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Paris - Charles de Gaulle An Airportintegrated within the local Community Jean-Marie Chevallier Airport Infra Expo Sao Paulo, 27 April 2011
Airport and City• Airports are not just airports anymore• Urban impact of airports comparable with Central Stations’s of the 19th century• Great attractivity of airports due to quality of surface access and the high flow of consumers/goods through them• Significant non-aviation development should not interfere with airport core missions on airside and around terminals, and properly integrate into the Region• Airports become Airport Cities, with related non-aviation development within and beyond airport perimeter. Schiphol possibly the best known example.
Short History of Paris- CDG Airport• 3rd Paris airport, after Le Bourget (1919) and Orly (1948)• Planning started in 1965, targeting a capacity of 30-40 Mpax in 1990. One farm only had to be demolished over 3200 ha of purchased land !• Commissioned in 1974, 3 Mpax on the 1st year, mainly transferred from le Bourget• At the time, 1 runway, 1 terminal and … 1 hotel ! The airport was a genuine greenfield site surrounded by cultivated areas, with which there is no connection• A landside center was planned from the start, but not implemented. So the Regional Train Station (RER) was put in service in 1976… but at 2 Km from the sole terminal.
Airport primary Expansion• 2nd terminal and 2nd runway commissioned in 1982, the traffic was 12 Mpax, mainly intercontinental and European• Inception of Roissypôle business park (40 ha) at landside centre : Air France Ops Centre and 1 hotel• First business related real estate development in the cargo area in 1985 : warehouses, workshops• A large business park (300 ha) being developed in the 80s by others along A1 motorway south of the airport : Paris- Nord II• The Paris-Nord Exposition Centre (300 000 m2), is built side by side with Paris-Nord II• But mainly piecemeal development without any coordinated plan nor proper integration : for instance no access between Paris-Nord II and CDG.
Genesis of the Airport City• Key date is 1990. CDG traffic then reached 20 Mpax• Fast growth of Roissypôle business park, including office space (80 000 m2), 3 hotels, Air France HQ, Community Centre, all located around the Regional Train Station• Large real estate development (50 ha) in the cargo area : trade offices, warehouses, workshops• Improved connexions with outsite developments to mitigate negative reactions bylocal communities : hotels village (west),Paris-Nord II business park (south), airport related activities (east)• Entry into service of the TGV Stationunderneath T2 in 1994, for both intermodaland O & D passengers.
2011 General Situation• Traffic around 60 Mpax since 2008, on 4 runways, 3 terminals (T1, T2, T3)• AF/SkyTeam hub at T2 : 33 Mpax, including 17 M transfer pax, 21 000 possible connexions within 2 hours• FedEx European Hub in the cargo zone• 90 000 employees employed by 650 firms on the airport• Airport Aviation development to be made complete with : – Completion of T2 with opening of S4 concourse by mid 2012 – New terminal T4 around 2020• Final Development potential around 110 Mpax, reached beyond 2030• However, coordination of respective development of airport terminals, neightbouring cities and activity zones and Grand Paris infrastructure remain to be improved.
Today Management Situation. The airport is spreading over 3 districts and 8 municipalities and remains a politically under-managed territory, mainly as regards : – Environment (noise, emissions) – Employment (local) – Public transportation (employees, passengers, goods)• Clear need for an organisational structure with a political dimension, overseeing and coordinating the environment and development over the airport area• The true Airport City is still to be made and appears as one of the conditions for acceptance of the final airport extension plan.
Making of the Airport City• Reorganisation of the Airport Operator• The Airport Community (AC)• Accessibility and Interchange Development• Co-Management of economic Development• Innovative Tools of Planning.
Reorganisation of the Airport Corporate Structure• ADP was corporatized in 2005 and privatized through a partial IPO in 2006. ADP was granted full ownership of its assets, including all airport land• Setting up of a Real Estate division, with the mission to enhance the value of all ADP land not needed for present and future airport operations and a of Sustainable Development division aiming a pursuing with the adjoining territories joint development objectives• New airport planning strategy, with a better balance between airside and landside priorities, without compromising safety, security and Government inspections.• Larger autonomy vested in the CDG Airport Director for operations and integration within the environment.• Project of the CDG Airport Community.
The CDG Airport Community (AC)• A Public entity, created by a French law of Feb 2004 but so far not implemented.• AC Board, chaired by President of the Regional Council, comprising equal number of representatives from local authorities and associations on one hand, and airport related business (ADP, airlines, others) on the other hand• The mission of the AC is to implement mitigating measures against airport negative impacts, to promote local employment and to be a forum for cross information on airport related affairs• Part of local taxes and voluntary contributions will constitute the Financial resources of the AC, for investment in local interest projects and /or subsidies to local interest initiatives. Failing to agree on the financial contribution of various stakeholder so far blocked the implementation• The Airport Community territory to cover the noise impacted area.
