DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTIONJULY 2012FACILITATED BY RADMILA HARDING                                  1
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Personalised                    Learning               LD, ASD APD LLD    Essential                              Dyslexia ...
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Basics of Differentiation                                                                RTI – Response to Intervention   ...
Why dowe needto dive inthe deep  end?             6
Differences in the Classroom:•EAL•LD•GT•Cultural•VariousDisabilities•IEP students•Compositeclasses•Other                  ...
LEARNING DIFFICULTIES                                                   16-20 %Ref: Peter Westwood : What Teachers Need to...
STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DIFFICULTIES• Not related directly to any specific physical sensory or  intellectual impairment (alt...
STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIES                           3-5%• Much smaller number of students described as having  sp...
STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIES• May become overwhelmed, frustrated• May have difficulties with auditory processing of ...
12THE AVERAGE CHILDBY MIKE BUSCEMI
THE AVERAGE CHILDBY MIKE BUSCEMI    My grades have been okay.    I listen in my classes.    I’m in school every day. My te...
GIFTED STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITY“ The idea that a child can be both gifted and learningdisabled strikes some as a p...
GIFTED STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITY                                                  Leading to                       ...
Read article on    page1Any surprises?  Insights?                  16
Page 2         17
RTI AND EDUCATION OF GIFTED STUDENTS     Outside the classroom – e.g..,                       Pull-together  grade skippin...
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingprinciples/principles/default.htm                                 ...
http://www.evidencebasedteaching.co.uk/                                          20
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Differentiated Instruction?                                                                      Differentiation is       ...
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What is differentiation?http://differentiationcentral.com/Differentiation is a bit like an airport with passengers arrivin...
Differentiation is:“a philosophy that proposes that what we bring to school as learnersmatters in how we learn”           ...
“… a way of thinking about the classroom andacknowledging and honoring each student’s learningneeds and maximizing each st...
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I already                                   differentiate …http://www.diffcentral.com//videos.html#miscon                 ...
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Plan            together“… means that teachers proactively plan varied approaches to whatstudents need to learn, how they ...
“Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learningtasks at the right time.…differentiation is ...
DifferentiationMeans:Shaking up what goes on in the classroom – multiple ways oftaking in information, making sense of ide...
Differentiation means teachers consider :WHO are they teachingWHAT they will teach “teachers accept that ALL students will...
DIFFERENTIATIONIs – responsive instruction – teaching a class of individuals                                              ...
Differentiation is NOT like the bowling alley – shoot down themiddle and see how many you can hit:                        ...
Differentiation is NOT designed to stress teachers or get theminto knots!                                                 ...
DIFFERENTIATION   Variation in       It is not brand   content process    new   and product (and   IEP‟s   environment)   ...
Differentiation:Is NOT an add water and stir solutionIt is complex and takes time to do well                              ...
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In the dim dark teaching past………..     We thought: teaching is telling, focus on content delivery,     grades separate the...
Differentiation                  41
Page 3                                                 42http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
ACTIVITY           43
TRADITIONAL CLASSROOMSDIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOMS Characteristics of Traditional   Characteristics of Differentiated Classro...
If you were a gifted student, a   student with a disability or even    an average   student which classroom wouldsuit you ...
QualityCurriculumbased on  UbD             46
Differentiated Instruction                             47
UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN JAYMC TIGHE AND GRANT WIGGINS   UbD is used to create quality curriculum    Start with the questi...
KNOW UNDERSTAND DO                     49
http://www.diffcentral.com//videos.html#miscon                                                 50
Set the bar high                                  but provide                                many ways for                ...
2nd Element - ProcessDifferentiating Content : this is what we teach or what wewant the students to learn• Tomlinson belie...
“Raising academic standardshas more to do with elevating  thinking processes than withcovering more topics.” Lynn Dickson ...
2nd Element - ProcessDifferentiating Process: how students come to understand ormake sense of contentDifferentiating the p...
3rd Element - ProductsDifferentiating Products: How students demonstrate what they havecome to know, understand and are ab...
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Modifying TestsDecreases stress, improves performance, allowsthe child to demonstrate their knowledge-Open book tests-Oral...
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Differentiating the curriculum for gifted students         State of New South Wales through the         NSW Department of ...
Activity 1 􀁾Using your syllabus documents, select a content outcome anda skills outcome.Using the Maker template, develop ...
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http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#assessment                                                      64
ACTIVITY: STERNBERG’SINTELLIGENCES                        65
ANALYTICALAnalysing characters when I‟m reading or listening to a storyComparing and contrasting points of viewCriticizing...
HOW CAN KNOWLEDGE ABOUTSTUDENTS LEARNING STYLESBE USEFUL? (HOW DO YOULIKE TO LEARN)CAN THE KNOWLEDGE HELPSTUDENTS AS LEARN...
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Getting to know your students:   Multiple Intelligences   VAK   Questionnaires   etc                                 69
Assessment CyclePre-assessments are      essential                                 Plan            Implement              ...
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Dr. Heidi Andrade                    73
http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#assessment                                                      74
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4th Element - AffectDifferentiating Affect: How students’ emotions andfeelings impact on their learningAffect is the weath...
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5th Element – Learning EnvironmentA Flexible Learning EnvironmentThe hallmark of a differentiated classroom in a flexible ...
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flexible    85
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BRAIN RESEARCHDI fits in with brain research – Meaning making                                                  87
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BRAINSAll brains are unique therefore we need to respond to the needs of our studentsand provide many opportunities for va...
BRAINSBrain Research - Link Old With the New    Teachers must create many opportunities to link    the old with the new in...
BRAINRole of Emotions:                    91
Brain research - Moderate Challenge   BRAINS                                      92
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97Prof Susan Brockhart
98Prof Susan Brockhart
COMPLETE THE : PERSONAL PROFILE AS ANINCLUSIVE TEACHER – FORM #25THE CHECKLIST CAN BE HELPFUL TO DETERMINEAREAS OF TEACHIN...
