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  1. 1. WK8 Agenda • Project 8 per group: members by Jan 18, 2010 • Pick one topic for multiple comparisons project topics: religion, music, art, language and literature • European Middle Ages Lecture • Homework (-2 per week for late work) • Exam Result
  2. 2. Western Europe (Middle Ages) • Got influence from Greek and Roman Classics, Germanic tribes and Christianity • Peak at 1200-1300 AD. (Christianity and Feudalism) • Focus on the new world and prepare for the judgment day
  3. 3. Reasons for Development • Invasions had ceased (Vikings, Hungarians, Muslims) • Agricultural revolution: more food=> better economy (more money for monarchs which they could use to support church and schools)=>urban revolution (more time, migration) – Shift from Mediterranean to North Atlantic regions – The weather was warmer – Technology: • Heavy plow • Three field system • Mills • Used horses as farm animals • New religious: intellectual development
  4. 4. Germanic Tribes • Goth: – Visigoth (Odoacer) – Ostrogoth (Theodoric) defeated Odoacer and set up the capital city at Ravenna (until Justinian fought back for Byzantine • Frank: Gaul or France – 500-750 AD. Merovingian Dynasty: Clovis: Largest empire, Paris, Baptized and became Christian – 750-900 AD. Carolingian Dynasty: Charlemagne or Charles the Great • Fought 30 years to create the Christian empire • Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of the Romans on Christmas day in 800 AD • Ottonian: German – Viking invaded Western and Middle Kingdoms – Magyars(Hungarian) invaded Eastern Kingdom – Otto I (German) won the battle of Lechfeld – Pope was very satisfied so he crowned Otto I as the Holy Roman Emperor
  5. 5. Germanic Tribes • Comitatus: relationship between leaders and knights – Leaders gave: Food, weapon, and shelter – Knights returned: Loyalty and military service – Foundation of feudalism in EU • Polytheist • Christianity: Age of Faith during the dark age • Christian influenced: politic, economic, society, and tradition from birth to death – Canon Law: punished those who deceitfully swear, insulted Christian, practiced magic – Excommunication: those who got excommunicated couldn’t participate in the religious activity – Interdiction: punished the whole community or country, no religious practice at all
  6. 6. Germanic Tribes Art • Migration Art: Animal Style • Cloisonné (โลหะลงยา), Filigree, Repousse (ลายนูน) • The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne at Aachen(his palace was “Back to Rome” theme) • Gospel books: color washed pen drawing: quick brush – Gospel of Aix – Vienna Gospel – Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims (St. Mathew and the manuscript)
  7. 7. Medieval Life • Feudalism= Comitatus(Germanic)+ Patron and Client System or Master and Slave Relations(Roman) – Lord and vassal • Manorial System – Lord of the Manor and villeins or serfs What’s the management style? • John of England: Magna Carta (1215 AD.) What’s it about?
