Physical activity is a bit broader term that includes not just exercise but things like … So all exercise is physical activity, but not all physical activity is exercise.
Fitness is a product. Most would agree it’s a product of exercise and/or physical activity and can be broken into components. Some of these components, like strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition relate more to health while others like power and agility have more to do with motor skill and performance.
Who can tell me what happens physiologically to our bodies when we start running? Breathe faster – known as increased pulmonary ventilation Heart beats faster – known as increased heart rate Body burns energy – known as beta oxidation or glycolysis Sweat – known as sweat Then there are some chronic or longer term reactions to training. What are some of these? Lower heart rate Increased stroke volume Decreased ventilation Increased metabolism Increased hypertrophy of muscle tissue
Introduction To Exercise
What is Physical Activity?
Body movement produced by muscle action that increases
eg: activities of daily living such as shopping, gardening, house
keeping, child rearing, work-related activities, etc
What is Exercise?
Planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful physical
e.g.: training for or performing athletics, sports, or recreational
activities such as jogging, roller-blading, ice skating, swimming,
How do you define Exercise?
What is physical fitness?
Attributes related to how well one performs physical activity.
What is Exercise Physiology?
Definition: the study of how the body (cell,
tissue, organ, system) responds in function
and structure to (1) acute exercise stress,
and (2) chronic physical activity.
As an academic discipline:
1. Body of knowledge built on facts and theories derived
2. Formal course of study in institutions of higher learning
3. Professional preparation of practitioners, future
investigators, and leaders in the field.
Foundations of science: facts,
laws, and theories
What is are
3-parts of the field of study in
Consider the physiological systems:
• Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nervous, Renal,
GI, Temperature Regulation, Endocrine,
Muscle, Bone, Skin, Immune, Metabolism
• Exercise tends to disturb homeostasis
• Adaptations of physiological systems tend to
minimize this disturbance
What is Exercise Physiology?
What is Exercise Training?
The repeated use of exercise to improve
Adaptations to Exercise
The changes in human physiology that occur during
exercise or physical activity.
The alterations in the structure and functions of the body
that occur in response to the regular completion of
physical activity and exercise.
What does training do?
Permits adaptations within the physiological
systems to minimize the disturbance to
homeostasis resulting from exercise
This means exercise intensity can be
increased for a given distance or duration, or a
given intensity can be sustained longer
Physiological Interactions with
Can you get these with a pill?
Why is Exercise Physiology relevant
in understanding performance
Physiological determinants of performance
• Rate at which energy can be transformed
• Quantity of energy which can be available
• Energy cost of performing a given task
Some athletic events are more relevant
• Individual rather than team
• Running, cycling, swimming, rowing, x-country ski
But the principles apply to all…..
• Shouldn’t all exercise science/HPE/PT majors be
required to take an exercise physiology course?
What is Clinical Exercise
A sub-component of exercise physiology that
involves the application of exercise
physiology principles, knowledge and skills
for purposes of the prevention, rehabilitation
or diagnosis of disease or disability in
Applications of Exercise Physiology To Other
Disciplines and Professions
• Biochemistry -metabolic adaptations to muscle contraction
and exercise training
• Cardiology -diagnostics, rehabilitation, and prevention
-reversal of risk factors for heart disease
• Endocrinology -rehabilitation of type II diabetes
• Neurology -effects of exercise on the autonomic nervous
• Nutrition -macro-nutrient & micro-nutrient needs
during exercise, and exercise training
• Orthopedics -effects of exercise on bone remodeling
• Physical Therapy -injury rehabilitation/prevention
• Pulmonology -training/conditioning of muscles used in
What was the first exercise
George Wells Fitz
• Helped establish the
Dept. of Anatomy,
Physical Training at
Harvard University in
What was the first exercise
• David Bruce Dill
established a fatigue
laboratory at Harvard
• Refocused his efforts
from biochemistry to
American Society of Exercise Physiologists
Founded in 1997; functions to accommodate the
professional needs of exercise physiologists.
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
Founded in 1954; functions to support and “bring together”
all disciplines and professions interested in how exercise
affects the human body.
Professional Issues, cont’d.
National Strength & Conditioning
Functions to promote the knowledge and skill competencies
of individuals who are interested in muscular strength and
American Physiological Society (APS)
Functions to support the knowledge and research of all
aspects of physiology.
The Scientific Method
Research continuum in science
Basic research – discovery of new
knowledge, no concern for immediate
application (e.g., design a new heart
Theoretical research – fact finding (e.g.,
performing a study that looks at the risk
factors for heart disease).
Empirical research – meaningful
research. The purpose of this research
is to test a theory and possibly refine it
(e.g., it was thought previously that 3
days a week of exercise was sufficient,
now it is recommended 3-5 days per
Applied research – scientific endeavors
to solve specific problems. Found in
many scientific journals and magazines
that apply a theory that was tested (e.g.,
new training methods and schedules).
What do exercise physiologists