Personal Profile as an Inclusive Teacher # Form 25                                          Page 5Organising an Inclusive ...
Teaching in an Inclusive ClassroomI deal with most students behaviour problems successfullyI am flexible and use a range o...
How will                                          you lead                                        the change              ...
HOW WILL I BE ABLE TO DO THIS?                        103
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SOCIAL STORIES                 111
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Asperger‟s DisorderThey need a teacher who is:•Organized•Calm•Consistent•Predictable•“Unflappable”                        ...
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VISUALS FORWORKTASKS          115
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ClassSchedule           Individual work schedule                                                    117                   ...
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COMMON STRATEGIES“ROSE REPORT”- ON DYSLEXIACHUNKING1. If you have a lot of information or instructions to give,break it do...
REORDERING2. Say things in the order you want them to be done. So,instead of„Before you write your homework down, clear aw...
CUT DOWN THE AMOUNTYOU SAY3. Studies have shown that in some classrooms adults talkfor up to 90% of the time. For a young ...
SLOW DOWN4. Even slowing down your talking a bit means that studentswill give longer responses, and will say more. This do...
GIVE VISUAL SUPPORT: USE GESTURE,THINKING/CONCEPT MAPS, DEMONSTRATING,QUICK SKETCHES5. Visual support can take many differ...
SARCASM, DOUBLEMEANINGS6. We all use phrases such as „off you go‟ or „get yourthinking caps on‟, or use tone of voice to s...
SIMPLIFY THE GRAMMAR7. We often use a complex sentence when a simpler onewould do just as well. Some sentences are very di...
PAUSING AFTER YOU HAVEASKED A QUESTION8. We know that adults often pause far too briefly when they have askeda question be...
COMMENTING9. For pupils with dyslexia and learning difficulties ,commenting on what they are doing, and pausing, rathertha...
ORGANISING WRITING 10. Students with dyslexia may need explicit teaching and strategies to help them overcome the barriers...
KEEP IT VISUAL                 129
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Freyer diagram – what the concept is andis not                                           It gives the students            ...
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The Cornell System for     Note-Taking                         139
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Math                                                                 TM    Organizer SMARTsheets                          ...
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INTEL READER               150
http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/tag/text-to-speech/page/2/                                                            ...
EDU APPS – FREEWAREWWW.EDUAPPS.ORG                      152
http://www.rsc-ne-scotland.ac.uk/eduapps/mystudybar.php                                                          153
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QUESTIONS TO GUIDE PLANNING(STRICKLAND) Starting Point: What would I typically do in this lesson if I   Who are the were n...
What will I differentiate?Content or presentation      Starting Point: Whatof content? Process?         would I typically ...
http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#change                                                  157
DI TEMPLATE                                                          Pages                                                ...
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REFLECTION –HOW DOES IT FIT?How do the strategies and ideas presented today fit with yourparadigm of catering for students...
http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#change                                                  161
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COLLABORATIONMake time to meetIdentify individuallyappropriate learningoutcomesWhat are thedifferentiationneeds? (instruct...
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Radmila Hardinghardingradmila@gmail.com      0417 321 752                           167
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  • Teachers are required to do more and more all the time. One of the major areas of change has been the request to assist and work effectively with all students – to be knowledgeable about Autism, Language Learning Disabilities, Emotional Disturbances, ESL, traumatised children, Dyslexia.On-going PD is essential.We also need to learn to manage out time even more effectively and to get rid of some things from our to do list – working with colleagues is a very powerful way of creating extra time.One of the major challenge for presenters is to ensure that the information presented today will be of relevance and to work out ways that you can use this information back at work. Often, we can get excited when we attend PD but when we return to school, it is often very hard to implement and not to get bogged down in the daily grind of work. There are so many demands on our time and as the education revolution unfolds, we have to remain sane, resilient, and adaptable.So while the giant minds are arguing about the next best thing, whether it be e5, or personalised learning, we as teachers have to face our students on a daily basis and ensure what we are delivering is effective and based on sound educational research.Today is an opportunity for me to share my 25 or so years of teaching, primarily students with additional needs and more recently as an education consultant working with teachers on differentiation and how to accommodate teaching and learning to the increasingly diverse school population.A couple of qualifiers, the work presented today is based on the research of some of the foremost educationalists in the field, there is a lot of disagreement and variability between experts and there are differences in statistics quoted. I have chosen statistics that most educationalists and researchers in australia would agree with (but we still need to allow for some variability).This is also not a presentation on brain function, although we will cover some of the basics of brain anatomy, this is also not a lesson on linguistics. Some of the terms used today may seem techinical and I have endeavoured to choose only the most relevant terms for today – further reading is recommended, and additional courses in phonics are certainly available, but today is not a course in phonics instruction.So, what is tody going to be about?
  • Conventional methods often failMany students with learning issues have average or above average intelligenceSpecific planning and intervention can make a differenceSome students with additional learning needs may require external assistanceSense of being overwhelmed, frustrated and disorganisedDifficulty following instructionsTrouble with visual or auditory perception of informationProblems with writing, test taking, homeworkAcademic difficultiesEffort and success often not connectedRef: David A Sousa “How the Special Needs Brain Learns”
  • Conventional methods often failMany students with learning issues have average or above average intelligenceSpecific planning and intervention can make a differenceSome students with additional learning needs may require external assistanceSense of being overwhelmed, frustrated and disorganisedDifficulty following instructionsTrouble with visual or auditory perception of informationProblems with writing, test taking, homeworkAcademic difficultiesEffort and success often not connectedRef: David A Sousa “How the Special Needs Brain Learns”
  • to accommodate the different ways that students learn - involves a hefty dose of common sense, as well as sturdy support in the theory and research of education (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000). It is an approach to teaching that advocates active planning for student differences in classrooms.
  • Differentiation is classroom practice that acknowledges the reality that students differ, and that the most effective teachers do whatever they can to engage all students in learning.Differentiation is a bit like an airport with passengers arriving from everywhere and traveling to different destinations.
