Functionalism Framework in Language Acquisition Presentation Transcript
The Framework of Functionalism in Second Language Acquisition Forms and Functions Foundations of Language Acquisition 2011512 EIL Batch 10 - Group 3 Chulalongkorn University – Thailand 1
AboutOur Topic Description History and Development Strengths Weaknesses Teaching Methods and Approaches 2
“Functionalism” “Functionalists maintain that the communicative situationmotivates, constrains, or otherwise determinesgrammatical structure…” (Nichols, J. (1984, p 97). Functional theories of grammar. Annual Review of Anthropology, 13, 97-117.) 3
“Functionalism” Linguistic functionalism can be defined as the belief that “the forms of natural languages are created, governed, constrained, acquired and used in the service of communicative functions.” (Bates & MacWhinney, 1982; MacWhinney, Bates, & Kliegl, 1984) 4
The purpose of language uses (in both oral and written language uses)
The meaning of each context shows whether the structure is grammatical or not.
“Function-to-form” (II) Past tense of “go” - goed vs. went Example: 1) I goed to school yesterday. 2) I wentto school yesterday. 9
Grammars represent the meaning of the context.
“Form-to-function” (II) 1) boy vs. boys (irregular form) Example: I like Justin. He is a cute boy. I like Justin and John. They are good boys. 2) go vs. went (past tense) Example: I go to school every day. I went to the market yesterday. 11
Prague School of Linguistics
The early twentieth century
Roman Osipovich Jakobson,
The Prague School Linguists. “The phonological, grammatical and semantic structures of a language are determined by the functions they have to perform in the societies in which they operate.” 12
London School J.R.Firth Bronislaw Malinowski Michael Halliday 13
J.R.Firth Structuralism and Functionalism are blended Firth’s system - an enumerated set of choices in a specific context. Any item will have two types of context: - The context of other possible choices in the system. - The context in which the system itself occurs. 14
Bronislaw Malinowski Phatic communion “Speech serves the function of creating or maintaining ‘bonds of sentiment’ between speakers.” 15
The late 1950’s
The influence from Malinowski
Systemic grammar - a grammar of meaningful choices rather than of formal rules.
- That language is part of the social semiotic. - That people talk to each other. 16
Functional Applications Four of the functional approaches which have been influential in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) - Systemic linguistics - Functional typology - Function-to-form mapping - Information organization 17
The evolution of pragmatic functions in the early L1 acquisition.
- Instrumental “I want” - Regulatory “do as I tell you” - Interactional “me and you” - Personal “here I come” - Heuristic “tell me why” - Imagination “let’s pretend” - Representational “I’ve got something to tell you” 18
Describes patterns of similarities and differences among languages.
Developmental stages of L2 acquisition.
Why are some L2 constructions more or less difficult than others for learners to acquire?
e.g. How are you?
- Fine unmarked - Silence marked 19
Analyzes the acquisitional sequence of both L1 and L2.
Involves a process of grammaticalization
e.g. What did you do the day before?
- I play soccer. a beginning learner - Yesterday I play soccer. an intermediate learner - I played soccer. an advanced learner 20
Focuses on the way in which SLA learners put their words together.
Describes the structures of interlanguage.
Discovers what organizational principles guide learners’ production at various stages of development.
Analyzes how these principles interact with one another.
Functionalism Strengths 1. Functionalism focuses on communicative competence, so the need for communication is achieved. e.g. Thai students Functionalism Behaviorism (Communicative VS (Linguistics competence) competence) 23
Functionalism Strengths 2. Functionalism gives more freedom and less stress to the learners. Functionalism Behaviorism (More freedom VS (Positive or negative less stress) reinforcement stress) 26
Functionalism Strengths 3. Though Functionalism is a first language acquisition theory, it can also explain second language learning. Functionalism VS Nativism (L1 & L2) (L1 only) 25
Functionalism Strengths 4. Functionalism enhances learners’ autonomy and promotes self-monitoring. e.g. task-based language teaching method Functionalism Behaviorism (Learners’ autonomy) VS (Needs teachers to shape, reinforce and evaluate) 28
Functionalism Strengths 29 5. Functionalism allows _______________, the use of language deviating from conventional form but can produce a desired effect. - Poem e.g. I went to the beach with my nanny, Who had a hard time getting tanny. - Journalistic language e.g. P.M. to visit Japan. - Advertisement language e.g. I’m lovin’ it. - Movie title e.g.Mission Impossible - Song lyrics e.g. I just don’t love you no more, I ain'tgonna live forever.
