WK3 Ancient Indian And Chinese Civilization

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Resume regular time Monday afternoon room 426.

Resume regular time Monday afternoon room 426.

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  • 1. WK3 Agenda • WK2 Issues • Think Art, What’s this?, What’s its story? • Where am I? • Homework (late work -2/wk) • Who am I? Exercise • Lecture Ancient India and China Civilization • Homework • “Little Buddha?” Video
  • 2. Ancient World Map • What do you know so far? • Global Perspective? Apples and oranges
  • 3. Think Art
  • 4. Where am I? • Country? • Khyber pass? • Harappa? • Mohenjo-daro? • Lothal?
  • 5. Ancient Indian Civilization Literature, Drama Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Society Philosophy, Religion Sculpture, Technology Architecture 3500 BCE Started agriculture 2500-1800 BCE Two-class structure: aristocracy and Indus commoners; Agricultural base, had barn Lady Sculpture:Dancer, for agricultural productivity tax, Mother Goddess, Post Trading Society (@Lothal): with Mixed technology of stone and bronze, Brick wall and lintel but Mesopotamia: cotton, spice, pottery, and city, Sophisticated water and sewage system, developed to have silk Public bath room, Engineering and mathematics, gable roof, Priest King, Major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Writing system (not yet deciphered) Public Great Bath 1500-1000 BCE Tribal kingdoms or chiefdoms (raja, Sanskrit language, Polytheistic Hinduism: Vedas Aryan senate, society) (Brahma: God of creation, Vishnu: God of Vedic period Aryan culture: Agrarian society protection & maintenance, Siva: God of ยุคพระเวท destruction) 1000-500 BCE Independent States in Ganges River , Upanishad: Monotheism of Mahabharata Epic Epic period Caste system: Priest, Noble/Worrior, Brahman(existence, pure consciousness, and Ramayana Epic ยุคมหากาพย์: Tradesperson, Servant, Jantal bliss) The absolute ปรพรหม and highest god อป (untouchable) รพรหม 563-483 BCE: Siddhartha Gautama, the (written form Monarchy Buddha, Buddhism: Three marks of existence around 400 BCE) (impermanence, suffering, non-self ) ,The four noble truths, The eight fold path 540-468 BCE: Vardhamana Mahavira; Janism 321-220 BCE 327 BCE Alexander of Macedon entered Build Road from NW to Pattana 1150 miles Buddhist scripture, Empire period India Census, military base Menander’s สมัยจักรวรรดิ 321 BCE Unification under Chandragupta problems (Mauryan, Kushan Maurya dynasty capital at:Pattana dynasty) 268-232 BCE Asoka (grandchild of Chandragupta) spread of Buddhism Kanisaka King spread Mahayana and also traded with Greek and Rome (silk & spices Sanchi Stupa, Asoka for gold coin & wine) Pillar, Gandhara art 320-535 Hindu became popular again, Universities: Ajanta Caves Classical Age of India Gupta period Gupta Empire Nalanda, Uchenee, Paranasri Kalidasa:Sakuntala
  • 6. Ancient Chinese Civilization Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Literature, Society Philosophy, Religion Sculpture, Drama Technology Architecture 5000 BCE Started agriculture along the Yellow River, Tribes and villages ,4000 BCE Rice, 2700 BCE Silk 1766-1027BCE Capital City: Anyang, Honan Province Bronze Age Culture, Worship Gods of Sky, Shang dynasty King as a leader in: Government, Defense, and Religion , River, Wind, Ancestor Barbarian invaded Aristocracy, craftsman, farmers 1400 BCE Oracle Bone, pictographs on Rural: Pit dwelling, City: tortoise, ideographs, Ancestor worship Wooden pole with gable roof or thatched roofs 1027-721 BCE 800 Years! Feudal: King is Son of Heaven, Mandate of Yang-Shao and Lung Shan influence Zhou I or Western Heaven, Capital City: Xian, Wei River Zhou Dynasty 722-481BCE Capital City: Loyang, Declined by internal problems 551 BCE Confucius: 5 Books (Change, Analects, Zhou II, Middle or History, Poetry, Rites, Spring and Mencius, Eastern Zhou, Autumn Annals The Great Spring and Learning, Autumn Period Doctrine of Renovate streets, international trade, the Mean, 403-221 BCE chariot, bow and arrow, handcrafts, Traditional Zhou III Warring natural fertilizer, irrigation system, iron Dance State Period plough Laotzu: Daoism, against education One (official language, monetary system, Great Wall of China shaft of plough), Burnt Confucius books (Mongolia to NE 221-207 BCE Qin Shi Huangdi 1st Emperor: Centralization Legalism: Strict except medical, agricultural, and astrology Coast 1400miles), Qin dynasty law and punishment books), Built streets and canals to connect Palace, Royal Tomb New Capital City: Xianyang with the capital city Terracotta Liu Bang or Kao Su King: Capital City: Chang-an Peak at Wu Di Ability Test, Buddhist Expansion, Paper, Greek Influence from Ssu-ma- the Knight Emperor: expanded the empire to N Korea, Astrology and Mathematics: Eclipse of the India, Imperial Chien: Vietnam, Pax Sinica Pride: Sons of Han, The Gentry, sun, end of the sun, and earthquake Academy, Ma Wang Chinese Department: IRS, Defense, Infrastructure, Government calculation, clock, compass, printing, Tui :T History 202 BCE-221 A.D. Officials, Silk Road from China to Central Asia, Persia, gunpowder , Chieng-kuo The Middle Book Han dynasty Mediterranean, and India, Yellow Turbans Kingdom, Belief in 5 elements
  • 7. Who am I game? • In five groups • Pick one of the important person in the history • Other groups take turn asking questions • Guess who is that person?