Accessibility and Interchange development• A convenient accessibility to terminals and business areas ( cargo area, airport fringes) will be guaranteed : shuttle bus network, possibly with AC operating subsidies• Coordination with Regional Authorities and railway operators over a balanced allocation of capacity of the train stations to new services (regional trains, TGV, CDG Express)• Enhancement of intermodal capacity at the airport (Train/plane, inter-train, train/bus) Tentative final interchange scheme as follows : –Regional train/bus terminal at Roissypôle station (local hub) –CDG Express to serve T2 and T4 stations (O & D) –TGV at T2 (intermodal) –T1 - Roissypôle – T2 –T4 interconnected by CDG people mover (local access).
Surface Access Interchange T1 T4 TGV T3 Bus APM RER Station T2 S4 RER S3 TGV Station
The high speed train at Paris-CDG -1987 : decision by French Government to Lille build an HST interconnection passing close to CDG airport HST North Europe (1993) -1989 : ADP/AF agreement for a mixed Paris-CDG HST East (2007) HST/RER station at CDG Terminal 2 HST « junction » (1990-1994) - 02/11/1994 : inauguration of the HST station at CDG Terminal 2, a jointHST Atlantic (1989-1990) SNCF/ADP undertaking HST South East (1981-1983) Tours Lyon HST Méditerranée (2001) French HST Marseille Network in 2009
The offer at CDG HST station 2009 : 59 trains per day (incl. Thalys) 65 cities connected daily with Paris-CDG by a direct TGV 34 cities at less than 3 hours by TGV from Paris-CDG
The traffic at CDG HST station Traffic figures of Paris-CDG HST station Initial forecast : 2 500 000 pax 1994/1995 : 500 000 pax 2010 : 4 000 000 pax 25% local pax 75% intermodal pax = 1 000 000 local pax = ~ 3 000 000 pax (local residents, visitors...) (connecting between plane and train) => 5% of total traffic of Paris- CDG airport BUT => 15% of connecting traffic at Paris-CDG airport !!!
Co-Management of Development• Co-managed development, with different leadership for each zone : – Terminal/airside : airport planning – Non aviation activities within airport : airport real estate – Development and town planning beyond airport perimeter : local authorities• Clear zoning allocation between aviation related and non aviation related activities done by airport planning in coordination with airport real estate• Branding for marketing of the airport area : CDG, Plaine de France, Aerocity, Paris Gateway, etc.• Scheduling of the development zones in coordination with airport development and new surface access availability.
North-Eastern Paris Urban Planning Airport City schemeplanned between LeBourget and CDG, fortaking advantage ofCDG dynamics Joint managementwith local communities 26
Innovative planning tools• Planning of the enlarged airport zone (Plaine de France) prepared in close liaison with local authorities, taking into account long term needs and impact of the airport• Integration of the airport development in the long term regional plan (SDRIF), including constraints (access infrastructure, noise zones) but also opportunities ( interchange centre, passengers / goods flow, aviation related activities, etc.) and national/European policy requirements• The Airport Community used as a permanent forum (AC) between airport actors and local authorities/organisations, to approach airport related issues in a collaborative way• Co-operation with local townplanning in real estate developmentwithin CDG zone.
New Developments planned• Short/medium term, within airport limits : – Eastern airport activities areas (40 ha), along the airport 2nd motorway access – A Shopping Mall at the south-west end of the airport, near A1 (2008)• New developments beyond airport perimeter : – Completion of Paris outer ring motorway (A 104) running around CDG – Business parks extensions, west (40 ha) and south (80 ha) of the airport – Airport related activities zone (70 ha), north-east of CDG – Expo Centre extension (200 000 m2), south of CDG – Cargo TGV Station (Carex), north-west of the airport along the TGV rail track• New CDG Express dedicated rail access to/from Paris downtown City terminal (2017)• New Grand Paris automated “metro”• A more open landside interface for future T4 (2020).
Airport City main Featuresgo TGV A 104 Airport related T4 Roissypole activities Hotels Business parks Roissypôle Extension Shopping Mall Expo Centre
CDG and nearby Shopping Centres Compiègne Creil St Maximin 22 780 m2 Les Haies 40 000 m2 CDGShopping Mall Val d’Oise CDG Legend Côté Seine 45 000 m2 Seine New Centre et Marne Seine Saint-Denis Close Centres Disney Main Shopping Centres Parinor 90 000 m2 PARIS Beausevran Villeparisis 43 809 m2 Chelles 2 (en projet) Rosny 2 66 664 m2 Torcy Bay 2 Claye Souilly Val d’Europe 100 000 m2 63 500 m2 48 150 m2 83 292 m2
Conclusion : An Airport integrated within the local Community• Large Airport expansion comes along with potential benefits and nuisances• The Airport City concept offers opportunity of partnership with the local communities in order to maximise the beneficial effects and set collaborative development wherever possible, which helps mitigating nuisances.• However, if a large airport is not simply an airport anymore, it’s not just a city either.• The Airport City concept must thereforelead to an airport integrated within the localcommunity for mutual benefits.