• Like
Final biochips
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • superb slides,i just want to download the slides but i'm unable to do so.....can u give me a solution for that...if possible it will be very helpful
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,894
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
264
Comments
1
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. BIOCHIPS AJITH S7 EC-B ROLL NO:O2
  • 2. • INTRODUCTION CONTENTS• DEFINITION• STRUCTURE AND BASIC WORKING• DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING• DNA BIO CHIPS• ADVANTAGES• DISADVANTAGES• FUTURE• CONCLUSION• REFERANCE
  • 3. INTRODUCTION• Identifies us uniquely• Can be used to track our location• Size- uncooked grain of rice• Injected under the skin using syringe• Respond to signal from detector• Daniel Man holds the patent for a chip that can be tracked by satellite
  • 4. DEFINITION• Collection of micro arrays arranged on a solid substrate• Can perform millions of mathematical operations• Can perform thousands of biological operations• Human Genome Project• Increased speed of identification of genes• Also used in toxicological, protein & biochemical research• Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments
  • 5. STRUCTURE• Two parts- Transponder & Reader or Scanner Transponder :
  • 6. Cont…• Actual biochip implant• Uses RFID system• Two types- Active & Passive• Not harmful to human body• Four parts- Microchip, Antenna coil, Capacitor & Glass capsule
  • 7. Cont… Microchips:• Stores unique identification number, 10-15 digit.• AVID stores 70 trillion unique numbers.• ID number etched to surface.• Cannot be altered.• Electronic circuitry transmit ID number to reader.
  • 8. Cont… Antenna coil:• Copper around ferrite or iron core.• Simple, tiny, primitive.• Receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner. Tuning capacitor:• Stores small electrical charges(< 1/1000 of a watt)• Tuned to same frequency as reader.
  • 9. Cont… Glass capsule:• Houses all components• Made of biocompatible material• Polypropylene sheath• Injected using hypodermic syringe
  • 10. Cont… Reader:• Exciter coil provides energy to activate chip• Receiving coil receives data• Decodes the data• Displayed in LCD• All done in milliseconds
  • 11. Basic Working• Generates low power electromagnetic field• Enables biochip• Receiver amplifies code• Data displayed
  • 12. DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING Oxy sensors:• Size of a button• Monitor breathing inside ICU• Sends light pulse into body to detect oxygen• Act as a pulse monitor• Application range from sick children to chemotherapy patients
  • 13. Cont… Brain On-Off switch:• Activa implant – Medtronics Inc., US• Turns off brain signals• Uses high frequency eletric pulses• Primarily interfere with abberrant brain functions
  • 14. Cont… Adding sound to life:• Cochlear implant• Electrical pulses directly to nerve cell• Mimics the job of hair cell• Splits incoming noises to channels• Clarion & Nucleus
  • 15. Cont… Experiments with lost sight:• Joseph Rizzo , John Wyatt (Massachusetts)• 20 electrode 1 mm sq chips- mimics photoreceptors• First on rabbit• Final setup- pair of glass with camera detect & encode• Send as laser pulse
  • 16. Cont…• Eugene de Jaun- Hoplkins Wilmer Eye Inst.• Inserted electrodes• Completely blind saw well defined flashes.• Latest- implanted at surface or retina
  • 17. DNA BIOCHIPS• Tuan Vo-Dinh- at DOE of ORNL• Gene probe based• Matched box sized• Less blood, no sacrifice on accuracy• No radioactive labels• Reduces disposal cost• Distinguish b/w bacteria, virus, chemical or biological species
  • 18. ADVANTAGES• Small in size• Faster & powerful• Detect multiple viral agents in parallel• Aids deaf, dumb, blind• Stores personnal data• Ease of use• Human tracking etc..
  • 19. DISADVANTAGES• Loss of privacy• End of human freedom and dignity• Expensive• Cannot be fabricated at high density and mass
  • 20. FUTURE• Widely established in veterinary field• In the case of humans future lies in the hand of users
  • 21. CONCLUSION• Developing• Have advantages and disadvantages• Future is unpredictable
  • 22. REFERANCE• http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumb er=4129415• Herold, KE; Rasooly, A (editor) (2009). Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Fabrication and Microfluidics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-46-2.• Fan et al. (2009). "Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis in a Chip". Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Biomolecular Separation and Analysis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- 904455-47-9.
  • 23. QUESTIONS?...
  • 24. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION…