W4  Ancient Greek And  Roman
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W4 Ancient Greek And Roman

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W4  Ancient Greek And  Roman W4 Ancient Greek And Roman Presentation Transcript

  • WK4 Agenda • What’s the heritage that these ancient civilizations gave us? • Who am I? Exercise • Lecture Greek and Roman • Exam Next Week • Instant homework grading (WK3) • Ancient Rome, Video
  • Ancient World Discussion • How did these civilizations develop? • Did you see the pattern? – From the beginning to the end – What influenced what? – What caused what? • What are the similarities or differences that you’ve seen? • What’s the heritage they left for us? – Mesopotamia – Egypt – India – China – Greek – Roman: What are the phrases related to the Roman?
  • Ancient Europe Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Literature, Greek Society Philosophy, Religion Sculpture, Drama Technology Architecture 6000 BCE Started agriculture in Greece , Crete and Danube river, House made of rocks Fishermen settled in Lepenski Vir 3000-1500 BCE Wood henges, Stonehenge 1900 BCE Minoans on King Minos (Myth: Son of Zeus&Europa); Zeus, Apollo, Mars Palace@Knossos, Crete island 1700 BCE Earthquake Worship mother goddess Frescoes, Griffins , 1450 BCE End of Minoan period, Mycenaean invasion 1650 BCE: Picture writing, Linear A , Extreme sport: Bull pottery, leaping 2000 BCE Mycenaean Feudal system Olympian gods, Linear B, Pottery Pylos Palace, Shaft on Peloponnesus Trade with Egypt and Italy Graves, Tholos, Lion island 1250 BCE War@Troy(Turkey) to bring Helen back from Prince Paris Gate 1100-800 BCE Difficult time, devote time to cultivate food Dark Age Oligarchies: government by the few Hoplites military 800-500 BCE Archaic 508 BCE Democracy in Athens, Direct Democracy, Council Olympian gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon Polis, Acropolis, Theater: 500 BCE Classical Age; of 500, Ostracism if get more than 6,000 vote out 776 BCE 1st Olympic: Celebrate Zeus Agora Tragedy , Hellenic 490-479 BCE Persian War (Marathon) ( running, chariot racing, boxing, 447-438 BCE Comedy(for Athens sand Sparta 461-429 BCE Pericles King of Athens wrestling etc.) Natural Philosophy: Parthenon, Dionysus Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta end this 585 BCE: Thales, 582 -507BCE: Erectheum, God), period Pythagoras, 469-399 BCE: Socrates, Doric, Ionic, Homer: Iliad Sparta: Council of the elders, all men must be soldiers and 469-399 BCE: Plato, 387-322 : Corinthian and Odyssey strong women Aristotle (Alexander’s teacher) Kouros: free Epic standing statues 338 BCE Philip II of Macedonia conquered Greece 495-425 Hellenistic Alexander ruled Greece and expanded his empire (died at 33 Built Alexandria in Egypt, Geography, BCE: 336-323 BCE after withdrawn his troop from India) Astrology, Mathematics, Physics Herodotus Antigonas: Greece, Ptolemy: Egypt, Seceucus: Seleucid 341-351 BCE: Epicurus 323-281 BCE Empire 287-213 BCE: Archimedes 146 BCE Greece became part of the Roman empire
  • Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Philosophy, Religion Art: Painting, Sculpture, Literature, Roman Society Technology Architecture Drama Ancient Europe (Roman) 753 BCE-509 BCE Rome, city state on Tiber river, paterfamilias: guided by Worship Vesta, Jupiter, City planning, Monarchy the father, Aristocratic patricians and disenfranchised brick house with tile roof, Etruscan Etruscan Plebeians alphabet, Roman numerals 509 BCE: Expelled Tarquin the Proud, the last Etruscan King: Rome became to Republic 509 BCE-31 BCE Early Republic Worship Jupiter, Aphrodite, Venus, Road,, Barrel and cross Cicero: Republic System of representatives and a separation of powers, and etc. Added cult during the Punic vault, dome, collection of Plebeians set up Assembly of Tribes and have 10 tribune war such as Isis(promised Amphitheatres, Corinthian letters , in in the senate; law of the 12 tables immortality), Cybele(mother goddess) style and Public library, Virgil: Aeneid Middle republic Latin as the official language: root of Fresco, Base relief, , story of 264-241 BCE Punic War: with