  • 8. Ancient Indian Civilization • Indus=>Aryan(Vedic, Epic, Empire, and Gupta) • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka • Dravidian, Aryan • Hindu Kush entrance @Khyber Pass
  • 9. Indus Civilization • Major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro • Brick wall, city planning • Sophisticated water and sewage system • Two-class structure: aristocracy and commoners • Public great bath room • Agricultural Base, had a barn for agricultural productivity tax, • Trading Society (@Lothal): with Mesopotamia: cotton, spice, pottery, and silk • Engineering and mathematics, • Writing system (not yet deciphered) • Lady Sculpture: dancer, Priest King, seals, toys How did it end?
  • 10. Aryan Civilization (Vedic Period) • Tribal kingdoms or chiefdoms (raja, senate, society) expand to Ganges river • Agrarian society • Hinduism: (Brahma: God of creation, Vishnu: God of protection & maintenance, Siva: God of destruction) • Vedas: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda • Influenced Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism
  • 11. Aryan Civilization (Epic Period) •Monarchy •Independent States in Ganges River Brahman, mouth •Caste system: –Brahman (Priest) –Kshatriya (Noble/Warriors) Kshatriya, arm –Vaishya (Tradesperson) –Sudra (Servant) –Jantal (Untouchable) •Mahabharata Epic (longest Vaishya, thigh 100,000 solok) –Civil War@Kurukaset field between Pandop and Gaorup families –Famous chapter is Bhagavad gita •Ramayana Epic Sudra, feet
  • 12. Mahabharata and Ramayana
  • 13. Religion and Philosophy • Upanishad: – Continuation of the Vedic philosophy – Soul (Atman) united with the ultimate truth (Brahman)พรหมัน – Monotheism of Brahman(existence, pure consciousness, and bliss) The absolute ปรพรหม and highest god อปรพรหม – Reach Mogasa from 3 yoga forms (from Bhagavad gita): Chayarn yoga or practice with knowledge, Karma yoga or good deeds, Bhakti or faith to god • Janism: Vardhamana Mahavira: – Believe in reincarnation – Try to reach Mogasa through self torturing – Ahimsa: nonviolent, no injury to men or animals – Who’s the famous Indian that use this strategy? • Buddhism: Three marks of existence (impermanence, suffering, non-self ) ไตรลักษณ์,The four noble truths อริยสัจ 4, The eight fold path มรรค 8
  • 14. Buddhist • Buddha=The awakened one • Three marks of existence: (Know it) – Impermanence อนิจจัง – Suffering ทุกข์ ขง ั – non-self อนัตตา • The four noble truths (Understand it) – Suffering ทุกข์ – Cause of suffering สมุทย ั – Cessation of suffering นิโรธ – Way to the Cessation มรรค • The eight fold paths (Achieve it) • Good deeds according to Kalamasuta in Buddhist – เป็ นกุศล merit, virtue, proper good deeds – ไม่มีโทษ no harm – บัณฑิตหรือผู้ร้ ูสรรเสริญ praise by the scholar – ทาให้ มากแล้ ว เป็ นไปเพื่อประโยชน์ และความสุข for benefit and happiness of all
  • 15. Empire Period • Mauryan and Kushan dynasty • 327 BCE Alexander of Macedon entered India • 321 BCE Unification under Chandragupta Maurya dynasty capital at:Pattana • 268-232 BCE Asoka (grandchild of Chandragupta) spread of Buddhism • Kanisaka King (Asoka 2) spread Mahayana and also traded with Greek and Rome (silk & spices for gold coin & wine) • Sanchi Stupa, Ashoka Pillar, Gandhara art • Buddhist Scripture, Menander’s problems • How do we know it’s Gandhara style? • What’s the difference between Mahayana and Hinayana (Teravat)?
