Final biochips

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Final biochips

  1. 1. BIOCHIPS AJITH S7 EC-B ROLL NO:O2
  2. 2. • INTRODUCTION CONTENTS• DEFINITION• STRUCTURE AND BASIC WORKING• DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING• DNA BIO CHIPS• ADVANTAGES• DISADVANTAGES• FUTURE• CONCLUSION• REFERANCE
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Identifies us uniquely• Can be used to track our location• Size- uncooked grain of rice• Injected under the skin using syringe• Respond to signal from detector• Daniel Man holds the patent for a chip that can be tracked by satellite
  4. 4. DEFINITION• Collection of micro arrays arranged on a solid substrate• Can perform millions of mathematical operations• Can perform thousands of biological operations• Human Genome Project• Increased speed of identification of genes• Also used in toxicological, protein & biochemical research• Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments
  5. 5. STRUCTURE• Two parts- Transponder & Reader or Scanner Transponder :
  6. 6. Cont…• Actual biochip implant• Uses RFID system• Two types- Active & Passive• Not harmful to human body• Four parts- Microchip, Antenna coil, Capacitor & Glass capsule
  7. 7. Cont… Microchips:• Stores unique identification number, 10-15 digit.• AVID stores 70 trillion unique numbers.• ID number etched to surface.• Cannot be altered.• Electronic circuitry transmit ID number to reader.
  8. 8. Cont… Antenna coil:• Copper around ferrite or iron core.• Simple, tiny, primitive.• Receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner. Tuning capacitor:• Stores small electrical charges(< 1/1000 of a watt)• Tuned to same frequency as reader.
  9. 9. Cont… Glass capsule:• Houses all components• Made of biocompatible material• Polypropylene sheath• Injected using hypodermic syringe
  10. 10. Cont… Reader:• Exciter coil provides energy to activate chip• Receiving coil receives data• Decodes the data• Displayed in LCD• All done in milliseconds
  11. 11. Basic Working• Generates low power electromagnetic field• Enables biochip• Receiver amplifies code• Data displayed
  12. 12. DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING Oxy sensors:• Size of a button• Monitor breathing inside ICU• Sends light pulse into body to detect oxygen• Act as a pulse monitor• Application range from sick children to chemotherapy patients
  13. 13. Cont… Brain On-Off switch:• Activa implant – Medtronics Inc., US• Turns off brain signals• Uses high frequency eletric pulses• Primarily interfere with abberrant brain functions
  14. 14. Cont… Adding sound to life:• Cochlear implant• Electrical pulses directly to nerve cell• Mimics the job of hair cell• Splits incoming noises to channels• Clarion & Nucleus
  15. 15. Cont… Experiments with lost sight:• Joseph Rizzo , John Wyatt (Massachusetts)• 20 electrode 1 mm sq chips- mimics photoreceptors• First on rabbit• Final setup- pair of glass with camera detect & encode• Send as laser pulse
  16. 16. Cont…• Eugene de Jaun- Hoplkins Wilmer Eye Inst.• Inserted electrodes• Completely blind saw well defined flashes.• Latest- implanted at surface or retina
  17. 17. DNA BIOCHIPS• Tuan Vo-Dinh- at DOE of ORNL• Gene probe based• Matched box sized• Less blood, no sacrifice on accuracy• No radioactive labels• Reduces disposal cost• Distinguish b/w bacteria, virus, chemical or biological species
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES• Small in size• Faster & powerful• Detect multiple viral agents in parallel• Aids deaf, dumb, blind• Stores personnal data• Ease of use• Human tracking etc..
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES• Loss of privacy• End of human freedom and dignity• Expensive• Cannot be fabricated at high density and mass
  20. 20. FUTURE• Widely established in veterinary field• In the case of humans future lies in the hand of users
  21. 21. CONCLUSION• Developing• Have advantages and disadvantages• Future is unpredictable
  22. 22. REFERANCE• http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumb er=4129415• Herold, KE; Rasooly, A (editor) (2009). Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Fabrication and Microfluidics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-46-2.• Fan et al. (2009). "Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis in a Chip". Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Biomolecular Separation and Analysis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- 904455-47-9.
  23. 23. QUESTIONS?...
  24. 24. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION…

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