  • “… a way of thinking about the classroom and acknowledging and honoring each student’s learning needs and maximizing each student’s learning capacity while developing a solid community of learners”
  • “… is responsive teaching rather than one size fits all teaching”
  • “… means that teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and how they will show they have learned”
  • “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time.…differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”Lorna M Earl, 2003
  • “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
  • “teachers take into account WHO they are teaching as well as WHAT they are teaching.“teachers accept that ALL students will move along the learning continuum as far and as fast as possible”
  • Responsive InstructionGood InstructionTeachers teaching a class of individualsTeachers using flexible methods MI and Blooms remain popular models for differentiation that most teachers are familiar with – we won’t be spending time on those models today but it is important to acknowledge the influence of these modelsBlooms has been around for over 50 years (1956) and has been revised in 2000 and improved – very simply, the levels at the base of the pyramid are the prerequisite knowledge and skills – the higher levels are for analysing, evaluating and creating. The aim is to motivate teachers to design units of work that use all of the sections of the pyramid.In terms of MI – we all have strengths in different intelligences – focusing and planning with these activities in mind may result in a wider array of educational activities in the classroom and teachers can use them in planning lessons.What MI highlights is that students seem to learn in highly diverse ways and these different ways of learning offer teachers an opportunity to build instructional activities that involve a number of varied capabilities.It is highly likely that expanding the range of educational activities may very well result in enhanced learning.
  • Traditional teaching… like the “Bowling Theory” – shoot down the middle and see how many you can hit…
  • It is not… individualized instruction with separate lessons for each student
  • Differentiation is:Variation in content process and product based on teacher attention to student differences in interest learning profile and readinessVaried groupings of students dependent on thoughtful consideration of learning goals and student characteristicsProactive response to student differences as often as possible though reactive response is also importantDifferentiation is not:A brand new way of teaching IEP’s for every studentTracking or ability grouping Constant group workAllowing students to work only in preferred ways on preferred topicsOccasional variation in teaching style or level of questions asked of individuals
  • “Add water and stir” solutionThat complex challenges rarely have simple solutionsTeachers are both teachers and learnersEvery teacher can become better and better at effective instruction of academically diverse populationsClassrooms are diverse and will continue to diversify furtherThere really is no choice but to embrace and implement differentiationIf we want productivity, fairness, high standards, we need to diversify, we need to be flexible and this means creating a range of opportunities for success and modes of teaching
  • Teaching is TellingTeacher is the teller (sage on stage)Learning is repeatingCurriculum is coverageStudents are unmotivated and dependentClassroom management synonymous with controlAssessment should happen at the end of large blocks of teachingGrades “separate the sheep from the goats”
  • Many teachers feel poorly equipped for the challenge of diversified classrooms. Inclusion has become the norm and there is really no going back.
  • If you were a student with a learning difference which classroom would suit you better and why?
  • ContentProcessProductsLearning EnvironmentReadiness – what student knows, understands and can do today – their attitude toward school or topicInterest – is the great motivator – connect new learning with interestLearning Profile – learning style, IQ preference, gender and cultureTeachers can differentiate content process, product and environment …In addition, teachers need to consider 3 student characteristics as they put together curriculum and instructionTeachers can do this through a range of instructional strategies; for e.g., Multiple Intelligences, Interest Centers, Tiered Lessons, Varied Texts, Taped Materials …
  • This is the learning content teachers want students to master.Content can be state approved curricula, in scope and sequence charts, in state or national standards, or in the curriculum material itself.In most cases the teacher will not be able to control the specific content that must be covered but he or she will have control over how to modify that content for presentation to the students based on the learning styles of the students and in that modification process, some content will be emphasised more than other material.
  • The learning process involves how the student interacts with the content, and those learning interactions will in part be determined by the various learning preferences of the students (eg VAK)Because of the diversity of learning styles and preferences demonstrated by students today the differentiated classroom will typically involve a wide array of activities to address the different learning needs of everyone.These learning processes may include some of the following:Activating the learning – the introductory activities that focus on the material to be learned related that material to previously mastered material, let the student know why the material is important, and describe what students should be able to do once they learn.Learning activities – involve the actual instructional activities for the students such as modelling, rehearsal, educational games, movement Grouping activities – both individual and group oriented learning activities should be planned as part of the learning process
  • The differentiation of product will be of paramount importance because demonstrations of learning allow the teacher to determine the students who have mastered the material and those who may need more time and continued instruction.Again, the learning styles of the students in the class will help to determine what types of products the teacher may wish to accept as demonstrations of learning.In a differentiated learning classroom, it would not be uncommon for a given unit of instruction to have 4 or 5 different types of culminating projects that students may choose in order to demonstrate their knowledge of the topic. Art projects, mini role plays, library or web based research, multimedia projects, paper and pencil projects, written reports, oral reports, all represent excellent projects that students may complete to demonstrate their knowledge.
  • Tests are one form of product – but not the only one. Tests should not simply be a regurgitation of information but demonstrate capacity to use knowledge and skills. Flexible test taking options: taped answers, test questions read to them, extra timeHandout – a few ways in which teachers can differentiate products in response to student readiness, interest and learning profileA teacher who uses DI will constantly modify his or her classroom organisation, curriculum, instructional methods and assessment procedures to address the individual learning needs of the students in the class.A teachers relationship with and knowledge of the students in the class will be the basis for the differentiations in instruction and so the relationship between the teacher and the student is critical.It can be argued that a solid relationship with a knowledge of the student’s learning styles and preferences can provide an effective basis for DI. (Marzano)
  • Ideas:Open book testsOral tests versus writtenHaving a readerHaving a clarifierHaving a scribeNot penalising spelling or grammar errorsMultiple choice – provide only one or two optionsWord questions in the positivee.g. Which one is correct vs. Which one is incorrectAllow props e.g. calculators, tables chart, spell checkers, word processorsStudents must know what they are allowed to take in with them e.g. dictionaryIf appropriate, allow student to not take the test, rather than ‘dismal failure’Explain some of the terminology or use simpler vocabulary Not imposing time limits i.e. student must complete what they canMark the test out of the questions answered, rather than out of the total number of questions
  • Students need to feel safe and secure at school – both physically and emotionally and feel that they belong.Ways teachers can support the affective climate of the classroom:Modeling respectTeaching about respectHelping students understand and appreciate commonalities and differences among students
  • Why Manage Emotional States?Eric JensenNegative states and disengagement contribute to lower cognitive performance (Matthews et al. 2002)• Positive states improves performance on many cognitive tasks (Ashby, et al. 1999)• Young children's feelings about school improve and students felt more competent when engaged (Valeski & Stipek 2001)• A wide body of evidence suggests that when students feel good about the teacher and learning, achievement rises.