  • 16. Gupta Period • 320-535 Gupta dynasty • Classic Indian civilization • Hindu became popular again • Universities: Nalanda, Uchenee, Paranasri • Kalidasa:Sakuntala – The ring of recollection • Ajanta Cave
  • 17. Ancient China Civilization • Separated by mountain, desert, and sea • 5000 BCE Started agriculture along the Yellow River • 2700 BCE made silk, pottery, tools made of stone • Shang=>Zhou=>Qin=>Han Dynasty • Zhou dynasty (800 years) was the longest one.
  • 18. Shang Dynasty • Capital city: Anyang, Honan Province • King as a leader in: Government, Defense, and Religion • Three-class structure: Aristocracy, craftsman, farmers or (nobles and commoners) • Bronze Age Culture • Worship : Gods of Sky, River, Wind, and ancestor • Oracle Bone, pictographs on tortoise, ideographs, • Rural: Pit dwelling, City: Wooden pole with gable roof or thatched roofs
  • 19. Zhou Dynasty (Classical Age of China) • Capital City: Xian, Loyang, Wei River, Eastern and Western Zhou • 800 Years! Feudal: King is Son of Heaven, Mandate from Heaven to convince the people that it’s a legitimate succession. Last Shang king was incompetent. • Confucius thought that war would end if the people behave appropriately. The King should have mercy for his people. • Renovate streets, international trade, horse, chariot, bow and arrow, fertilizer, irrigation system, iron plough • Lao Tzu: Daoism, live with nature, against education
  • 20. Confucious vs Loutzu • From respected but poor family in • Government official until tired of it Shangtung province (aged father) • Tao Te Ching: Classic of Nature and • The Confucian classics (5 Books) Virtue – I Ching: Change • People would be better of without – Shu Ching: Document or history civilization. – Shih Ching: Poem • Those who teach don’t know anything; – Li Chi: Rites, Etiquette those who know don’t teach. – Ch’ un Ch’iu: Spring and Autumn Annals • Laissez Faire: Need passive ruler, leave • Other books: Analects (conversation to people with their intuition, they would his disciples), Mencius, The Great live in harmony with nature and Learning, Doctrine of the Mean everyone. • Knowledge is the key to happiness and • Doctrines transformed into religious successful conduct. Anyone is capable system. of acquiring that knowledge. • Emphasis on good life and community – The state existed for man (not the other way round) – Five cardinal human relationship (ruler and subject, father and son, brothers, husband and wife, friends)
  • 21. Qin Dynasty • Qin Shi Huangdi: 1st Emperor • New Capital City: Xianyang • Centralization Legalism :Strict law and punishment • One Empire: official language, monetary system(coin), shaft of plough • Burnt Confucius books, except medical, agricultural, and astrology books • Built streets and canals to connect with the capital city • Megalomaniac??? – Great Wall of China (Mongolia to NE Coast 1400miles), – Palace and Royal Tomb Terracotta
  • 22. Han Dynasty • Liu Bang or Gao Zu King • Capital City:Chang-an • Peak at Wu Di the Knight Emperor: expanded the empire to N Korea, Vietnam • Pax Sinica Pride: Sons of Han=> The Gentry • Department: IRS, Defense, Infrastructure, Government Officials=> Ability Test สอบจองหงวน • Silk Road: Trade and Buddhist Expansion from China to Central Asia, Persia, Mediterranean, and India • Knowledge and Invention: Paper, Astrology and Mathematics: eclipse of the sun, end of the sun, and earthquake calculation, clock, compass, printing, gunpowder • Chieng-kuo: The Middle Kingdom • Believe in 5 elements • Yellow Turbans • Ssu-ma-Chien: Chinese History Book • Other historians: Pao family • Imperial Academy • Han dynasty tomb: Ma Wang Tui • How did this dynasty end?
  • 23. Homework • Table comparison for Ancient Greek and Roman Civilization • Prepare for the test--Ancient World—in week5. • Practice for the exam by using the online companion websites – Study questions, quizzes – Play games and use the interactive map