation results in loss of weight increase in triage and reduction of market value.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    44. 44. Coffee bean beetle3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    45. 45. • Maintain optimum temperature, relative humidity and moisture content (less than 8%)• Fumigate the stored coffee with a 1:1 mixture of ethylene dibromide and methyl bromide.• Impregnate the gunny bags with a mixture of malathion 50 EC at 10ml + pyrethrum colloid at 2 g per litre of water.3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    46. 46. • http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/crop_protection/cro p_prot_crop_insectpest%20Coffee.html• http://ebschortchm.edu.in/html/e- courses.html• Coffee Pests, Diseases and their Management By J M Waller, M Bigger, R J Hillocks• Coffee, Tea and Cocoa – by K. C. Wilson3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR
    47. 47. 3/30/2013 AJITHKUMAR

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