  • The Brain hungers for Meaning – looks for patterns, resists meaninglessness. Retains information that is “chunked” i.e., information that is organized around categories and ideas that increase the information’s meaningfulness. Brain seeks to connect parts to wholes, and we all learn by connecting something new to something already understood.
  • Brains respond to information that carries deep meaning, is life shaping, relevant, important and that taps into EMOTIONS.
  • Humans Learn Best with Moderate Challenge – if the task is too demanding the learner feels threatened and “downshifts” into protection mode, therefore is likely to not attend, and may become disruptive and may lose motivation to learn. On the other hand, a task that is too easy will shift the brain into “relaxation mode” suppressing thinking and problem solving and may also lose motivation to learn. Tasks must be adjusted to each student’s appropriate level and must escalate in complexity and challenge as students become more proficient.
  • Prepares them for changes of environment or task, upcoming excursion etcUses their passions/interests to motivate them with assignments e.g. relating football to weather in SOSEWorks with their strengths Monitors their anxiety levels and reduces stressHas a realistic expectation of social and academic demandsWho uses the “Must Know, Should Know, Could Know” model Has a realistic expectation of homework Promotes independence and self-esteemGives constructive praise and criticismDoes not take anything personallyThe use of visual strategies, schedules, signs, social stories etc is highly recommended.Visual supports can be used to :help and enable the student to understand show what is required show what will happen (e.g. timetables) support communication including making choicesencourage independence provide reassuranceshow feelings, emotionsteach social skillssupport development of appropriate classroom behavioursprovide reward systems.
  • A picture is worth a thousand wordsVisualising and Verbalising (Nancy Bell)Mind-mapsVisual schedules/timetablesPresent an outline of the lesson visuallyRepeated visual exposure Provide hand-outs versus note –takingRepresent time or size of task visually to decrease anxiety
  • Complex information can be explained more easilyScaffolding can assist LD students
  • There are many concepts that can be confusing because of their close relationships. The Frayer model provides students with the opportunity to understand what a concept is and what it is not. It gives students an opportunity to explain their understanding and to elaborate by providing examples and non-examples from their own lives.How to use it:1. Assign a concept that might be confusing because of its relational qualities.2. Explain the Frayer model diagram.3. Model how to fill out the diagram.4. Provide students with time to practice with assigned terms.5. Once the diagram is complete, let students share their work with other students. Display students' diagrams as posters throughout the unit so students can refer to the words and continue to add ideas.
  • There is no one right way to take notes in class. One effective note-taking system is called The Cornell System, which was designed by Walter Pauk, emeritus, at Cornell University. To use this system you will need a large loose-leaf notebook. This allows you to insert class handouts, rearrange notes easily, or remove notes to spread them out and study. To learn more about this note-taking framework read Chapter 5 in Pauk's book, How to Study in College, 5th Edition.Page LayoutThe distinguishing feature of the Cornell system is the layout of the page on which you take your notes. The page layout includes large margins on the left and bottom of the page. A picture of this layout (not to scale), with dimensions, is shown below.  Cue (Recall) ColumnThe space to the left of the vertical margin should be reserved for a cue (or recall) column. You should not write in this area during the lecture, while you are taking notes. The cue column is not created until you review your notes (which, ideally, you do as soon after the lecture as possible, and certainly before the next lecture). As you study the material in your notes, you should devise questions which the notes answer (think "Jeopardy"). These questions are the "cues" that should be written in the cue column. By writing questions, you are forced to think about the lecture material in a way that clarifies meaning, reveals relationships, establishes continuity, strengthens memory, and attempts to predict test and exam items.The SummariesThe area below the horizontal margin near the bottom of the page should be reserved for a summary of the notes on that page. A summary is brief -- at most, only a few sentences. The page summary provides a concise review of the important material on the page. More importantly, in writing a summary, you are forced to view the material in a way that allows you to see how it all fits together, in a general sense. The summary should be written in your own words... helping you to own the information.Note-Taking AreaThe space to the right of the vertical margin is where you actually record your notes during the lecture. Pick a note-taking format with which you are comfortable -- there are no hard-and-fast rules for this aspect of the Cornell system. However, you should not attempt to transcribe verbatim every word spoken by the instructor. It is usually not difficult to separate the essential material from the non-essential. For instance, if information is written on the blackboard, it is probably important enough to include in your notes. To avoid missing information during the lecture, you should develop a system of abbreviations you understand, and you should write in telegraphic sentences (where you only include enough words to carry the essential meaning) or similar shorthand that is often used in cell phone text messages. As you take notes, realize that your emphasis should be on the key ideas, rather than the actual words used to convey those ideas.
  • DNS Speech recognition software
  • Designed and built based on user research and the latest technologies to give you the freedom to read what you want, where you want. The Intel® Reader transforms printed text to the spoken word. It combines a high-resolution camera with the power of an Intel Atom™ processor. Read on the spot, or store text for later listening. Easy-to-use buttons, audio and visual navigation, and straightforward menus keep things simple. Weighing just over a pound and about the size of a paperback book, the mobile Intel Reader can be used at school, work, home, or on the go. Versatile enough to play MP3, DAISY* books, and text transferred from a PC, the Intel Reader can also be used with the Intel Portable Capture Station to make it easy to scan, convert, and store multiple pages from a book or magazine. The Intel Reader is the result of the real-life experiences, coupled with decades of technology innovation and the commitment of Intel-GE Care Innovations™ to proactive healthcare and wellness.