Carthage romance language: Italian, French, Roman 219-202 BCE Second Punic War: General Hannibal Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian ancestor invaded Italy, Romanized other people Caesar revised the calendar to have Julius Caesar: Political Structure: Province into civitas: Bordeaux, Lyon 365 days so July: Julius Commentarie Mare Nostrum: Our sea Roman Epicureanism: Lucretius: On s on the Gallic Late Republic: Ruled by oligarchy patrician families the Nature of Things: explained the War 149-146 BCE Third Punic War: end of Carthage universe 44-31 BCE Civil War: Julius Caesar(Veni, Vidi, Vici) was Stoic philosophy of Cicero assassinated by Brutus in 44 BCE High engineering technique 31 BCE-AD 284 31 BCE-AD 193: Pax Romana, prosperous time Stoic philosophy influenced Roman Law: Pantheon, Seneca: Pax Romana: 5 27 BCE Octavian or Augustus the 1st Emperor: Imperator AD Civil Law, Law of the people and Natural Gladiator in Colosseum, Letters on Emperors 79 Volcano eruption at Pompeii, Law Bath of Caracalla, Morality AD 117 Trajan Emperor: Largest Empire, disciplined Natural Law: God created the law, which Aqueduct Galen: military: century, cohort, legion covered everyone and every state equally medical Civil War AD 193-AD284 Civil War: Germanic tribe invasion, plague Support justice and rights encyclopedia, blood AD 284 Two Capital Cities General Diocletian:East; General Created concrete circulation AD 284-AD 312 Maximain: West Pantomimes: Empire Period AD 312 Constantine reunited both East and West: move the AD 58 -60 Paul (Jesus disciple) came to dance with capital to Byzantium: Constantinople Rome music but no Constantine made Christian a legal dialogue religion AD 370 Huns invasion; 391 Theodosius announce that Christian AD 395 Separated the two cities permanently, is Rome official religion Decline AD 410-AD 455 War with Visigoths, War with Vandals AD476 Visigoths leader: Odoacer ended the Western Roman empire
  • Greek Civilization • Minoan=>Mycenaean=>Dark Age=>Archaic Age=>Hellenic(Classic Age)=>Hellenistic • Minoan Civilization, Crete: Early (3000)=>Middle(2280)=>High Minoan (Knossos destroyed) • Mycenaean Civilization, Peloponnesus: Arrived on Greek (1900)=>Ruled Greek peninsula(1500)=>Trojan War(fall of Troy 1250)=>Dark Age (1100-800) Beginning of Archaic Age
  • Minoan Civilization • King Minos • Palace at Knosos • Impressive plumbing and drainage system • Complex layout of rooms and passageway • Frescoes: paint apply directly on wet plaster • Linear A writing: still undeciphered • Peaceful: how do we know that they lived peacefully? • What did they put in that big jar?
  • Mycenaean Civilization • Feudal system • Trade with Egypt and Italy • Aggressive Warrior: from Southern Russian • Shaft graves: Mycenaean Gold Death Mask of Agamenmnon; Tholos • Lion Gate: 4 gigantic blocks (posts and a beam) Cyclopean • War at Troy • Linear B • Iliad: the battle at Troy • Odyssey: After the fall of Troy Odyssey (the Greek Warrior) wandered in adventure home to marry Penelope who waited for him in Ithaca.
  • Hellenic • Democracy in Athens, Direct Democracy, Council of 500, Ostracism 6,000 • 490-479 BCE Persian War (Marathon), run 20 miles to tell the good news • 461-429 BCE Pericles King of Athens • Peloponnesian War (27 years) between Athens and Sparta end this period • Sparta: Council of the elders, Ephor, All men must be soldiers and strong women
  • Hellenic •Polis: city state •Acropolis: hill top where the ruler resided •Agora: market, open area for politicians and citizens •Worship Olympian gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Apollo etc. •776 BCE 1st Olympic: Celebrate Zeus ( running, chariot racing, boxing, wrestling etc.) •Theater: for Dionysus God –Tragedy •Mortals cannot escape pain and sorrow •Basic human issues •Royal family –Comedy •Political criticism
  • Archaic Age Philosophers • Thales 585 BCE: founder of philosophic materialism: The fundamental substance was water. What do you think? • Pythagoras 580-507 BCE: founder of philosophic idealism: Everything is made of numbers or mathematical relationships explained the basic order in nature. What do you think?