  8. 8. Romanesque Art • Cathedral of St. Pierre – Thick wall, few windows – For religious use (destination for pilgrims and crusaders) – Latin Cross Style • Pisa • Fresco and Tapestry: Bayeux (Duke William of Normandy vs. Harold of England), Battle at hasting
  9. 9. Gothic • After the Crusade war – Rise of National Monarchies – Trade: Hanseatic League, Champagne trade expo – Town growth: Faubourg(center of the city), Bourgeois(city people) • Paris University, Oxford and Cambridge Universities • Theology: Bible intepretation • Travels of Marco Polo(1271- 1295 AD): Venice to Beijing – Il Milione (The Million, Travels of Polo)
  10. 10. Gothic • Gothic style – High pointed arch – Flying buttresses – Aisle, nave – Stained glass at the window • The Cathedral of Chartres, Notre Dame de Paris, Reims, The Cathedral of Amiens
  11. 11. Literature and Drama • Church music and Polyphonic Music (no instrument) •Anonymous literature Three levels: –Knight: Chanson de Roland (Roland’s loyalty to Charlemagne) –Royal: King Arthur& The knights of the round table –Middle class: Roman de Renart (the fox represents the middle class) •Liturgical Play, Mystery Play, Miracle Play
  12. 12. Italian Renaissance • Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 AD) • English king over French territory – Vassals (Gascony and Aquitaine) • English economic interests – Woolen trade with Flanders (support Flemish rebellion against the French) • No direct line successor for the French throne Capetian in 1328 AD. • France: richest country, more population • England: – Superior military tactics: archers vs. knights (Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt) – Fought on French soil: not suffered from the result of war • Joan of Arc fought for Charles VII but was captured later by the Bugundians. • The war ended when: – Burgundy withdrew from the English alliance in 1435 – Incompetent King Henry VI – Capture of Bordeaux in 1453
  13. 13. Italian Renaissance • The great famine (1315-1317 AD) • Black Death (1346-1350 AD) – From Asia – Carrier: flea from rats – Infection: lymph, respiratory, blood – 1/3 of people died – People thought that the disease was a punishment from God – Flagellant Brothers: tortured themselves to stop the spread of the disease Did it work? – Poland wasn’t affected • The Great Schism: Pope in Avignon vs. Pope in Rome (1378-1417 AD)
  14. 14. Italian Renaissance • Johann Gutenberg: printed bible • Alchemists • Christopher Columbus (1492) – People thought that the world’s flat – Supported by the Spanish King – Santa Maria Ship – West Indies (New World)
  15. 15. Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Sculpture, Literature, Drama, Society Philosophy, Religion Architecture Music Germanic Tribes Merovingian (Frank) Comitatus Charlemagne (800-814 AD) EU Medieval Technology Heavy plow Age of Faith Migration Art: Animal Style Cloissone, Filigree, Repousse Church Music: single line of melody sung to 500-750 AD Subsistence economy Holy Roman Empire (955 AD) The Palatine Chapel of Latin texts without Carolingian (Frank) Otto I :Battle of Lechfeld :Emperor Cannon Law, Excommunication, Charlemagne at Aachen, harmony or instrument: 750-900 AD of the Holy Roman Empire Interdiction Gospel books Gregorian Chant Ottonian (German) Polyphonic Music: 900-1000 AD Organum, Motet: Guillaume de Machaut Romanesque Feudalism= Comitatus(Germanic)+ 1054 AD Greek Orthodox Christianity and Priest influence: Minstrels: chanting long 1000-1150 AD Patron and Client System or Master separation Cathedral of St. Pierre, poems about heroic and Slave Relations(Roman), Lord Latin Cross Style, Pisa deeds: Song of Roland and Vassal Fresco, Tapestry Troubadours, trouveres Manorial System: Lord of the Manor vs. farmers, villeins or serfs John of England: Magna Carta Gothic Crusade war Paris University, Oxford and The Cathedral of Chartres, Notre Anonymous literature 1150-1350 AD Rise of the national monarchies Cambridge Universities Dame de Paris, Reims, The Chanson de Roland Trade: Hanseatic League, Theology Cathedral of Amiens Roman de Renart, King Champagne trade expo, Bourgeois Travels of Marco Polo(1271- Arthur and the knights Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 AD) 1295 AD) of the Round Table, Liturgical Play, Mystery Play, Miracle Play Italian Renaissance The great famine (1315-1317 AD) The Great Schism: Avignon vs. Leonardo da Vinci: (1452- 1350-1500 AD Rome (1378-1417 AD) 1519):The Annunciation, Virgin Black Death (1346-1350 AD) Johann Gutenberg printed bible on the Rocks, The Last Supper, Alchemists Mona Lisa Christopher Columbus (1492) Michelangelo: (1472-1564): Pieta, David, Moses, Sistine Chapel: The Last Judgement, Chief architect: St. Peter’s Basilica Raphael: (1483-1520), The Marriage of the Virgin, Madonna with Goldfinch, The School of Athens, Pope Fulius 2
  16. 16. Homework • Art work for Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo • Table for 1500-1900 AD. • Late homework -2 per week. • Medieval Exam on January 25, 2010.