Portugal edgi 506 europe_presentationPresentation Transcript
Presentation to Portugal’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education: The Higher education System of Portugal: Challenges & Opportunities Presented by Warren Basla, Brent Jensen, Angelo Juliani & Jaclyn Tshudy - Drexel University
Background Binary (Two-Tier) System of Education University and Polytechnic Growth in enrollment since 1960 from 30,000 to nearly 400,000 students Stagnation since 2000 Number of university and polytechnic institutions, 2006 Ministry of Science, Technology & Higher Education, 2006
Challenge #1: The Bologna Process Primary goals of Bologna Process: Create a comparable system of Higher Education degrees across Europe for the sake of employability and mobility. Create a two-step credit based system (Undergraduate/Graduate) Concerns of Bologna Process for Portugal: Loss of national system of education and educational traditions Concern for a loss of culture, language and autonomy Assessment and establishment of new degrees and programs Requirements and standards of new programs/degrees (i.e. credits, pedagogy, length) Adjustments to programs and degrees have focused on pedagogy and curriculum rather than on employability and mobility of students (goals of Bologna Process) Transition process for students moving from Polytechnic to University Institutions Confusion and competition in the roles that Polytechnic Institutions and Universities will play Competition to create new programs that market to and attract new students
Solutions: The Bologna Process Use Bologna Process to rewrite and increase regulatory controls and quality assurance Simplify Binary System Despite European graduation standards and testing implements, maintain national standards and requirements above and beyond requirements noted in diploma supplement
Challenge #2: Privatization Privatization according to Altbach: refers to the type of University that is responsible for generating its own revenue predominantly from students paying into revenue streams largely from tuition and fees Major Privatization Concern in Portugal: Lack of National Quality Assessment System for growing Private Universities and Polytechnic Schools which leads to other significant problems Explosion in quantity of Private Universities and Polytechnic Schools Stagnation/Decrease in Enrollment creates imbalance in supply and demand Long course program approval period from external (Public Universities) committees Lack of International Higher Education Reviewers of programs and degrees
Solutions: Privatization Develop a National Quality Assessment System Unified External (International) and Internal Review Committee Pre-Accreditation System Diversify and Increase degree programs offered
Challenge #3: Internationalization Internationalization according to Knight (1999) is “one of the ways a country responds to globalization, yet at the same time respects the individuality of the nation (p.14).” Internationalization concerns of Portugal student mobility degree structure accreditation lack of private sector–university relationships
Solutions: Internationalization Policy Solutions to impact internationalization of higher education in Portugal: more flexible mobility of students Possibility of teaching in English Quality evaluation and accreditation of universities and polytechnics A research policy that encourages partnerships between the private sector and universities and polytechnics
Conclusions Keys to success for Portugal in higher education Use Bologna Process to rewrite and increase regulatory controls and quality assurance Develop a National Quality Assessment System and Pre-Accreditation system Policies that encourage partnerships between the private sector and universities and polytechnics in research, evaluation, and accreditation
References Altbach, P. G.; Reisberg, L,; and Rumbly, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution (Executive Summary). A report Prepared for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Arija, P. C. (2005, May). The Bologna process in Portugal and Spain: A comparative analyse. Paper presented at the 3rdKnowpol Conference. University of Bergen. Bergen, Austria. Dima, A. (2005). Higher Education in Portugal. CHEPS Higher Education Monitor. Retrieved at http://doc.utwente.nl/53331/1/portugal.pdf Fatima, D. & Abreu, R. (2007). The Bologna Process: Implementation and developments in Portugal. Social Responsibility Journal, 3(2), 59-67.
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) (2006). Quality assurance of higher education in Portugal: An assessment of the existing system and recommendation for a future system (Occasional Paper No. 10). Helsinki, Finland. Kerklaan, V. et. al. (2008) The Role of Language in the Internationalisation of Higher Education: An example from Portugal. European Journal of Education. 43 (2), 241-255. Knight, J. (1999). Internationalisation of Higher Education. Quality and Internationalisation in Higher Education. OECD. Paris, France. Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (2006). Tertiary education in Portugal: Background report. Lisbon, Portugal.
References Robertson, S. (2008, February 17). Implementing the Bologna process in Portugal: ‘How can we know the dance from the dancer?’. Retrieved from http://globalhighered.wordpress.com/2008/02/17/some-considerations-on-the-implementation-of-the-bologna-process-in-portugal/ Veiga, A. & Amaral, A. (2007, August). A survey on the implementation of the Bologna process in Portugal. Paper presented to the 29th Annual EAIR Forum. Innsbruck, Austria.