  • They also offer consultancy services
  • EduAppsMyStudyBar: BETT Finalist 2011What is EduApps?EduApps is an initiative developed by the JISC Regional Support Centre Scotland North & East and consists of eight useful software collections that are free for you to download and use. The EduApps Family covers a range of user requirementsto support teaching and learning, so just choose the one that's right for you.The EduApps Family -just use it, give it, share it – all for free.AccessApps, provides a range of solutions to support writing, reading and planning, as well as sensory, cognitive and physical difficulties.TeachApps, is a collection of software specifically designed for teachers or lecturers.LearnApps, as its name implies, is specifically designed for learners. All learners or students can benefit from LearnApps.MyStudyBar, is our most popular program, providing a suite of apps to support literacy.MyVisBar, a high contrast floating toolbar, designed to support learners with visual difficulties. MyAccess, a portal to all your favourite and accessible applications providing inclusive e-learning options for all. Create&Convert, is our new kid on the block, designed to help publish accessible information for all.Accessible Formatting WordBar, create accessible Word documents with ease using our innovative WordBar.All EduApps collections can run from a USB pendrive plugged into a Windows computer. Therefore, they offer a portable, personal solution - with you wherever you go.
  • MyStudyBar puts a whole range of individual and essential tools at your fingertips. Together, these have been designed to support the complete study cycle from research, planning and structuring to getting across a written or spoken message. MyStudyBar has 6 sections; each has a drop down menu offering personal choice, flexibility and independent learning, particularly for those learners who require additional strategies to support their learning. With over 15 apps to choose from, MyStudyBar is the perfect study aid. You can use MyStudyBar straight from a USB stick (if, for example, you are using a machine that is not your own) or you can install it directly to the desktop. (Technical staff in colleges or universities also have the choice of installing it on the network for everyone to use). However you choose to use it, MyStudyBar pops up on your screen like this:
  • Instead, the classroom teacher, special educator, and paraprofessionalshould meet to plan how to include the student with a disability ingroup lessons and to identify individually appropriate learningoutcomes that are clearly understood by all team members. Next, theteacher and special educator can determine the student's need fordifferentiated expectations, instruction, materials, and assignments, aswell as ways in which the paraprofessional can help implement suchdifferentiation. Educators may also consider modifying their school'sservice delivery practices so that paraprofessionals, especially insecondary schools, are assigned to a limited number of subjects inwhich they can gain content proficiency.
  • Differentiating instruction in project day 2 short version final

    1. 1. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTIONJULY 2012FACILITATED BY RADMILA HARDING 1
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. Personalised Learning LD, ASD APD LLD Essential Dyslexia OCD OD ADD ADHD …. Knowledge LatestResearch GIFTED and TALENTED IEP‟s Evidence based practice GIFTED AND LD POLT - Principles of Learning and 3 Teaching
    4. 4. 4
    5. 5. Basics of Differentiation RTI – Response to Intervention PoLT – Principles of Learning and Carol Ann Tomlinson Teaching June Maker Evidence Based Teaching and David Sousa Learning –Understanding by Design - Jay Mc TigheJohn Hattie and Robert Marzano Grant Wiggins 5
    6. 6. Why dowe needto dive inthe deep end? 6
    7. 7. Differences in the Classroom:•EAL•LD•GT•Cultural•VariousDisabilities•IEP students•Compositeclasses•Other 7
    8. 8. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES 16-20 %Ref: Peter Westwood : What Teachers Need to Know 8About Learning Difficulties
    9. 9. STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DIFFICULTIES• Not related directly to any specific physical sensory or intellectual impairment (although in some cases their intelligence may be somewhat below average)• LD may be due to external factors: • Socio-cultural disadvantage • Limited opportunities to learn • Lack of support from home • An inappropriate curriculum • Insufficient teaching in the early years • Lack of success evident across most areas of school curriculum 9
    10. 10. STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIES 3-5%• Much smaller number of students described as having specific learning disability – neurological disorder affecting the brain‟s ability to receive, process, store and respond to information• Conventional methods often fail• Chronic problems in earning basic literacy, numeracy and study skills (and possibly social )• IQ – often average or above average• Specific strategies can make a difference• External assistance may be needed 10
    11. 11. STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIES• May become overwhelmed, frustrated• May have difficulties with auditory processing of information• Difficulties with reading, writing, spelling• Low output• Underperform• Poor test performance• Effort and success discrepancy 11
    12. 12. 12THE AVERAGE CHILDBY MIKE BUSCEMI
    13. 13. THE AVERAGE CHILDBY MIKE BUSCEMI My grades have been okay. I listen in my classes. I’m in school every day. My teachers think I’m average; My parents think so too. I wish I didn’t know that, though; There’s lots I’d like to do. I’d like to build a rocket; I read a book on how. Or start a stamp collection… But no use trying now. ’Cause, since I found I’m average, I’m smart enough you see To know there’s nothing special I should expect of me. I’m part of that majority, That hump part of the bell, Who spends his life unnoticed 13 In an average kind of hell.
