INTRODUCTION TO ANDROID
• Open source under the Apache license.
• Fast application development in Java.
• Powered by Linux operating system.
• An Open Handset Alliance (OHA) project.
WHAT IS ANDROID
Android is a software stack –
OS, Middleware, Applications.
It is an operating system based on
the Linux kernel and designed primarily
for touchscreen mobile devices such
as smartphones and tablet.
It is open source Google Product.
It is developed by Google
History of android
Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States.
Developed by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Cris White – October
Google acquired Android Inc. August 2005 .
Android is a Open Handset Alliance (OHA) project.
Google lunched android version in the alphabetical order such
as Cupcake, Donut , Eclair , Froyo , Gingerbread , Honeycomb , Ice Cream
Sandwich , Jelly Bean and KitKat which is latest released version.
OHA(Open Handset Alliance)
It is a large group of Companies.
Architecture of Android
Android operating system is a stack of software components which is roughly
divided into five sections and four main layers as shown below in the architecture
This provides basic system functionality like process management, memory
management, device management like camera, keypad, display etc.
It is this layer that enables the device to handle different types of data
The Android runtime also provides a set of core libraries which enable
Android application developers to write Android applications using standard
Java programming language
The Application Framework layer provides many higher-level services to
applications in the form of Java classes. Application developers are allowed to make
use of these services in their applications.
You will find all the Android application at the top layer. You will write your
application to be installed on this layer only. Examples of such applications are
Contacts Books, Browser, Games etc.
Android Alpha :
Android Alpha was released before the Android beta was released in November
The green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok.
Android Beta :
The Android beta was released on 5 November 2007.
After that the software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007.
Android beta will generally have many more problems on speed and performance.
Pre-commercial release versions (2007–2008) :
Version based on API level :
An application programming interface (API) specifies how some software
components should interact with each other.
API can be used to easy work with graphical user interface components.
Version 1.0 and 1.1 :
Android 1.0 was released on 23 September 2008 .
This version mainly oriented for business and work purposes.
The android version 1.1 is released was released in 9 February 2009.
Android 1.1 featured mostly bug fixes and updates, and was the first ever software update
Android version 1.5 (Cupcakes) :
It was Released on April 30, 2009.
This was the first release to officially use a codename based
on a dessert item ("Cupcake")
Android version 1.6 (Donut) :
Android 1.6 launched in 15 Sept 2009, was also known as
It contains several new updates including text-to-speech
Faster OS boot times and fast web browsing experience.
Android version 2.0/2.1 (Eclair) :
Android 2.0 was released in 26 October 2009.
Bluetooth 2.1 support for faster file transfers.
Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter
Android version 2.2–2.2.3 (Froyo) :
Android 2.2 was released in 20 May 2010.
Added Features like USB Tethering and Portable Wi-Fi Hotspot.
Users can disable data access.
Support for Adobe Flash 10.1
Android version 2.3- 2.3.7 (Gingerbread) :
Released on December 6, 2010.
Updated User Interface with high efficiency and speed.
One touch word selection and copy/paste.
New keyboard for faster word input.
Android version 3.0- 3.2 (Honeycomb) :
Released on February 22, 2011.
Support for multi-core processors.
Ability to encrypt all user data.
This version of android is only available for tablets.
Android 4.0- 4.0.4 (IceCreamSandwich(ICS)) :
Released on November 14, 2011.
Virtual button in the UI.
Ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background.
Android 4.1- 4.3(JellyBean) :
Released on June 27, 2012.
Android 4.4 (Kitkat ):
Google has just Released on Oct. 31,2013 that Android 4.4 will be
It is the latest version of Android.
Further security enhancements and bug fixes.
Project Butter made this latest
update, faster, smoother and more
advantages of android phones
Update latest version of android.
Supports all Google services.
Easy in terms of notification.
Install ROM modification.
USB full facilities.
disAdvAntAge’s of Android phones
Battery backup is reduced.
Chances of malware.
Hangs a lot.
Internet connection is important.