  • Hellenic Philosophers • Socrates 469-399 BCE: Knowledge is virtue. Nobody intentionally did the wrong thing. What do you think? Sound familiar? What did Confucius say? • What did Buddha say? หริโอตัปปะ? • Plato 469-399 BCE: Dualism: Material World, Subjective Reality vs. Absolute reality (Forms and Idea): Body and Soul (desire, feeling, and rationale) True virtue must consist of rationale apprehension of goodness and justice. • Aristotle 387-322 : (Alexander’s teacher): Natural world is the only world. Form and matter are of equal important--sound mind in a happy body; Find truth through analysis, elimination, and synthesis-- nothing too much. No TQM? • Omitted: Democritus (The Atomists), The Sophists, etc.
  • Hellenic • 447-438 BCE Parthenon for Athena – Pentelic marble – Flutes – Temple, Church, Mosque, and ammunitions depot • Erectheum for Erectheus (Athen hero) • Doric, Ionic, Corinthian • Kouros, Kore: free standing statues
  • Hellenistic • Philip II of Macedonia conquered Greece • Alexander ruled Greece and expanded his empire (died at 33 after withdrawn his troop from India) • Antigonas: Greece, Ptolemy: Egypt, Seceucus: Seleucid Empire • Greece became part of the Roman empire
  • Hellenistic • City of Alexandria • 495-425 BCE: Herodotus: historian • 341-351 BCE: Epicurus • Only the atoms and void exist; pleasure is the • highest good; death is final in its extinction of consciousness; gods play no active role in human affairs • 287-213 BCE: Archimedes – Eureka, specific gravity for gold vs. silver
  • Roman Civilization •Romulus and Remus on Tiber River myth •City state on Tiber river, paterfamilias: guided by the father, Aristocratic patricians and disenfranchised plebeians •509 BCE: Expelled Tarquin, the last Etruscan King: Rome became to Republic with the Senate House, 2 consuls mange the senate
  • Roman Civilization •Early Republic •System of representatives and a separation of powers, Plebeians set up Assembly of Tribes and have 10 tribune in in the senate; law of the 12 tables •Religion: –Resembled Greek but more political –To protect the state from its enemies •Morality –Brave –Honor –Self-discipline
  • Roman Civilization Mare Nostrum: Our sea •264-241 BCE Punic War: with Carthage (Carthaginian expansion in Sicily). •219-202 BCE Second Punic War: General Hannibal from Carthage invaded Italy •149-146 BCE Third Punic War: end of Carthage •44-31 BCE Civil War: Julius Caesar –Pompey –Over Asia Minor: I came, I saw, I conquered –Back to Rome, dictator for 10 years –Assassinated by Brutus in 44 BCE •Late Republic: Ruled by oligarchy patrician families •What’s the effect of wars to the social and economy?
  • Roman Civilization(Pax Romana) • 31 BCE-AD 193: Pax Romana, prosperous time • 27 BCE Octavian or Augustus the 1st Emperor: Imperator – Caesar’s nephew – Allied with Mark Antony and Lipidus – Go West and later defeated Antony and Cleopatra – He found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble. • High engineering technique • AD 79 Volcano eruption at Pompeii
  • Roman Civilization(Pax Romana) • AD 117 Trajan Emperor: Largest Empire – disciplined military: century, cohort, legion – 11 aqueducts from mountains to cities – Forum, column, market • AD 193-AD284 Civil War: Germanic tribes invasion, plague • AD 284 Two Capital Cities: – General Diocletian: East – General Maximain: West • AD 312 Constantine reunited both East and West – In Hog Signo Vinces: In this sign conquer – move the capital to Byzantium: Constantinople – Christian is a legal religion • Books – Seneca: Letters on Morality – Galen: medical encyclopedia, blood circulation
  • Roman Civilization(Pax Romana)
  • Roman Civilization(Pax Romana) • Stoic philosophy influenced Roman Law: Civil Law, Law of the people and Natural Law • Natural Law: God created the law, which covered everyone and every state equally (supportting justice and rights)
  • Roman Civilization (Decline) • Turning point in AD 284 • German attacks • Internal causes: no clear law of succession led to civil war • Economic causes: slave and manpower shortage • Edward Gibbon: triumph of Christianity • AD 370 Huns invasion • 391 Theodosius announce that Christian is Rome official religion • Visigoths leader: Odoacer ended the Western Roman empire
  • Roman Civilization (architechtures) • Arch, barrel and cross vault • Dome • Amphitheatres • Corinthian column • What is Roman architecture style?
  • Homework • Prepare for the Ancient World exam • Movie club • Start thinking about your art work and project.