    14. 14. GIFTED STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITY“ The idea that a child can be both gifted and learningdisabled strikes some as a paradox.” Liddle and Porath 2002 Overlooked and“Dual exceptionalities” under-servedMunro suggests that up to 30% of gifted students may haveproblems with reading such that their attainment level isseveral years below expectation. 14
    15. 15. GIFTED STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITY Leading to secondary Aware of emotional, disability motivational and behavioural problems Identification of Use of assistive these gifted technology students is essential Effective remediation for basic skills and possibly counselling 15
    16. 16. Read article on page1Any surprises? Insights? 16
    17. 17. Page 2 17
    18. 18. RTI AND EDUCATION OF GIFTED STUDENTS Outside the classroom – e.g.., Pull-together grade skipping, programs, subject academic acceleration, competitions, concurrent special projects enrolment 5-10% Consistent 30-35%Differentiation 60% 18
    19. 19. http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingprinciples/principles/default.htm 19
    20. 20. http://www.evidencebasedteaching.co.uk/ 20
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    22. 22. Differentiated Instruction? Differentiation is not a particular set of strategies…The idea of differentiating instruction: “to accommodate the different ways that students learn - involves a hefty dose of common sense, as well as sturdy support in the theory and research of education.” (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000). But a framework for planning and carrying out instruction 22
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    24. 24. What is differentiation?http://differentiationcentral.com/Differentiation is a bit like an airport with passengers arriving from everywhere 24and traveling to different destinations
    25. 25. Differentiation is:“a philosophy that proposes that what we bring to school as learnersmatters in how we learn” 25
    26. 26. “… a way of thinking about the classroom andacknowledging and honoring each student’s learningneeds and maximizing each student’s learningcapacity while developing a solid community oflearners” Tomlinson 26
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    28. 28. I already differentiate …http://www.diffcentral.com//videos.html#miscon 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. Plan together“… means that teachers proactively plan varied approaches to whatstudents need to learn, how they will learn it, and how they will show theyhave learned” 30
    31. 31. “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learningtasks at the right time.…differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”Lorna M Earl, 2003 31
    32. 32. DifferentiationMeans:Shaking up what goes on in the classroom – multiple ways oftaking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what theylearn 32
    33. 33. Differentiation means teachers consider :WHO are they teachingWHAT they will teach “teachers accept that ALL students will move along thelearning continuum as far and as fast as possible” 33
    34. 34. DIFFERENTIATIONIs – responsive instruction – teaching a class of individuals Blooms 34
    35. 35. Differentiation is NOT like the bowling alley – shoot down themiddle and see how many you can hit: 35
    36. 36. Differentiation is NOT designed to stress teachers or get theminto knots! 36
    37. 37. DIFFERENTIATION Variation in It is not brand content process new and product (and IEP‟s environment) Constant group Student work differences Only work in Varied Grouping preferred ways Proactive response 37
    38. 38. Differentiation:Is NOT an add water and stir solutionIt is complex and takes time to do well 38
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    40. 40. In the dim dark teaching past……….. We thought: teaching is telling, focus on content delivery, grades separate the sheep from the goatsThis model proposesa rethinking of the structure, management and content of the classroom, invitingparticipants within the learning context to become engaged in the process, to thebenefit of all. Pearl Subban 40
    41. 41. Differentiation 41
    42. 42. Page 3 42http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
    43. 43. ACTIVITY 43
    44. 44. TRADITIONAL CLASSROOMSDIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOMS Characteristics of Traditional Characteristics of Differentiated Classroom Classroom 44
    45. 45. If you were a gifted student, a student with a disability or even an average student which classroom wouldsuit you better and why? 45
    46. 46. QualityCurriculumbased on UbD 46
    47. 47. Differentiated Instruction 47
    48. 48. UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN JAYMC TIGHE AND GRANT WIGGINS UbD is used to create quality curriculum  Start with the question – what do we want our students to know and understand at the end of the lesson, week, unit, term?  Then ask how can we help students get there  What information, literacy skills, concepts do they need to gain this new understanding or new knowledge? Rigorous and relevant HOT 48
    49. 49. KNOW UNDERSTAND DO 49
    50. 50. http://www.diffcentral.com//videos.html#miscon 50
    51. 51. Set the bar high but provide many ways for all students to meet the objectives High quality curriculum Wide range of Ongoinginstructional assessment strategies 51
    52. 52. 2nd Element - ProcessDifferentiating Content : this is what we teach or what wewant the students to learn• Tomlinson believes that in differentiating content we can: • Adapt what we teach • Modify or adapt how we give access to what we want the students to learn • Change content based on student’s readiness, interests, or learning profile • This can be done through concept based teaching, curriculum compacting, using varied texts and resources, learning contracts, mini lessons, varied support systems, audio video recorders, note taking organizers, digests, mentors Ref: Carol Ann Tomlinson “How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms” second edition 52
    53. 53. “Raising academic standardshas more to do with elevating thinking processes than withcovering more topics.” Lynn Dickson 53
    54. 54. 2nd Element - ProcessDifferentiating Process: how students come to understand ormake sense of contentDifferentiating the process means varyinglearning activities or strategies to provideappropriate methods for students to exploreconcepts We might change the Panic Zone layout of the track but all the students Learning are still in Zone the race Comfort Zone 54
    55. 55. 3rd Element - ProductsDifferentiating Products: How students demonstrate what they havecome to know, understand and are able to do after an extendedperiod of learning • These are generally products that come at the end of a long learning period. • As with activities, effective product assignments too should focus on the essential knowledge, understanding, and skills specified as content goals • They should call on students to use what they have learned . • Product assignments should have a clear, challenging, and specified criteria for success, based on class expectations and individual needs 55
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    57. 57. Modifying TestsDecreases stress, improves performance, allowsthe child to demonstrate their knowledge-Open book tests-Oral tests versus written-Having a reader-Having a clarifier-Having a scribe 57
