Conflict in Sri Lanka


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Conflict in Sri Lanka

  1. 2. <ul><li>Introduction–WHERE & WHO? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY the conflict – 4 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT are the consequences – 3 aspects </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Where in the world is Sri Lanka? </li></ul>
  3. 9. <ul><li>4 Main Reasons </li></ul>
  4. 10. <ul><li>Ceylon Citizenship Act of 1948 – only for those born in Sri Lanka or those whose forefathers were born there – NOT Indian Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Tamils stateless despite their contribution to Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>1964 India stepped in to help! But…. </li></ul><ul><li>2003 – Grant of Citizenship to Persons of Indian Origin Bill </li></ul>
  5. 11. <ul><li>Under British rule = Tamils at an advantage </li></ul><ul><li>English remained as SL’s official Language </li></ul><ul><li>1956 – Official Language Act – Sinhala </li></ul><ul><li>Tamils were distraught! </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful demonstration by Tamils became riotous. </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – pact was signed to make Tamil an official language of the minority </li></ul><ul><li>resistance from Sinhalese = pact not effectively implemented </li></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li>Before 1970 – based on merit and language English. </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of Tamils high in University </li></ul><ul><li>After 1970 – New admission criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil students disadvantaged & enraged! </li></ul><ul><li>Fig 4.14 and 4.15 </li></ul><ul><li>System still in place today </li></ul>
  7. 13. <ul><li>Poor Sinhalese peasants resettled in 1950s among the Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven population distribution led to this resettlement </li></ul><ul><li>1950s – resettlement policy made Tamils unhappy </li></ul><ul><li>Govt justified this by claiming Sri Lanka was a single country & nothing wrong with such resettlement </li></ul>
  8. 15. <ul><ul><li>Unhappy about being stateless & having no rights despite contribution, retaliation by joining the Tigers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful demonstration turned riotous which lead to deaths! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamils felt discriminated against as Govt was not fair; ended up becoming ‘Tigers’ to fight the Govt! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depriving them of their land; felt colonized. Anger & hatred toward the Govt. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 16. <ul><li>3 Main Aspects – P E S </li></ul>WHAT are the consequences of the Sinhalese – Tamil Conflict?
  10. 17. P olitical Consequence <ul><li>Armed Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various attempts unsuccessful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of LTTE by Tamils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Tamil riots by Sinhalese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1983 Riots – Large scale destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was only ended in May 2009 with > 100 000 dead </li></ul></ul>
  11. 18. P olitical Consequence <ul><li>Foreign Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India intervened – first as a mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation talks failed! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 1987 – India forced help through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1987 – Sri Lanka was pressured to make peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Accord & Terms agreed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Oct 1987 Tigers refused to comply – even by force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March 1990 Indian Troops withdrew from Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul>
  12. 19. E conomic Consequence <ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1983 riots led to massive unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number were Sinhalese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to closure of many companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Tamils & Sinhalese were affected! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 20. E conomic Consequence <ul><li>Loss of Investment from Other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign investments vital for country’s growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few foreign investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence & Instability = dissuaded foreign investors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on Sri Lanka’s economy was serious! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. E conomic Consequence <ul><li>Fall in Number of Tourists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism a major revenue earner for Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffered greatly due to conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of jobs & fall in earnings = economy suffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt spending on key areas also affected! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 22. S ocial Consequence <ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils Driven Out! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict caused large scale displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 Riots – Tamils fled to India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lankan Army set up HSZ to keep away LTTE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands as refugees in other countries </li></ul></ul>
  16. 26. <ul><ul><li>India withdrew. LTTE itself was politically motivated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is violence the solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment, Loss of Foreign Investments, Tourism Industry affected = ECONOMY affected! Everyone affected! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka will have problems rebuilding the nation! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced out of own country to live as refugees in other countries! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 29. Dec 2004 – Tsunami struck Sri Lanka. More than 30,000 Tamils & Sinhalese killed and tens of thousands displaced. 2005 – More violence broke out when LTTE reiterated demands for separate homeland 2008 – Govt rejected all peace talks and made plans for military defeat! In May 2009… Govt forces inflicted final military defeat on Tamil Tigers and declared total victory!
  18. 30. <ul><li>President of Sri Lanka assured there would be reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil refugees held in Govt ‘centres’ under military guard and in humane centres </li></ul><ul><li>Govt forces continued arresting Tamils of suspicions of being former Tamil Tigers </li></ul>There can be peace if… Govt resolves grievances sincerely and there is equality among all!