Mnemonic Learning IProblems of the Weimar Republic Weimar Germany
CROAPOP C – Communists R – Right wing parties O – Officials A - Army P - Proportional Representation O – Occupation of the Ruhr P – Printing money
C – Communists Communist movements were a big problem in Germany. In Jan 1919 Spartacists rebelled in Berlin, led by the Communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht. The Weimar government was forced to make a deal with the Freikorps (private armies) to deal with the uprising. R – Right wing parties
March 1920, Kapp Putsch. Right-wing rebellion. The army refused to attack him; he was only defeated when the workers of Berlin went on strike.
In 1923 Hitler and his Nazi party attempted to seize control in Munich (Beer hall Putsch) fortunately for Weimar republic the police did not support the uprising.
O - Officials Many government officials – especially judges – were right-wing and wanted to destroy the government. After the Kapp Putsch, 700 rebels were tried for treason; only 1 went to prison. After the Munich Putsch, Hitler went to prison for only 9 months. A - Army
The Army, led by the right-wing General Hans von Seeckt, was not fully under the government’s control.
It failed to support government during the Kapp Putsch or the crisis of 1923.
P – Proportional representation The system of proportional voting led to 28 parties. This made it virtually impossible to establish a majority in the Reichstag, and led to frequent changes in the government. During 1919-33, there were twenty separate coalition governments and the longest government lasted only two years. This political chaos caused many to lose faith in the new democratic system. O – Occupation of the Ruhr
The cause of the trouble was Reparations – the government paid them by printing more money, causing inflation.
In January 1923, Germany failed to make a payment, and France’s new Prime Minister Raymond Poincare invaded the Ruhr.
This humiliated the government, which ordered a general strike, and paid the strikers by printing more money, causing hyperinflation.
P – Printing Money Hyperinflation probably happened because the Weimar government printed banknotes to pay reparations and the Ruhr strikers. Because these banknotes were not matched by Germany's production, their value fell. Prices spiralled out of control and people with savings and fixed incomes lost everything. Anger at foreigners, and at the rich profiteers who made their fortunes from the hyperinflation, added to the support of extreme political parties such as the fascists and the communists. REMEMBER – CROAPOP The Problems facing Weimar Germany