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    59. 59. Differentiating the curriculum for gifted students State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Training, 2007 59
    60. 60. Activity 1 􀁾Using your syllabus documents, select a content outcome anda skills outcome.Using the Maker template, develop activities and/or questionsfor each content, process and product modification.When designing a differentiated curriculum not all areas of theMaker model need to be incorporated into every teaching andlearning activity.It is important to modify those aspects of curriculum that areappropriate for the achievement of lesson or topic objectives. 60
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    64. 64. http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#assessment 64
    65. 65. ACTIVITY: STERNBERG’SINTELLIGENCES 65
    66. 66. ANALYTICALAnalysing characters when I‟m reading or listening to a storyComparing and contrasting points of viewCriticizing my own and others‟ work Page 4Thinking clearly and analyticallyEvaluating my and others‟ points of view CREATIVEAppealing to logicJudging my and others‟ behaviour Designing new thingsExplaining difficult problems to others Coming up with ideasSolving logical problems Using my imaginationMaking inferences and deriving conclusions Playing make-believe and pretend gameSorting and classifying Thinking of alternative solutionsThinking about things Noticing things people usually tend to ignore PRACTICAL Thinking in pictures and images Inventing (new recipes, words, games) Taking things apart and fixing them Supposing that things were different= Learning through hands-on activities Thinking about what would have happened if Making and maintaining friends certain aspects of the world were different Understanding and respecting others Composing (new songs, melodies…) Putting into practice things I learned Acting and role playing Resolving conflicts Advising my friends on their problems Convincing someone to do something Learning by interacting with others Add up each column. Applying my knowledge Working and being with others What is your Adapting to new situations preference? 66
    67. 67. HOW CAN KNOWLEDGE ABOUTSTUDENTS LEARNING STYLESBE USEFUL? (HOW DO YOULIKE TO LEARN)CAN THE KNOWLEDGE HELPSTUDENTS AS LEARNERS?HOW DOES OUR PREFERENCEINFLUENCE OUR TEACHING? 67
    68. 68. 68
    69. 69. Getting to know your students: Multiple Intelligences VAK Questionnaires etc 69
    70. 70. Assessment CyclePre-assessments are essential Plan Implement UseAssess during the assessment Assessment lesson to adjust to inform instruction strategies Report Revise 70
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    73. 73. Dr. Heidi Andrade 73
    74. 74. http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#assessment 74
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    79. 79. 4th Element - AffectDifferentiating Affect: How students’ emotions andfeelings impact on their learningAffect is the weather in the classroom, theteacher is the weather maker. 79
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    83. 83. 5th Element – Learning EnvironmentA Flexible Learning EnvironmentThe hallmark of a differentiated classroom in a flexible learningenvironment.The teacher asks: “What can I do to allow students of varyingreadiness levels, interests and modes of learning to grow mostfully in this place?”Consider how SPACE, MATERIALS and TIME can be usedflexibly. 83
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    85. 85. flexible 85
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    87. 87. BRAIN RESEARCHDI fits in with brain research – Meaning making 87
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    89. 89. BRAINSAll brains are unique therefore we need to respond to the needs of our studentsand provide many opportunities for varied learning experiences 89
    90. 90. BRAINSBrain Research - Link Old With the New Teachers must create many opportunities to link the old with the new information because that is how the brain learns and remembers 90
    91. 91. BRAINRole of Emotions: 91
    92. 92. Brain research - Moderate Challenge BRAINS 92
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    96. 96. 96
    97. 97. 97Prof Susan Brockhart
    98. 98. 98Prof Susan Brockhart
    99. 99. COMPLETE THE : PERSONAL PROFILE AS ANINCLUSIVE TEACHER – FORM #25THE CHECKLIST CAN BE HELPFUL TO DETERMINEAREAS OF TEACHING STRENGTH AND AREASTHAT NEED TO BE IMPROVEDHOW INCLUSIVE ARE THE CLASSROOMS YOU AREFAMILIAR WITH?FEEDBACK – WHAT USE DO YOU SEE FOR THISTYPE OF CHECKLIST WITH YOUR COLLEAGUES? 99
    100. 100. Personal Profile as an Inclusive Teacher # Form 25 Page 5Organising an Inclusive Classroom No Sometimes or Yes MaybeI always make detailed plans for my daily teachingMy daily teaching plan includes accommodations and modifications for students withspecial needsI keep careful records of intervention and inclusive strategies that have been used inmy classI keep careful records of interventions and inclusive strategies that have been used inmy classI keep accurate, up-to-date records of each student‟s progress 100
    101. 101. Teaching in an Inclusive ClassroomI deal with most students behaviour problems successfullyI am flexible and use a range of teaching strategies to support students who have learningdifficultiesI have developed a good collection of resources to help me meet the needs of all my studentsMost students make good personal progress in my classI willingly accommodate students with difficulties in my class by modifying and adapting thecurriculum and the assignmentsI have a positive and inclusive attitude towards all students in my class, regardless of their learningand behavioural difficultiesI enjoy teaching students of all abilitiesI am patient and supportive when students find learning difficultI am patient and supportive when students have emotional or behavioural problemsWhen my students with special needs become adults, I think they will look back and remember my 101class positively
    102. 102. How will you lead the change at your school?http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#profdev 102
    103. 103. HOW WILL I BE ABLE TO DO THIS? 103
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    111. 111. SOCIAL STORIES 111
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    113. 113. Asperger‟s DisorderThey need a teacher who is:•Organized•Calm•Consistent•Predictable•“Unflappable” 113
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    115. 115. VISUALS FORWORKTASKS 115
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    117. 117. ClassSchedule Individual work schedule 117 Modbury Special School
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    119. 119. COMMON STRATEGIES“ROSE REPORT”- ON DYSLEXIACHUNKING1. If you have a lot of information or instructions to give,break it down into shorter „chunks‟ of language, pausing aftereach one. A long „block‟ of spoken language can be difficultto process in one go. 119
    120. 120. REORDERING2. Say things in the order you want them to be done. So,instead of„Before you write your homework down, clear away theequipment‟ say, „Clear away the equipment. Then write downyour homework.‟ 120