Weaknesses of Functionalism 28 Functionalism focuses on communicative meaning and interaction, not forms. Grammatical errors Functionalism VS Structuralism (Communicative meaning) (Sets of rules)
Weaknesses of Functionalism 29 Functionalism is not suitable for writing. Functionalism VS Formalism (Free writing) (Essay writing)
Weaknesses of Functionalism 30 Learners can communicate fluently, but not accurately. Functionalism VS Structuralism(Inaccurate language use) (Accurate language use)
Weaknesses of Functionalism 31 People who move to another country have trouble mastering the language.
Learners can’t learn accurate forms of language from the journalistic language. 32 Weaknesses of Functionalism
Teaching Methods and Approaches Functional model of language teaching is applied to when language is used for meaningful purposes and to carry out authentic functions. Can be a medium of interaction and communication between people for the achievement of specific goals and purposes. (Richards, J.C, & Rodgers T. S., 2001:109) 33
Teaching Methods and Approaches Functionalism within language teaching has a rich and eclectic framework by sharing communicative common characteristics: Language is a system for the expression of meaning. Primary function is to allow interaction and communication. 34
Teaching Methods and Approaches 3. Structure of language reflects the functional and communicative uses. 4. Categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. (Richards, J.C, & Rodgers, T.S., 2001:161) 35
Teaching Methods and Approaches Littlewood(1981) determined the differences between Functional communication activities: Tasks comparing sets of pictures, similarities / differences, missing features on a map, following directions, solving problems from shared clues. Social interaction activities: conversation and discussion sessions, dialogs and role play, simulations, skits, improvisations and debates. 36
Teaching Methods and Approaches Notional-functional syllabus design and activities: Learners Roles: Functional processes of communication rather than mastery of language forms. Act as negotiator between self, learning process and experience and role of joint negotiator in groups within classroom procedures and activities. Needs to contribute as much as he/she gains, thereby learning in an interdependent way. (Breen and Candlin1980:110) 37
Teaching Methods and Approaches Teachers' Roles To facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, activities and texts. (Breen and Candlin 1980:99) In addition, The teacher needs to be an analyst, councilor, group process manager. (Richards, J.C, and Rodgers, T.S. 2001:167-168) 38
Summary of the description of “Functionalism” Language asafunctional system The contrast between “function” and “form” (Illustrated through a simple medical analogy) Needs of human body: function (purpose) Relationships between organs: form (structure) 39
Summary of History & Development The functionalism originated in the early twentieth century called “Prague School of Linguistics” and has been developed to “London School” and the most famous functionalism theory is “Systemic Grammar”, which was developed by Michael Halliday. There are four of functional approaches influencingon Second Language Acquisition (SLA): - Systemic Linguistics - Functional Typology - Function-to-Form Mapping - Information Organization 40
Summary of Strengths of Functionalism 1. Functionalism focuses on communicative competence so the need for communication is achieved. 2. Functionalism gives more freedom and less stress to learners. 3. Though functionalism is a first language acquisition theory, it can also explain second language learning. 4. Functionalism enhances learners’ autonomy and promotes self-monitoring. 5. Functionalism allows poetic license. 41
Summary of the Weaknesses of Functionalism 42 1. Functionalism focuses on communicative meaning and interaction, not forms (Grammatical errors). 2. Functionalism is not suitable for writing. 3. Learners can communicate fluently, but not accurately. 4. People who move to another country have trouble mastering the language. 5. Learners cannot learn accurate forms of language from journalistic language.
Summary of Teaching Methods and Approaches Functional model of language teaching is applied to when language is used for meaningful purposes and to carry out authentic functions. Can be a medium of interaction and communication between people for the achievement of specific goals and purposes. Language is a system for the expression of meaning. Primary function is to allow interaction and communication. Structure of language reflects the functional and communicative uses. Categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. Teaching methods and approaches will include functional communication and social interaction activities. 43
This Concludes Our Presentation on the Framework of Functionalism in Second Language Acquisition Thank You For Your Kind Attention! Group 3 In order of Presentation: TipparatEiamworawuttikul ID: 548 75333 20 Samorn Suthipiyapathra ID: 548 78160 20 Noppamart Watcharapimonpun ID: 548 75407 20 Urairat Adithepsathit ID: 548 78359 20 Rob Hatfield ID: 549 77990 20 44
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