    121. 121. CUT DOWN THE AMOUNTYOU SAY3. Studies have shown that in some classrooms adults talkfor up to 90% of the time. For a young person with dyslexia(or learning difficulties), this can feel overwhelming. Thinkabout structuring lessons and activities so there is a mixtureof activity-type. 121
    122. 122. SLOW DOWN4. Even slowing down your talking a bit means that studentswill give longer responses, and will say more. This doesn‟tmean that you have to start talking in a sing-song voice! 122
    123. 123. GIVE VISUAL SUPPORT: USE GESTURE,THINKING/CONCEPT MAPS, DEMONSTRATING,QUICK SKETCHES5. Visual support can take many different forms. Youngpeople with dyslexia and SLCN find information easier tounderstand and process if it is supplemented by somethingwith a strong visual impact. This could be a natural gesture;facial expression; use of pictures; video; quick drawings onthe whiteboard; usingthe interactive whiteboard; linking to the Internet; using realobjects; demonstrating or showing instead of telling; usingmind maps on the board 123
    124. 124. SARCASM, DOUBLEMEANINGS6. We all use phrases such as „off you go‟ or „get yourthinking caps on‟, or use tone of voice to show meaning „Ohthat‟s just great!‟, but these can be really difficult for youngpeople with dyslexia and (learning difficulties) who mayeasily take them literally or get the wrong end of the stick(there‟s another one!). Be aware of timeswhen you use language that is inferential or may have adouble meaning – try to make sure you use something elseor explain carefully. 124
    125. 125. SIMPLIFY THE GRAMMAR7. We often use a complex sentence when a simpler onewould do just as well. Some sentences are very difficult foryoung people with dyslexia and learning difficulties tounderstand such as passive tense, for example „Show mewho was the boy who was pushed‟, or embedded phrases,for example „Put the one you thought it was next to thebeaker that boiled‟. Try to simplify your sentences. 125
    126. 126. PAUSING AFTER YOU HAVEASKED A QUESTION8. We know that adults often pause far too briefly when they have askeda question before switching from one child to another, or jumping inwith another question. Young people with dyslexia learning difficultiesoften need more „processing time‟ to get their thoughts together andformulate a response. Waiting longer for a response can greatly helpthese students to engage and contribute. Sometimes this isn‟t possible,but there are often times when you can wait – it doesn‟t have to beempty space, be aware of strategies for making it feel more natural, forexample, ask a question and say you‟re coming back for the answer, orturn and write something on the board. 126
    127. 127. COMMENTING9. For pupils with dyslexia and learning difficulties ,commenting on what they are doing, and pausing, ratherthan asking questions, encourages dialogue and supportstheir thinking and learning, for example „So, plants need lightand water to grow...‟/ ‟ I wonder what would happen if ….‟ 127
    128. 128. ORGANISING WRITING 10. Students with dyslexia may need explicit teaching and strategies to help them overcome the barriers of poor short term memory. For example, they may need: ●structured support for planning; ●a scaffolding format, which helps them to plan a sequence of events; ●a range of key words/sentences (provided by the students) which they can refer to throughout their writing; ● the creative development of a storyline. This should not be inhibited by the technical aspects of writing, which can be considered at the redrafting and checking stages. http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/jimroseanddyslexia/ 128
    129. 129. KEEP IT VISUAL 129
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    137. 137. Freyer diagram – what the concept is andis not It gives the students an opportunity to explain their understanding and to elaborate by providing examples and non-examples 137
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    139. 139. The Cornell System for Note-Taking 139
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    141. 141. Math TM Organizer SMARTsheets http://www.graphicorganizers.co m/ Edwin Ellis, PhD Professor, University of Alabama Research Affiliate, University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning President, Makes Sense Strategies, LLC 141© 2010 Edwin Ellis MakesSenseStrategies.comPermission is granted to copy, distribute, and email this presentation to others
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    150. 150. INTEL READER 150
    151. 151. http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/tag/text-to-speech/page/2/ 151
    152. 152. EDU APPS – FREEWAREWWW.EDUAPPS.ORG 152
    153. 153. http://www.rsc-ne-scotland.ac.uk/eduapps/mystudybar.php 153
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    155. 155. QUESTIONS TO GUIDE PLANNING(STRICKLAND) Starting Point: What would I typically do in this lesson if I Who are the were not going to students in your differentiate? class? What specific What is the purpose of the traits or needs do unit? (overall purpose and they have that how it fits into the year long require goals) differentiation? In Standards what ways do they (local/state/national) vary most (reading Know – facts, definitions, level, interest in rules, people, places subject, need for structure, etc.)? Understand – big ideas, principles How do I know, how will I find out? Do – literacy, numeracy, 155 thinking, planning..
    156. 156. What will I differentiate?Content or presentation Starting Point: Whatof content? Process? would I typically do inProduct? Environment? this lesson if I were not going to differentiate?How will I differentiate?In response to studentreadiness? Interest? Draw up an overall planLearning profile? A for lesson. (includecombination? ideas for whole class instruction) Using a tiered system describe differentiated tasks. How will you know that your lesson worked? 156
    157. 157. http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#change 157
    158. 158. DI TEMPLATE Pages 6-9Planning Template – adapted from Tiered Differentiated LessonStricklandSubject:Grade:Purpose of the unit: Who are the students in your class? What are their specific needs?Standards: How do they vary in their skills, interests, etc.KUD (Know, Understand, Do):What will I differentiate? How will I differentiate?Lesson plan: Gifted and Talented Students – activity Near Grade Level Student – activity Students who would struggle at grade level – activityAdditional Considerations/Details Did the lesson work? 158
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    160. 160. REFLECTION –HOW DOES IT FIT?How do the strategies and ideas presented today fit with yourparadigm of catering for students with additional learningneeds?Read the article: Differentiated Classroom Learning – ReflectionWhere is your school in terms of the differentiation journey?What is the next step at your school?How will it be implemented?Discuss 160
    161. 161. http://www.diffcentral.com//videos2.html#change 161
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    163. 163. COLLABORATIONMake time to meetIdentify individuallyappropriate learningoutcomesWhat are thedifferentiationneeds? (instruction,materials,assignments?IEPMonitoring ofprogress 163
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    167. 167. Radmila Hardinghardingradmila@gmail.com 0417 321 752 167

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